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Full text of "Compute! Gazette Issue 22"

COMPUTED 



$2.95 

April 1985 ® 

Issue 22, Vol. 3, No. 4 



02220 $3.50 Canada 




FOR COMMODORE PERSONAL COMPUTER USERS 





Power BASIC: Triple 64 

Try this seven-line program that creates three 
independent 1 2K computers. 



Pool 



No-Zap 

Never worry about power 
failures again. A slnort disk 
utility that automatically 
saves your work and updates 
files. For the VIC and 64. 



Also In This Issue: 

1526 Hi-Res Screen 
Dump 

Machine Language 
I For Beginners: 

Customizing BASIC 

Plus Reviews, Games, 
And Programming Tips 



•yt 



Are you a pool shark 
or a novice? Find out 
in this challenging 
simulation of pocket 
billiards for the VIC 
".g^d 64. 

04 



-^.-0 



7U86"0Z22Q' 




Add 32 new commands to your 

Commodore 64. An excellent 

programmer's tool. 




DtSTRIBUTORS: Hamburg BrothefS/N|^PF-227-6239 

JqUnsoi;! Drug Compi^RE 813-872-6631 
Southern Electronics Wtributors/SE 404-491-89 
Stokes" BrothersflJtah 801-566-4117 



'%. 



FriscO^EIectrqJfcffX 512-657-7741 

Ryan DistribdflfSRDCky Ml. 801-972-4721 

Rrst Source/SW 602-26an950 

louthern Micro Distributors/TX 214-258-6636 




Compare these specs before you buy... 





RITEMANC+ vs. COMMODORE PRINTERS 












FEATURES 




RITEMAN C + 


COMMODORE PRINTERS 




ACTUAL PRINT 


MPS 801 


MPS 802 


MPS 803 


VIC1525 


VIC1526 


PRINT SPEED (CPS) 
BIDIRECTIONAL PRINT 

(COLUMN WIDTH) 
40 CHARACTERS PER LINE 
80 CHARACTERS PER LINE 
66 CHARACTERS PER LINE 
132 CHARACTERS PER LINE 

(PAPER HANDLING) 
FRONT LOADING FOR 

EASY PAPER Sb MINGS 
BUILT-IN PRINTER STAND 
PRINT ON POST CARDS 

(WARRANTY) 
ONE-YEAR WARRANTY 

(SOFTWARE COMMANDS) 

DOUBLE STRII« 

EMPHASIZED 

COMPRESSED 

UNDERLINE 

SUPER/SUBSCRIPTS 

ITALICS 

DOUBLE DENSITY BIT IMAGE 

(CHARACTERS) 

9X9 FONT 

TRUE DISCENDERS 

ITALICS 

COMMODORE GRAPHICS 

(OTHER FEATURES) 
SINGLE DENSITY BIT IMAGE 
EXPANDED 
REVERSE 


105 
YES 

YES 

YES 
YES 
YES 

YES 
YES 
YES 

YES 

YES 
YES 
YES 
YES 
YES 
YES 
YES 

YES 

YES 
YES 
YES 

YES 
YES 
YES 


40 CR-U. 

80 CPL 
66 CPL 

152 CPL 

DOUBLE STRIKE 

EMPHASIZED 

COMPRESSED 

UNDERLINE 

"'-"•=''bubSCRIPTS 

ITALICS 

abcg jpqyabc 

ITALICS 

^•♦•f' .-.lV:i*-M^-fTt 


50 
NO 

YES 
YES 


60 
YES 

YES 
YES 


60 
YES 

YES 
YES 


50 
NO 

YES 
YES 


60 
YES 

YES 
YES 










1 


1 


^ 


1 











YES 

YES 
YES 
YES 


YES 

NO 
YES 
YES 


YES 

YES 
YES 
YES 


YES 

YES 
YES 
YES 


YES 

NO 
YES 
YES 



RtTEMAN R64 



RITEMAN LQ 




f. 


m 


Mil 


t? 






-s, 


— " — r 


''''''^""' 




^^^^^ 



■ LQ Is Bvallable 
at Best Products. 



BEST, 



Features 

RITEMAN R64 
Same as above except: 

• 120 cps 

" 2 ports: Centronics Parallel & 

Commodore* 
■ Portable 

• Standard lop loading 

RITEMAN LQ 

• Letter Quality Print 

• Portable — Only 6Vi lbs. 
' Low price 

' Centronics Parallel 



RITSI1\li 



'Commodcira li t raglstered trad d mark gf Comtnoilors Buslnstt Mich Ins, Inc. 
"Epton [t a raglilarad tnitamark at Epion Amirlea Corp. 



INFORUNNER CORPORATION Airport Business Center 431 N, Oak St. Inglewood, CA 90302 
(213) 672-48'IB (In Calif) (800) 824-3044 (Outside Calif) 




TROLLS 

AND 

TRIBULATIONS 



If you're a strategy 
action game fan, your col- 
lection isn't complete mth- 
out Trolls and THbulations. 
It's already on our bestseller 
list and bound to become 
a classic. 



They're lurking in wait for 
you - an entire underworld full 
of sinister scavengers hidden 
away in a maze of dark caverns, 
rising waters and secret dun- 
geons. Also rucked away in this 
treacherous maze are glorious 
treasures, thousands of 
>ears old. 

Disguised as a troll, you 
have entered the under- 
world to save the buried 
treasures. You have 32 
eerie chambers to ex- 
plore at 7 levels, and 
a wrong turn could 
spell disaster. 



As you get deeper and 
deeper into the mysteries of the 
caverns, you'll discover that your 
wits are being tested more than 
your reflexes. And woeful is the 
troll who doesn't act quickly 
when confronted by troll- 
crunching cretins, flying buzzards 
and sinister skulls. 

Trolls and TWbulations, 
this year's hottest hit from 
Creative Software. 




For more information 
about Creative Software 
programs, call us, toll-free. 
We'U help you locate the 
Creative Software dealer 
nearest you and send you a 
FREE catalog too. 

800-331-7990 or 

800-448-1001 

(in California) 



R>r Commodore 64 

$24.95 

ffuj^oictl rclail price. 

AJso mailable ftir Apple 11+ (64K), 
lie. Ik and Atari 800/8«0.X].. 



CREATIVE SOFTWARE 

960 Hamlin Court, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 



"OMimuiJiin: fri" i»a tmloniA of Commodure Electronlii, Ud "Arij)lc"h 
'i Iraitonaifc of Apple (Vin^icr. Inc. Ann" l> a Iradorurt: ill tori. Inc. 



C l<Wf Cirahc $a(rwan; 



April 1985 Vol. 3, No. 4 



The Winter Consumer Electronics Show: New Life In The Home Computer Market Lance BIko , 20 

What is CP/M? Charles Brannon 22 

CES Perspective: Much More For The 64 Kathy Yakal 34 

Inside View: Douglas Adams and Steve Meretzky, Designers Behind The Hitchhiker's Guide 

To The Galaxy Sharon Darling 42 



REVIEWS 




Dream House C. Regana 74 

Sargon III John Krause 74 

Turbo 64 Lee Noel, Jr 76 

Stealth Gregg Keizer 78 

Mind Prober Selby Batenjan 79 

Financial Cookbook Harvey B. Herman 86 

Reach For The Stars Neil Randall 87 

Seastalker James Trunzo 87 




Pool Joseph T. Woyton 50 V/64 

Apple Hunt James Arlet 60 V/64 

Astro-PANICI For the VIC Sean D. mgle M V 




^'mui'\^h\uv.\^ 




Computing For Famiiies: The World Of Mimi The Ant Fred D'Ignazio 60 * 

Number Quest Gerald and Betty Schueler 67 V/64 




?'Tc^:n-'-'A'i-^^ 





Hints & Tips: Programmer's Notebook Paul Barnes 70 V/64 

Power BASIC: Triple 64 faaman Ng 94 64 

BASiC Magic: Putting Computer Math To Work For You Michael S. Tomczyk 96 V/64/ +4/ 16 

Machine Language For Beginners: Customizing BAStC Richard Mansfield 101 V/64 

NoZap: Automatic Program Saver J. Blake Lambert 110 V/64 

1526 i4i-Res Screen Dump Michael Frantz 113 64 

MetaBASIC: Programmer's Problem Soiver Kevin Mykytyn 114 64 



M■J^■^^i^^^^^- 




The Editor's Notes Robert Loc>f 4 * 

Gazette Feedback Editors And Readers 8 * 

Horizons Charles Brannon 105 V/64 

News & Products 121 • 




J:?.TH:M.MIUJI?tcT 




;'^sx:o}:^S<S^r 



How To Type !n COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 90 * 

Bug-Swatter: Modifications And Corrections 92 * 

Automatic Proofreader 122 V/64 

Product Mart • 145 * 

Advertisers Index 160 * 



* =Generai, V=ViC-20, 64=Commodore 64, +4=Plus/4, 1$=Commodore 16. 



COMPUTEIS CAZETTEii published monthly byCOMM/Til Publicalions, Inc., Post Office Bos 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403 USA. Phone (919) 175-9S09, EdilnriJll offices ate 
located at 324 VVesT Wendover Avenue. Greensboro, NC 27408. Domeslic sllbscriptSons; 12 l5*ue^. i24. Send sub«^:ript1CKi OftlrfS or chanyc'of Jddress (P,0. FiirrTi 3579) [o 
Circulation Depl., COMPUTEf's GAZETTE. PO Bos 961, FjnTiingdjlo, NY 11737. Stfond eiji* appHcalion pending ji Gieensboro, NC 27-lM jnd .iddltionil m.iillng offices. 
Enlire contents copyrishl ei9S5 bv COMNITE] PuHiciHons. Inc. M\ riRhts rewrved. ISSN (1737-3716 SiOBCi 

COMPUIB Publlcjlioni, Inc. Oncol the AHC FubUihlng Coinpinln: ABC Publlthing, PrMldenI, Robtrl G. Button; 1330 Avenue of the America: ^e^v Vork, New Ycvrk 11X119. 



THE EDITOR'S 



This tnonth, Senior Editor Richard 
Mansfield discusses the two main 
approaches to programming. 

-Robert Lock, Editor In Chief 

An intriguing letter arrived here this 
week from the chairman of a high 
school computer department. He 
said that our magazines would not 
be used in his department because 
one of our published programs was 
not correctly written. The offending 
program, "Utility Bill Audit," was 
printed in a circulation flyer. His 
complaint centered on the style of 
programming. For one thing, the 
program contains no REM state- 
ments, no internal comments ex- 
plaining the purpose of each line of 
the program. 

He goes on: "There's (sic) so 
many GOTO and GOSUB state- 
ments ... if any of the over 1,000 
students in our district's Computer 
Studies Department ever submitted 
a program so sloppy ... so unstmc- 
tured and so undocumented, they 
(sic) would be sure to receive a fail- 
ing grade," 

The educational community has 
an important task: to prepare the 
minds of the next generation. Many 
teachers approach this difficult job 
with great skill and insight. Others, 
unfortunately, get lost in minutia, 
preferring to make easy judgments 
and present to their students an un- 
pleasandy narrow, pinched reality, a 
one-dimensional world. 

A computer program can be 
judged by a variety of criteria: 
speed, general usefulness, memorv' 
efficiency, programming cleverness, 
beauty of design, ease of modifica- 
tion, and clarity. 

Obviously, the needs of the 
classroom differ somewhat from the 
needs of a magazine. "Utility Bill 
Audit" is an especially useful appli- 
cations program. Size is always a 
consideration in magazines. It's of 
particular importance when trying 
to fit something useful into the 
small space available in a subscrip- 
tion advertisement mailing. In these 
contexts, a program's compactness is 
of great value. REM statements 

4 COMPUTBs Gazette April 1965 



would have perhaps doubled its 
size. 

All our published programs, 
this one included, are docu- 
mented in the text of an accompa- 
nying article. However, when a pro- 
gram contains no particularly novel 
or complex programming technique, 
REM comments are omitted. It 
would serve no meaningful purpose 
to REMark about the unremarkable. 
Our readers would quickly tire of 
repetitive explanations of perfectly 
obvious FOR/NEXT loops or DATA 
statements within published pro- 
grams. Elementary BASIC program- 
ming is thoroughly covered in 
several of our regular columns. 

But the essence of this gentle- 
man's complaint about "Utility Bill 
Audit" is that it makes use of too 
many GOSUB and GOTO instruc- 
tions. These instructions interrupt 
the straightforward execution of a 
program; they cause it to branch to 
different places while running. The 
program works correctly — a person 
using it wouldn't know whether or 
not there were "too many" 
GOSUBs. However, using branch 
instructions does make it less easy 
to follow along from one event to 
the next if you are trying to read 
the program, to understand how it 
works {or to give it a grade in 
school). 

Some teachers, even some pro- 
gramming languages, forbid the use 
of the GOTO instruction. The argu- 
ment is that this kind of branching 
creates programs which are hard to 
correct, hard to understand, and 
hard to modify. They can jump all 
over the place: events don't occur 
in a series A B C D, etc. Rather, the 
structure might look like this: A B 
D C because between B and C 
there was a GOSUB which inserted 
D in the otherwise simple progress 
through the alphabet. 

This argument has some merit. 
Yet few programmers would will- 
ingly give up GOSUB and GOTO; 
they are among the most powerful 
and frequently used commands in 
BASIC. Even fewer are willing to 
spend the time typing in REM com- 
ments except to describe major sec- 



tions of a program or clarify 
obscure code. 

There seem to be two distinct 
programming styles: improvisa- 
tional and architectural. Schools 
and many professional program- 
ming teams support the architec- 
tural style: many formal rules of 
behavior, extensive diagraming, 
preplanning, and highly structured, 
heavily commented programs. The 
resulting programs take much more 
time to write, but they communi- 
cate their methodology and logic 
more quickly to another program- 
mer, to a programming committee, 
or to a teacher attempting to assign 
them a grade. 

By contrast, the improvisa- 
tional style is favored largely by in- 
dependent, recreational, or 
sophisticated creative programmers. 
This style stresses hands-on, free- 
form program design. Comments 
are often replaced with meaningful 
variable names and GOTO is used 
with abandon. For these people, 
what a program does is generally 
more important that how it's done. 
They create a list of instructions for 
the computer to obey, not a list of 
structures for another programmer 
or teacher to read and study. The 
improvising programmer rarely de- 
signs his or her program in acl- 
vance. Instead, communication with 
the machine is direct and interactive. 

COMPUTE! Publicafions offers 
both styles of programming in its 
books and magazines. Some pro- 
grams are heavily commented and 
their structure reflects an 
architecturally strict design. Others 
are freer, not particularly interest- 
ing as programs perhaps, but of 
significant value in the application 
they offer the user. "Utility Bill 
Auiit" is one of the latter. 




^^m ^^ ^^ ^B ™ 



Its only business is managing your home finances. 

No program does it more quickly, more easily, more directly. 



Your Personal Net Worth SYStematizes 
th'emanagementof your household income, 
expenses, credit cards and check books — 
using methods tested for accuracy by Touche 
Ross, one of the nation's leading accounting 
firms. 

Your Personal Net Worth puts your com- 
puter to work, keeps your records straight, in- 
cluding your personal inventory of valuables 
and stock portfolio, tells you where and how 
you're spending your money or if you're mak- 
ing a shambles of your budget. And does it all 



in less time than it takes you to balance your 
check book. ,^,„^___ 

Nothing else — no other program at twice 
the price — makes handling your personal 
money matters simpler, faster and more direct 
than Your Personal Net Worth. 

You'll find it at your favorite software 
retailer In the silver box with the real 
silver dollar on the front. It could be the 
single most valuable purchase you'll 
ever make. 



Record all banking and 
any credit card trans- 
actions, reconcile bank 
statements instantly (up 
to 10 separate bank ac- 
counts can be handled], 
— print checks, too. 



Set up a budget (as many 
-as 350 categories) — and 
then compare your actual 
income and expenses to 
the budget. 



ever forget a tax-deduc- 
ble rtem. Today or at tax 
return time. ' 



Display or print every 
financial report you'll 
ever need. 



ssrSiSfe-sa 







III 








Record stock, bond and 
other investment trans- 
actions. Inventory 
household valuables, 
collectibles and 
important papers for 
insurance and other 
purposes. 



Your Personal lUet Worth 
works fast because it's in 
machine language. Docu- 
mentation in plain English 
is referenced for easy 
use. "Help" functions on 
screen at all times. 



Available for: 



IBM-PC/XT/PCjr [12aK) 
Apple II + /lle/llc[64K) 
Commodore 64 
Atari (48K) 
The Program comes 
with two disks, one of 
which has accounts al- 
ready set up for entry. 
However, only one disk 
drive is necessary. 



Tli A CA/fffft^MVUffJvli Clf!r#AffM 
I ff f «^ ^^Wfl l/Vfl UVlf Iff ^f tJff V^ffiff* 

© 1984, Scarborough Systems, Inc., 55 S. Broadway, Tarrytown, NY 10591 ^^ ^ 



COMPUTE! Publicationsjnc.® 

One ol n-s ABC PyWshirx; Componies ^^^ 



Publisher Gorv R. [ngersoll 
Editor In Chief Robert C Lock 
Diructor of Admintstration Alice S. 
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield 
Managing Editor Kathleen Martinek 
Editor Lance Elko 
Assistant Editor Todd Heimarck 
Production Director Tony Roberts 



Wolfe 



Editors 

Tom R. Halfhill, Editor, COMPUTE! Magazine; Stephen Levy, Editor, 

COMPUTIi! Books Division; Gail Cowper, Production Editor; Otlis R. 

Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Brannon, Program Ediior; Selby 

Bateman, ['eatiires Editor 

Assistant Editors 

Gregg Keizer, ]. Blake Lambert (Books J; John Krause, George Miller, 

Philip Nelson (Technical); Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer; Sharon 

Darling, Research Assistant (Features), Randall Fosner, Assistant 

Managing Editor (Books); Mark Tuttle, Submissions Reviewer 

Editorial Programmers 

Patrick I'arrish (Supervisor), Tim Victor, Kevin Mykytyn, Kevin 

Martin, Rob Terrell 

Programming Assistants 

David Florance, Susan Doss, David llensley 

Copy Editors 

Juanita Lewis, Joan Rouleau, Ann Davies 

Proofteaders 

Ethel Silver, Dwight Smith, Marty Selby 

Administrative Staff 

Susan Young, Vicki Jennings, Laura MacFaddcn, Julia Fleming, iris 

Brooks, Jan Kretiow 

Production 

Irma Swain, Production Manager; Janice Fary, Art & Design Director, 

Lee Noel, Assistant Editor, Art & Design; De Potter, Mechanical Art 

Supervisor; Terry Cash, Carole Dunton, Typesetting 

Artists 

Leslie Jessup, Larry Sullivan, (Publications), Debbie Bray (Books); 

Harry Blair, Illustrator 

Associate Editors 

Jim Butterfield (Toronto), Harvey Herman (Greensboro), 
Fred DTgna?.io (Itoanoke) 

Circulation 

Charles C. Post, Circulation Manager; Patty Jones, Assistant Circula- 
tion Manager; Fran Lyons, Single Copy Sales Supervisor; Jill Pope, 
Fulfillment/Subscription Supervisor 

Customer Service 

Philippa King, Customer Ser^'ice Manager; Gail Jones, Dealer Sales 
Supervisor; Judy Taylor, Customer Service Supervisor; Dealer Sales 
Staff: Rhonda Savage, Debi Goforth, Liz Krusenstjerna; Customer 
Service Staff: Betty Atkins, Gayle Benbow, Chris Gordon, Mary Hunt, 
Chris Patty 

Lonnie Arden, Warehouse Manager; Staff: Howard Avers, Steve 
Bowman, Larry O'Connor, Sam Parker; Jenna Nash, Mail Room 
Coordinator. 

Data Processing 

Leon Stokes, Manager; Chris Cain, Assistant 

Accounting 

Paul J. Mejjliola, VP, Finance & Planning; R. Steven Vetter, Director, 

Finance & Planning; Robert Bean, General Accountant; Karen K. 

Rogalski, Financial Analyst; Staff: Dale Roberts, Shannon Roesler, 

Jane Wiggs 

Credit 

Barry L. Beck, Credit Manager; Staff: Svbil Agee, Anne Ferguson, Pat 

Fuller, Doris Hall, Joyce Margo, Linda Miller, Mary Waddeli 

Purchasing 

Gregory 1.. Smith, Purchasing Manager; Anna Harris, Assistant 

Promotion 

Mindy K, Kutchei, Promotion Manager; Caroline Dark, Assistant 
Advertising Sales 

Ken Woodard, Director of Advertising Sales; Bonnie Valentino, Assis- 
tant Advertising Manager; Patti Stokes, Production Coordinator; 
Kathleen Hanlon, Sales Assistant 
Sales Representatives 
Jerrv Thompson 415-348-8222 

Ed Winchell 213-378-8361 

Harry Blair 919-275-9809 



Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 
National and Canadian Sales Representatives 
1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303 
Burlingame, CA 94010 

Address all advertising materials to: 

Patti Stokes, COMPUTEf's GAZETTE 

324 West Wendovcr Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408 

Sales Offices, The Thompson Company 



New England 

Mid-Atlantic 

Southeast 

Midwest 

Texas 

Northwest, Nevada 

Northern CA 

Southern CA 

Arizona 

New Mexico 

Colorado 



617-720-1888 

212-772-0933 

919-275-9809 

312-726-6047 

713-731-2605 

408-354-5553 

415-348-8222 or 408-354-5553 

213-378-8361 

213-378-8361 

213-378-8361 

303-595-9299 




of OlrcnllttCM 



COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., publishes 

COMPUTE! COMPUTEI Books COMPUTEI's GAZETTE 

Corporate Office: 

324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408 
Mailing Address: 

Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403 
Distribution Center 

500- A Radar Road, Greensboro, NC 27419 

Telephone: 919-275-9809 

Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday 

Chief Executive Officer Robert C. Lock 

President Gary R. Ingcrsoll 

Vice President, Finance & Planning Paul J. Megliola 

Executive Assistant Debi Nash 

Assistant Anita Roop 

Subscription Information 

COMPUTEI's GAZETTE Circulation Dept. 
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, KC 27403 

TOLL FREE 
Subscription Order Line 

800-334-0868 

In NC 819-275-9800 

COMPUTEI'S GAZETTE 
Subscription Rates 

(12 Issue Year); US (one year) $24. Canada, Mexico and Foreign 
Surface Mail $30. Foreign Air Mail $65. 

The COMPLniiisGAZtTTE Subscriber list is made available to carefully 
screened organizations with a product or service which may be of 
interest to our readers. If you prefer not to receive such mailings, 
please send an exact copy' of your subscription label to: COMi'UTEi's 
CAECrri;, P.O. Box 961, Farmingdalu, NY 1 1737. Include a note in- 
dicating your preference to receive only your subscription. 

Authors of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to 
COMP unci's GAZETTE are original materials with full ownership rights 
resident in said authors. By submitting articles to computei's gazette, • 
authors acknowledge that such materials, upon acceptance for 
publication, become the exclusive property of COMPttTEl Publica- 
tions, Inc. No portion of this magiizine may be reproduced in any 
form without written permission from the publisher. Entire contents 
copyright © 1985, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Rights to programs 
developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author 
contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication will be 
returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped envelope, 
UTiere programs are included in an article submission, a tape or disk 
must accompany the submission. Printed listings are optional, but 
helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy (upper and 
lowercase, please) with double spacing. Each article page should bear 
the title of the article, date, and name of the author. COMPUTEI 
Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors in articles or 
advertisements. Opinions expressed tv authors are not necessarily 
those of COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. COMPUTEI Publications as- 
sumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or failure of shipment in 
connection with authors' offer to make tape or disk copies of pro- 
grams published herein. 

PET, CBM, VIC- 20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo- 
dore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore [Electronics Limited. 
Other than as an independent supplier of quality information and 
services to owners and users of Commodore products, COMPUTEI 
Publications, Inc., is in no way associated with Commodore Business 
Machines, Inc., or any of its subsidiaries, 



Fleet System 2. 
Word processing that spells VA-L-U-E. 




Complete word processing with built-in 
70,000 word spell checking -Only $79.95 



Up till now, you'd have to spend a mini- 
mum of about S70 to get a good word 
processor for your Commodore 64"'. 
And if you added a small, se/ximte spell 
checking program, you'd be out well 
overs 100! 

Now there's Fleet System 2! It's two 
powerful programs in one, and it's per- 
fect for book reports, term papers or full 
office use. 

Fleet System 2 combines the EASIEST 
and most POWERFUL word processor 
available with a lighining-fiist 70,000 
word spelling dictionary — all in one 
refreshingly EASY TO IJSE integrated sys- 
tem. Finally, spell cheeking is now availa- 
ble at your fingertips. 



You can even add over 1 5,000 "custom" 
w^ords to the built-in 70.000 word dictio- 
nary. And at a suggested retail price of 
S79.95, Fleet System 2 really spells 
V-A-L- U-F, and 70,000 other words too! 

Fleet System 2 helps people of all ages 
to learn to spell correct ly antl nrik' heller 
too. It's the ONLY full featured word 
proce,ssor that provides you with helpful 
writing and vocabulary feedback such as: 
the total number of words in your docu- 
ment, the number of times each word 
appears, and total number of "unique" 
words, just to name a few. 

Fleet System 2 has every important fea- 
ture that will help you make cliild's play 



out of the most heavy duty typing tasks. 
There's Built-in 80 Column Display — so 
what you see is what you get. Horizontal 
Scrolling During Typing, Ea.sy Correction 
and Movement of text. Page Numbering, 
Centering, Indenting, Headers and Foot- 
ers, Math Functions, Search and Replace, 
Mail Merge, BUILT IN 70,000 word 
SPELL CHECKING and much, much 

more! 

Ask for Fleet System 2. 
Exceptionally I'.cisy Packed 
with Poiivr. Perfectly 
Priced. 



APSI 




Professional Software, Inc., 51 Fremont Street, Needham, MA 02194 (617)444-5224 Telex: 951579 



Fkci SyHrra 2"> Is UriUtmifkof Crutcsilunal Kurtnirtr. Int — fkrt Sy*lrm J'" »ii ilcjisncd and wiitlcn hv Vliimiiriinln. Ltd — ComnuKlHrc (.4'" h i iradrmarlt iifCoramodiire Bcc- 
Itonlaua. — Stimc primers may [Mil luppiifi twiain Hi-ct S)»tfni i (iinilluns jnd/ur require jn inicrfJic IMcinc ihcik with yuurdcalcr — l>cJlo ind Dittilhutiir inqultin jtc Invllcd. 



PBWBH 



GAZETTE FEEDBACK 



EDITORS AND READERS 



Building A. Computer System 

I recently received a Commodore 64 as a gift. All 
I have is the computer. I would like to use it for 
three things; 1) Writing two books — a family his- 
tory with genealogy and a church history. Both 
require extensive indexing and cross-referencing 
of names and places. 2} Correspondence (I write 
a lot of letters). 3) Keeping a set of books for a 
small business. 

I am not inclined to write programs or play 
games, but would like a simple approach to 
keeping personal and household records. 

Dan O. Harvill 

hi addition to the 64, you'll need some hardware. A 
computer by itself isn't especially useful. Computer 
memory is volatile, which means when you turn 
your 64 off all the information in memory is lost. 
The first thing you should purchase is some sort of 
mass storage device — a (ape or disk drive — so you 
can save programs and files for later use. For your 
purposes — accounting and recordkeeping — a disic 
drive would be better, although you could get by 
loith a cassette drive. A printer is essential, too, if 
you want to print your books and letters. 

You have definite ideas about how you'll use 
the 64, so the hardivare you purchase will depend 
on the software you decide on. 

You don't want to learn programming, and you 
probably don't want to pay the high expense of hir- 
ing someone to ivrite custom genealogy and church 
history software. That leaves commercial software. 

A database management program loill cross- 
reference and index both the family tree and the 
church history. Think of it as a fast electronic card 
file. You tell the computer what categories to use in 
tlie database (for a family tree, you might pick first 
and last name; dates of birth, marriage, and death; 
generation number; father, mother, spouse, and chil- 
dren; and so on). You then type in the information 
and save it to tape or disk. Tiie database manage- 
ment program then alphabetizes or sorts by cate- 
gory. You can search for specific entries, and 
organize the information in different ways, depend- 

8 COMPUTEVs Gazette April 19B5 



ing on the capabilities of the software. 

To write letters and books, you'll need word 
processing software. If you buy the right word 
processor, you can merge information from the data- 
base into your manuscripts. This might seem like a 
frill, until you contemplate the extra work of first 
typing the data into the database and then retyping 
it into your word processor. There are several pack- 
ages available which contain both a word processor 
and database (see "The Move Toward Integrated 
Software" in the January 1985 GAZETTEj. 

And there are several packages for the 64 that 
can handle your accounting. In this case, 
compatibility with the other two programs is prob- 
ably not necessary. 

How do you decide on the hardware and soft- 
ware you need? That's up to you. We can't recom- 
mend specific items; each has its strengths and 
weaknesses. If you're far from a Commodore dealer, 
you can write directly to manufacturers. Or read the 
ads and reviews in computer magazines. User 
groups are often helpful sources of information, too. 

The Best Tape Is Also Less 
Expensive 

I'm stationed in the PhiUipines and just about 
everything having to do with computers is 
expensive, I'm looking for a good, inexpensive 
tape for saving computer programs. 1 do a lot of 
audio recording and like to use Cr02 tape. Will 
chromium oxide tape (high position) damage my 
Datassette? 

CO. Starr 

// won't dajnage your cassette drive, but you won't 
get the best results from it either. 

On audio equipment, chromium tape records 
and plays music better than ordinary ferric oxide 
tape. But to record on it, the magnetic signal put 
out by the recording heads has to be stronger, which 
is -why many cassette players have two switches — 
one for ferric, one for chromium. Your Datassette 
does not have a switch to boost the signal, so you 



IF YOU CAN FIND A BETTER 
WORD PROCESSOR OR DATA BASE SYSTEM 

WE'LL BUY IT FOR YOU. 




Outrageous offer? Not 
really; For your Commo- 
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are so complete — so ex- 
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think nothing beats them 
at any price. (Our suggest- 
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for Word Writer. S49.95 for 
Data Manager 2.) 

Word Writer 

This menu-driven system includes: 

A program which can be used by itself (stand- 
alone), or interfaced with Timeworks' Da\a Manager 
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print out name and address lists, create individu- 
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customized reports up to 20 columns wide, which 
can be incorporated into any text produced by the 
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Two plastic keyboard overlays which place 
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All the essential features— plus some exclusive 
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This system includes: 

A menu-driven program that easily lets you store 
information on a wide variety of subjects - from 
general name and address lists, to research data. 
This program will also calculate and store any 
corresponding numerical data. 

Quick access to important information. Items con 
be easily retrieved and printed by category, name, 
index code, date range, amount range, or any 
category of information stored in the system. 



Timeworks exclusive X-Search,™ X-Sort™ and 
X-Chart™ features allow you to easily cross-search 
any of the categories, Or arrange your stored items 
in increasing or decreasing order, alphabetically, 
numerically or by date. Break down statistical inior- 
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choice — and graphically 
review your results. 

Arithmetic calculation 
of your mathematical 
data is possible, allowing 
you to pertonm Payroll cal- 
culation, cost estimates 
and more. Data Man- 
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Sum, Average and Stan- 
dard Deviation oi statis- 
tical data entered into the 
system, along with Fre- 
quency Charts, 

When interfaced together, these programs: 

Generate customized data reports, which can be 
incorporated into any written text produced. 

Individually address and print form letters 
automatically. 

Print your name and address file onto standard 
mailing labels. 

Transfer and print text information onto labels 
and lags. 

Calculated numerical data from column to 
column, giving these programs spread-sheet 
capabilities. 

So, if you can iind anything better, simply send us 
your Word Writer or your Data Manager 2, your 
paid reoeipt, and the name of the program you want, 
along with your check or money order for any prioe 
difference. If its available, well buy it for you!* 

Now at your favorite dealer Or contact Time- 
works. Inc. PO. Box 321. Deerfield. IL 60015, Phone 
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may have problems using chromium tape with your 
system. 

Not only is ferric oxide tape better for use with 
a computer, it's also less expensive. Buy the shortest 
tapes you can find; long tapes (90 or 120 minutes) 
are often thinner and can lose tension, leading to 
slippage. Also, to maintain recording quality you 
should regularly dean and demagnetize the heads 
on your Datassette. 

A 16384K Expander For The 
VIC And 64? 

I recently read a couple of articles describing a 
new chip called the 65816. Apparently this chip 
has enormous potential and might also be in- 
stantly interchangeable with the 6502. Do you 
have any further information? What will it mean 
for users of Commodore, Atari, and Apple? 

Bill Pittman 

The chip that runs the Apple, Atari, and the VlC-20 
computers is the 6502. Tlic 64 uses the 6510, from 
the same 65xx family of microprocessors. The 65xx 
chips can address up to 64K (65,536) of memory and 
no more, because they have a 16-bit address bus. 

This new chip has a 24'bit address bus, which 
lets it access 256 times as many memory locations— 
16584K (16 megabytes). It's the same size as the 
6502, and pin-compatible. The machine language 
instruction set is upward-compatible from the 65xx 
processors. The 65xx ML opcodes are all there, and 
there are more (mcluding an extra register, another 
status flag, and useful instructions like PHY and 
TXY). 

It runs in two modes: 8-bit (6502-compatible) 
and 16-bit, and you can toggle back and forth be- 
tween the two. 

Several readers have written for information 
about replacing the 65xx chip in their VIC or 64 
with the 65816. Contrary to some published rumors 
and speculation, you can't add extra memory that 
easily. You'd have to add another timing clock (chip) 
and redesign the circuit board to accommodate the 
extra memory and support chips. In short, you'd 
have to completely revamp the internal layout of 
the computer, a job best left to engineers. A hard 
disk drive ivould almost be a necessity — 16 
megabytes is the equivalent of nearly 100 floppy 
disks. ' 

If computer companies decide to use the 65816 
in their new machines, they could offer memory 
expandability (up to 16 megabytes) and complete 
compatibility with Apple, Atari, or Commodore. So 
far. Commodore has not announced any plans to 
build a computer around the 65816. They're design- 
ing the Amiga around the 68000, the same chip 
used in the Macintosh. Apple is said to be thi7iking 
about putting the 65816 in a neio Apple 11 
compatible. 

10 COMPUTEI'S Gazalto April 1985 



Monoging Memory And 
Dangerous POKEs 

I have a problem with a program which contains 
six sprites. It loads and runs once. On the second 
run I get either a strange line number which 
bombs the program or 1 lose the sprite data lines, 
causing an OUT OF DATA error. 

I believe the variables are overwriting the 
sprite area. I have 29923 bytes free before run- 
ning, 29633 free after running. After reading 
many reference books, I've gotten ideas about 
moving, hiding, raising, and lowering memory, 
and I've come to the point where 1 can't see the 
forest for the trees. I'm missing something 

somewhere. 

Donald M. Hewitt 

Sprites need memory. Your program and variables 
also need memory. Although you have plenty of free 
memory, it sounds like your sprites are interfering 
with program memory. 

In general terms, the 64's memory runs from 
locations to 65535 and is divided into these 
sections: 

Simple Commodore 64 Memory Map 

Pointers & 
Vectors 



Screen 
RAM 




Hlllii]| i;il!!imni|mi , iiii|iiiiiii1iiiiiiiNiLii uiiniiii»miiiii!i 



16384 



32768 



49152 



65535 



BASIC 
RAM 



BASIC 
ROM 



Ml RAM 



MISC. 



<- Bank 



y Bank 1 



> Bank 2 



' Bank 3 



0-1023 stack, pointers, and vectors 
1024-2039 screen memory 
2040-2047 sprite pointers 
2048-40959 free memory for BASIC programs and 

variables 
40960-49151 BASIC interpreter 
49152-53247 free memory for machine language 

programs 
53248-6S535 miscellaneous (video, sound, color memory, 

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The shaded areas indicate free memory you can 
use for your programs. 

BASIC programs are stored in memory starting 
at 2048. To find out tvhere the program ends, type 
PRlNTPEEK(45) + 256*PEEm6). When you ruti a 
program, the variables are stored just past the end 
of the program. To find out where the variables and 
arrays end, PR1NTPEEK(49)+256''PEEK(50) after 
running the program. 

If you use these turn formulas, you'll probably 
find that your sprite definitions are being put into 
memory already used by your program. POKEiug 
sprite data into program memory scrambles part of 
the program, making it crash the second time 
around. 

You have two choices: Move the sprites some- 
where else, or change the start of BASIC to some- 
lohcre above the sprite definitions. 

The VIC-II chip controls the video signal 
lohich draws the screen characters and sprites. It 
can access any memonf location within a 16K block 
or bank of memory. These banks are labeled 0-3 on 
the abbreviated memory map above. When yon turn 
on the 64, the VIC-U chip takes its information 
from bank 0. It's possible to switch to other blocks 
by POKEing to 56576, but you also have to move 
screen memory and character memory, which means 
copying character ROM down to RAM. Thus, mov- 
ing sprite definitions to another 16K bank is rather 
complicated. 

It's much simpler to move BASIC up, com- 
pletely out of bank 0. Before loading your program, 
POKE642,64:SYS58260 to move the start of BASIC 
to 64*256 (16384), the beginning of bank 1. You'll 
still have 24K for your program, and it won't inter- 
fere with the sprites. There will be 14K (from 2048 
to 16383) for the VIC-U chip. You can use this 
memon/ for an 8K hi-res screen, redefined charac- 
ters, or up to 224 sprite shapes. Remember to use 
this POKE and SYS before loading your BASIC 
program. 

The Eddie Operating System 

I wrote this program for the 64 using Micromon 
and COMPUTEl's Mapping The 64. It changes the 
ail-too- familiar READY, prompt to EDDIEl, copy- 
ing BASIC ROM to RAM at the same address 
and then changing the pointer at location 1 to 
recognize the RAM. If you press RUN/STOP- 
RESTORE, READY will come back, but you can 
reenablc the customized prompt with 
POKEl,PEEK(l)AND254. 

10 FORJ = 409G0TO4'>151 :POKEJ, PEEK(j) :NEXT 

20 P0KE1,PKEK(1)AND254 

30 FORJ=4184aT04ia53:READL$:POKEJ,ASC(L$) 

:NEXT 
40 DATAE,D,D,I,E, 1 

Edward Padin 



Readers who want to substitute up to six letters in 
place of READY can change the DATA statement in 
line 40 (separate the letters with commas). The pro- 
gram takes 30-40 seconds to run. 

This is a good example of how to use the RAM 
mulerneath ROM. The BASIC interpreter is found 
in Read Only Memory (ROM) at locations 
$A000-BFFF (40960-49151). At the same locations 
is 8K of Random Access Memory (RAM), which is 
usually not used by the computer. BASIC can access 
one but not both of the 8K blocks of memory at any 
one time. ROM is pervmnent, but RAM is change- 
able. When you PEEK within this range, you get the 
numbers iu ROM, but POKEing puts numbers into 
the RAM "underneath" ROM. Line 10 seems to 
PEEK a location and POKE the same number right 
back, but really copies BASIC down to RAM, where 
it can be altered. 

Line 20 flips a bit in location 1 to make the 
computer took at the RAM underneath, rather than 
BASIC ROM. This technique is called bank switch- 
ing, because one 8K bank is sioitched out, another 
switched in. An exact copy of BASIC has just been 
put there, so everything works the same, until some 
new values are POKEd into the area where the 
READY prompt is stored. 

Machine language programmers sometimes use 
this technique to rewrite BASIC to fit their needs. 
And if you don't need BASIC at all, this technique 
gives you another 8K of memory for ML programming. 

For another example of changing BASIC mes- 
sages, run the above program and then 
POKE4I654,72:PRINT4/0. You'll see an error mes- 
sage, DIVISION BY HERO (instead of ZERO). 

Alphobetizing A List 

I am trying to take seven words from DATA 
statements and put them into an array so I can 
print them in A-B-C order. I get the first word in 
the right order but not the other six. How do you 
sort a list and keep the information intact? 

Kurt Wells 

You're on the right track because you're using an 
array ami have the first word in the correct place. 

A one-dimensional string array is like a num- 
bered list of words. String arrays make it much eas- 
ier to alphabetize. Because each item has a number, 
you can use a FOR-NEXT loop to search through 
the list. To sort, you compare the first word to the 
second, trade them if they're out of order, compare 
item tioo to item three, trade if necessary, and so on 
until you reach the last entry on the list. If the pro- 
gram loops through the array once, one word will be 
in the correct place. If you loop twice, the second 
entry will be in the right place. 

Less-than, greater-than, and equals are com- 
monly used to compare numbers (for example, IF 
SC>HS THEN PRINT "NEW HIGH SCORED. But 



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they can also be used to compare strings. The cotu- 
puter decides if a word is "less than" another by 
comparing the ASCII values. The letter A is less 
than B. which in turn is less than C. An appendix 
at the end of the User's Guide contains a complete 
list of Commodore ASCII codes. 

Here's a program that alphabetizes a list of five 
strings: 

10 TN=5 : ( 3 SPACES } REM TOTAL NUMBER OF ITE 

MS 
20 DIMA?(TN) 

30 FORa=lT05:READA5(J) :NEXT 
40 REM ALPHABETIZE 
50 F0RJ=TN-1T01STEP-1 
60 P0RK=1T0J 

70 IFA5(K)<A5(K+1 )THEN90 
80 TEMP$=A$(K) ;A$(K)=A$(K+1) :A?(K+1)=TEMP 

5 
90 NEXTK,J 

100 REM PRINT THE ALPHABETIZED LIST 
110 PR1NTCHR$(147) 
120 F0RJ=1T05:PRINTA?(J) :NEXT 
130 DATAOF, ST RINGS, ARRANGED, LI ST, ALPHABET 
ICALLY 

Lines 10-30 set up the array, DIMensioning to 
a size of five and READing the ivords from the 
DATA statement. Lines 50-90 alphabetize the list 
and line 120 prints the list in order. 

The outside loop uses the variable J and starts 
in line 50. It counts backwards (STEP — 1) from one 
less than the array size (TN — 1} to 1. So variable } 
begins at 4 and counts down to 1. The inside loop 
uses K and counts fonvard to J: 1 to 4, then 1 to 3, 1 
to 2, and finally 1 to 1. Lifie 70 compares A$(K) to 
A$(K+ll the next string on the list. If word K is 
less than word K+1, they're in order and the pro- 
gram skips to line 90. If not, line 80 swaps them. 

The strings start out in this order: 

A$(l) OF 

A$(2) STRINGS 

A$(3> ARRANGED 

A$(4) LIST 

A$(5) ALPHABETICALLY 

After the first pass (J =4), STRINGS drops to 
position 5, but the other four words are still out of 
order. The second pass (J =3) puts OF in its proper 
place, and so on. 

This algorithm is called a bubble sort. One 
advantage of bubble sorting is that it's fairly simple 
and straightfommrd. The major disadvantage is its 
inefficiency; it works very slowly with large lists. To 
bubble sort five items requires ten comparisons, but 
multiply the list size by 20 (100 items) and the 
number of comparisons increases by a factor of 495 
(4950). 

There are faster methods to alphabetize, but 
they're more complicated to program. 

No BBS For VIC? 

In the December issue, you published the "C/G 
Bulletin Board" for the 64 but not for the VIC-20. 



Why? I have 35K memory for my VIC, which 
would be plenty of memory for the bulletin 
board. I don't understand why you bothered to 
publish C/G Term for the VIC if you had no 
intention of giving VIC users a bulletin board. 

Harry C. Phillips 

There luere several considerations in our decision to 
publish the bulletin board for the 64 only. Most im- 
portant, the Commodore 1650 Automodetn offers 
auto-dial, but not auto-anszoer for the VIC, a must 
for operating a bulletin board. You'd have to sit by 
the phone, ready to ansioer calls to the BBS. You 
can use the auto-answer feature with the 64. The 
VICmodem has no auto-answer or auto-dial feature, 
making it inappropriate for a bulletin board. 

Also, the program length was unwieldy enough 
for the 64— it took a lot of magazine space in two 
issues (December and January). A VIC version 
would have required just as many pages (leaving 
less room for columns, games, and programs). 

With 35K, you certainly would have enough 
memory, but VIC owners with that much memory 
are an exception rather than a rule. The 22-column 
VIC screen also makes the reading of lengthy text 
(what you see most often as a BBS operator) very 
cumbersotne. 

The VIC version of "C/G Term" allows VIC 
owners to communicate with the "C/G BBS" and 
with either 64 or VIC owners who have "C/G 
Term." 

Which Is More Rcmdom? 

It has been demonstrated to me that 
1NT(RND(1)*X) is inferior to INT{RND(0)*X) in 
generating a true sequence of random numbers. 
The programs you publish use the first formula. 
In light of this information, is there any reason to 
continue to do so? 

Rob Landeros 

The idea that RND(O) yields more randomly distrib- 
uted numbers is mistaken. The argument for RND(O) 
usually goes something like this: Turn on your com- 
puter and type PRINTRND(l) and write down the 
number. Turn the computer off and then on and do 
it again. You'll get the same number every time. In 
fact, if you print a series of RND(l)s, the sequence 
will always be the same. Thus, RND(l) is not truly 
random. With RND(O), the numbers seem to be more 
random. 

We have seen published "proofs" similar to the 
argument above. But RND(O) has some serious 
flaws. Enter the following program (for the 64 only): 

10 PRINT" [CLR}":POKE53281,l 

20 FORJ=1TO1000:K=INT(RND(0)*1000) SPOKE55 

296+K,6!POKE1024+K,160:NEXT 
30 GOTO30 



14 COMPUTErs Gazette April 1985 




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Line 20 generates 1000 random numbers rang- 
ing from to 999 and then POKEs a reverse space 
to the corresponding screen location. You can see a 
definite pattern with RND(O). If you change the 
RND(O) to RND(l), there is no such pattern. RND(l) 
gives you a wider range of numbers, distributed 
more randomly. 

The RND function is not truly random, it only 
seems to be. It takes a number (called a seed), per- 
forms some mathematical operations on it, and gives 
back another number. If you use R]^D(0), the func- 
tion is seeded with values from the tioo CIA Time- 
Of-Day clocks. 

RND(O) is undesirable for several reasons. One 
of the CIA clocks starts at zero, and doesn't change 
until you write to it. So some of the seed values are 
ahuays the same. To make things worse, the clocks 
operate in Binary Coded Decimal, which means they 
count from 0-99 instead of 0-255, further limiting 
the seed values. With all of these limits on seed val- 
ues, the distribution of RND(O) numbers is limited. 

RND(l) takes the seed from memory locations 
139-143. When you turn on the computer, the val- 
ues in these locations are always the same, which is 
why RND(l) seems so predictable. 

The best way to generate random numbers is to 
scramble the values in 139-143 using the jiffy clock, 
which ticks 60 times a second. At the beginning of 
your program, include a line X = RND(—Tl). From 
then on, use RND(l). The numbers won't be com- 
pletely random, but you'll have the closest thing to 
random numbers. 

Machine Lcmguage 
Trigonometry 

I've been working on some high-resolution 
graphing in machine language, and have come 
across a problem. How do you calculate trigo- 
nometrical functions like sine and cosine in ma- 
chine language? I know these locations perform 
the functions on a VIC-20: 

COS SE261 

SIN $E268 

TAN SE2B1 

ATN $E30B 

How do you call these functions? For example, 
how could I find the sine of 30 degrees? 

David Reid 

When you're stuck on a programming problem, it 
sometimes helps to step back and think about it 
from a distance. Very often, the best method of 
doing something in BASIC is also the best method 
in ML — but not in this case. 

To find the sine of 30 degrees, you could JSR 
(Jump to SubRoutine) to $E268. This is the address 
on the VIC-20; on a 64 the equivalent routines are 
all three bytes higher — sine would be at $E26B. The 
routine acts on the number in the Floating Point 

16 COMPUTErs GaZBttB April 1985 



Accumulator, locations $61-66, and stores the result 
there. But it expects you to describe the angle in 
radians, not degrees. And the answer is almost al- 
ways a floati7ig point fraction. 

To change degrees to radians, you have to di- 
vide by 180 and multiply by JT (approximately 
3.14). It becomes quite complicated to find the sine 
of 30 degrees in ML: Convert 30 to floating point, 
convert 180 to floating point, call the floating point 
division routine, transfer n to the second floating 
point accumulator, call the floating point mul- 
tiplication routine, and (finally) JSR to the sine 
function. 

The result is a fraction in floating point format, 
which is not especially useful in a machine lan- 
guage program. Also, because you're using BASIC 
routines, this part of your program will not run 
much faster than a BASIC program. You might as 
zvell do the calculations in BASIC, rescwing ma- 
chine language for plotting the points on the hi-res 
screen. 

There's a good alternative, though: a machine 
language data table. The sine of an angle from to 
90 degrees will always range from to 1, Fractions 
are difficult to handle in ML, so we'll multiply by 
255 to get a number between and 255. Write a 
BASIC program that loops from to 90, figures out 
the sine of the angle (changed to radians), multiplies 
by 255, and POKEs the number into a free section of 
memory, perhaps the cassette buffer. Then, to find 
the sine of 30 degrees in your program, you would 
use two instructions: LDY #S]£;LD/l $033C,Y. The 
. Y register is an offset used to look up the sine of 
any angle from to 90 degrees. When you plot the 
points on the screen, remember that the values have 
been multiplied by 255. 

Here's one more idea: Degrees and radians are 
arbitrary ways of measuring angles, so why not 
make up your own system? 256 is a good machine 
language number; divide a circle into 256 equal 
parts and invent a new system of trigonometry 
based on computer angles—it could greatly simplify 
things. 

Replacing Old 1525 Ribbons 

In the past you have published information 
about parts for the 1520 and MPS-801. 

I have found another tip for those of us with 
Commodore printers. Radio Shack sells replace- 
ment ribbons that fit the 1515/1525 printer, cat- 
alog #26-1424 (for the DMP-100 printer). 

Edward Shockley 

Thanks for the tip. Although Commodore manufac- 
tures its own chips and computers, they buy their 
printers and some other peripherals from other 
companies. These companies are willing to cus- 
tomize the printer's character set and operating sys- 
tem, but tend to put standard parts (like ribbons) 



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into the hardware, ivhich is convenient for both the 
printer manufacturer and the customer. 

The Mysteries Of AND And OR 

I see a lot of ANDs and ORs in your magazine 
that I don't understand. Even after studying the 
Programmer's Reference Guide and many books 
and magazines, I have not found an explanation. 
I understand such lines as this: 

10 IF A = 24 AND B = 29 THEN 400 
20 IF C = 40 OR C = S2 THEN 400 

However, in the following lines, the ANDs and 
ORs are incomprehensible to me. 

10 POKE 53265,PEEK(53265)AND223 
20 POKE 53265,PEEK(53265)OR32 

Ray Norton 

Mathematical functions like adding, subtracting, or 
multiplying take tioo numbers and combine them 
according to certain rules to form a third number. 
The rules are constant, and therefore can be con- 
verted to tables (like the times tables we learned in 
elementary school). 

AND, OR, and NOT arc logical functions 
which, like math functions, can be expressed in 
truth tables. For examptle: 




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true AND true = true 
true AND false = false 
false AND true = false 
false AND false = false 

The statement (A AND B) will be true if and 
only if A is true and B is true. If either one is false, 
the result is false. IF A = 24 AND B = 29 THEN 400 
is an example of this type of AND. 

But computers can't handle philosophical con- 
cepts like truth and falsity. So, within a Commodore 
computer, (off) bits represent false and 1 (on) bits 
are true. This is sometimes called a bitwise AND 
(because it operates on on/off bits rather than 
true/false statements). Ask your computer to 
PRINT72AND45. The answer should be 8, as you 
can see when you convert the numbers to binary: 



AND 



01001000 
00101101 



72 
45 



(64+8) 
(32+8 + 4 + 1) 



00001000 8 



The result contains a 1 only in the position 
where both numbers have a 1. If you prefer to think 
of true and false, convert 71 to FTFFTFFF instead of 
01001000. 

The logical OR operation is true if either sf at e- 
tnent (or both) is true. Drawing a truth table shows 
that the only way to get false is if both statements 
are false. A bitwise OR operates on individual bits: 



OR 



OIOOIOOO 
00101101 



72 
45 



01101101 109 



// a bit in either number is turned on (or true), 
the corresponding bit in the result is on. 

The third logical operator, NOT, makes true 
statements false, and vice versa. Because of the way 
numbers are stored in memory, a bitwise NOT adds 
otie and changes the sign. PRINTN0T5 and the 
screen displays ~6. 

You can AND, OR, and NOT numbers from 
-32768 to 32767. 

The examples you gave use AND and OR to 
turn one bit on or off in a register that determines 
whether or not the 64 is in high-resolution mode. 
Normally, the location 53265 contains the number 
27. POKE 53265,PEEK{53265)OR32 turns on bit 5 
(the sixth bit from the right). POKE 53265, 
PEEK{53265)AND223 ^wnis if off. 

Programmers often refer to this use of AND as 
"masking" a byte. The value is selected carefully — 
placing 1 bit where no change is wanted and bits 
in positions to be zeroed. This is similar to a painter 
sticking masking tape to areas that won't be 
painted. 

BASIC evaluates a line like IF A = 32 AND 
B=29 THEN 100 by assigtiing a value of (false) or 
— 1 (equivalent to NOT 0, or true). You can see how 
this works by typing A = 32:PRINT(A = 32). The 
screen should say —1, meaning (A = 32) is true. Q| 



IB COMPUTErs Ga^erre Apnl 1985 




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Lance Elko, Editor 

Just when the doomsayers were looking like soothsayers, 
the home computer industry received a terrific boost from 
the two remaining 'low end" manufacturers, Commodore 
and Atari, at the Winter CES. The new micros of 1985 
redefine the market by bridging the gap between 
"personal" office computers and home computers. 



A giant leap forward is what some observers called this year's 

Winter Consumer Electronics Show. Unlike the trade shows of the 

past two years, this CES, held January in Las Vegas, showcased 

some remarkable new personal computer technology. 

Industry watchers had been anxiously awaiting new machines. 

Surely, it was hoped, Commodore would offer some significant hardware, 

something more promising than the Plus/4 and the 16. And what of 

Jack Tramiel, founder of Commodore, now head of Atari? 

Would he deliver? The recent slump had victimized 

dozens of hardware and software companies, and 

contributed to the demise of Coleco's Adam. 

It could not continue. 



The Winter Consumer Electronics Show 







^ '. ' - '■ * ■■MB' "'*'' 

Life In The 




^ 



"*•*•■'' -*^' 




^;%^-^;:^;, 



Driving from the Las Vegas 
airport into town, it be- 
came obvious that this CES 
would be interesting. Along the 
way were billboards announcing 
that we were in "Atari country." 
And at Commodore's press con- 
ference on the opening night, 
press kits flashing "Bad News 
for IBM and Apple" were dis- 
tributed. Despite the tendency 
towards the pie-in-the-sky ad- 
vertising hype of many compa- 
nies in this market, the "bad 
news" slogans and the swagger- 
ing "watch out — we're here" at- 
titude from both Commodore 



and Atari may not miss the 
mark by much. The new ma- 
chines represent a major step in 
changing the market and in sig- 
nificantly upgrading the way we 
compute. 

Commodore announced 
two new machines, the 128 Per- 
sonal Computer — externally ex- 
pandable to 512K — and the 
portable Commodore LCD. Al- 
though Commodore would not 
announce prices for the new 
machines, Frank Leonardi, new 
vice president of marketing, said 
that the 128 would probably be 
less than $300 and the LCD less 



than $600. Commodore expects 
to release .the 128 in April or 
May, and the LCD about one 
month later. 

The 128, contrary to earlier 
reports that it was simply a 64 
with an extra 64K of RAM, is 
being positioned by Commo- 
dore as three computers in one: 
a 64, a 128 with 80-columns 
and RGB (Red, Green, Blue— so 
named because it isolates the 
primary color signals, providing 
a much sharper picture) output, 
and a CP/M machine. With 
three microprocessors — a 6510 
(same as the 64), an 8502 chip. 



What Is CP/M? 

Charles Brannon, Program Editor 

CP/M has been available for the 64 for a 
while now, but many people still don't know 
what it is or what it does. Commodore 64 
CP/M consists of a disk and a plug-in car- 
tridge. The disk contains the actual CP/M 
software; the cartridge contains a 280 
microprocessor. In effect, the CP/M system 
turns your 64 into another computer. The new 
Commodore 128 incorporates a built-in Z80 
chip, and comes complete with the CP/M 
disk. 

Why CP/M? The usual answer is that 
CP/M opens up a world of software, thou- 
sands of programs that you can run with the 
right hardware and operating system. But are 
these programs worth it? Many Apple owners 
would say yes. For a while, Z80 cards were the 
hottest add-ons available for Apples. It seemed 
logical that Commodore 64 owners would also 
want this power, at a fraction of the price. But 
CP/M has not caught on so far, at least in 
home computing. 

The CP/M System 

CP/M is an acronym for Control Program for 
Microcomputers. In essence, CP/M is merely 
an operating system, primarily a disk operating 
system. An operating system is the base soft- 
ware for a computer. It takes care of routine 
system tasks, and provides a link between the 



computer and any other software you may be 
running. 

CP/M began when Gary Kildall, working 
for Intel, developed a package of compactly 
written subroutines for the tiny 4-bit 4004 
microprocessor. These useful sub-programs 
could be used by other programs, simplifying 
the work of a programmer. As technology ad- 
vanced, CP/M became a full-blown operating 
system for the Intel 8080 microprocessor, and 
was upgraded for the 8080-compatible Zilog 
Z80 microprocessor. Curiously, Intel, the de- 
signer of the 8080, was not interested in 
CP/M, and gave Kildall the go-ahead to mar- 
ket it on his own. He started up a company 
called Digital Research. (Digital is still going 
strong; they recently developed GEM, the 
Macintosh-like operating environment of the 
new Atari ST computers.) 

Before CP/M, there was no real operating 
system for these computers, so it was quickly 
seized upon by most users and manufacturers 
of Z80 computers. There were no successfully 
competitive operating systems, and CP/M eas- 
ily became a standard. Since almost everyone 
had CP/M, all the Z80 machines had more in 
common with each other. CP/M made it pos- 
sible for one program to run on many different 
computers. 

Most Z80 computer systems included a 



22 COMPUTEIs Gazelte April 1965 



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That's the real advantage - »ith talKit, you can 
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An easy and comprehensive manual with tutorials on 
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which is a slightly enhanced 
version of the 64's 6510, and a 
Z80 chip for CP/M — Commo- 
dore is "trying to meet every- 
body's wish list," notes 
Commodore software engineer 
Terry Ryan. Commodore 64 
owners who upgrade don't lose 
their software (according to 
Commodore, over 6,000 com- 
mercial titles now exist for the 
64), those who want a readable 
80 columns for word processing 
or spreadsheets can use the 128 
mode, and CP/M will appeal to 
those interested in more serious 
business appHcations, Getting 



from one mode to another is 
simple enough. From the 128 
mode, type G064. However, 
once in 64 mode, you must 
reboot the machine to get to the 
128 mode. According to a Com- 
modore engineer, not a single 
byte was changed in the Kernal 
because Commodore wanted 
perfect compatibility with all 64 
software. Since GO 128 would 
even in the smallest way change 
the operating system, they 
chose the safer route — turn the 
machine on and type GO 128. 
CP/M is accessed bv inserting 
the CP/M 3.0 disk (CP/M is a 



disk-based operating system) 
which is included with the 
machine. 

The 128 includes a much 
more powerful BASIC than 
Commodore owners have seen. 
Named BASIC 7.0 and accessi- 
ble only in 128 mode, it's de- 
rived from the BASIC 4.0 found 
in the venerable CBM 8032 
model, but adds some new disk 
commands as well as those of 
the Super Expander 64. Thus, 
the tedious POKEs required for 
sound and graphics on the 64 
become unnecessary with this 
new machine. However, when 




keyboard and monitor (or terminal), one or 
two disk drives, and 48K or 64K of memory. 
These computers were never designed to be 
compatible with each other, but CP/M took 
care of that. 

The BIOS 

Built into CP/M is a library of sub-programs 
for performing tasks like printing a character 
to the screen. Each computer might use a dif- 
ferent kind of video display, so some portions 
of CP/M, the BIOS (Basic Input/Output Sub- 
system) were customized for each machine, 
but BIOS acted the same way on every machine. 
Because of the BIOS, programmers could write 
their routines to use these universal subpro- 
grams instead of directly programming their 
particular computer's video chip. The program, 
if written properly, could run on any computer 
with CP/M. Machine-specific tasks became 
standardized routines. 

A CP/M software market thrived, since 
developers could write a single program that 
would run on many different computers. Woe 
be to the computer that lacked CP/M. Even 
though the TRS-80 used a Z80, it took the ef- 
forts of third-party developers to bring CP/M 
to this machine. For a while, TRS-80 owners 
were isolated from the mass market, with a 
separate, smaller, library of software. CP/M 



was the leader of the 8-bit world, and most 
small businesses used Z80 CP/M computers. 
CP/M machines occupied the niche that the 
IBM PC and PC clones control today. 

Is It Obsolete? 

The boom went to bust with the introduction 
of the IBM PC. CP/M machines just couldn't 
keep up with advances in hardware and soft- 
ware. Although the IBM PC was not a real 
breakthrough, it expanded the memory ceiling 
from 64 K to 64 OK. Disk storage jumped from 
lOOK to as much as 370K (double-sided disks). 
The faster and more powerful 8088 micro- 
processor made it easier to write better pro- 
grams in less time. IBM's open architecture en- 
couraged additional power, as more and more 
hardware companies enhanced the IBM with 
add-ons, 

The microprocessor used in the IBM could 
not run CP/M, so a whole new standard was 
forged. (Digital Research's CP/M-86 was not 
available in time for the release of the PC, so 
it failed to establish itself as a standard, 
Microsoft's MS-DOS, which is much like 
CP/M, beat out CP/M-86 not because it was 
better, but because it was first,) The 8-bit Z80 
world of CP/M was replaced by IBM's 16-bit 
8088 world. Software developers jumped on 
the bandwagon, and CP/M was put on the 



24 COMPU!E!i Gazelle April )985 



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in 128 mode, either 40 or 80 
columns must be selected. With 
40 columns, both sprites and 
the SID chip can be accessed, 
thus a Commodore 64 with 
122K usable RAM. Graphics are 
not supported in 80-column 
mode. Also included is a built-in 
machine language monitor, an 
expanded version (direct access 
to disk is available) of the one 
packaged with the Plus/4. 

In offering a more serious 
and powerful computer, Com- 
modore is also featuring a new 




The Commodore 128, "three computers in one," offers a new, more serious 
look. 



back burner. 

Since CP/M is no longer the dominant 
environment for high-end microcompudng (al- 
though CP/M machines are still selling today), 
why is it an issue on Commodore machines? It 
would seem the best bet would be an IBM 
MS-DOS emulator, with an 8088 instead of a 
Z80. Commodore probably went with CP/M 
because it is built around cheap, proven tech- 
nology. The Z80 simply costs less than the 
8088. And CP/M is more generalized, easier 
to adapt, than the MS-DOS used on IBM PCs 
CP/M may be Commodore's way of crossing 
over from home computing to small business 
computing. Commodore is even transladng 
some IBM software to CP/M, taking advan- 
tage of the similarities between CP/M and 
MS-DOS. 

Most CP/M programs are written in 8080 
or Z80 machine language, CP/M takes care of 
the minor differences between Z80 machines, 
but you still have to have a Z80 micro- 
processor. CP/M could be translated to run on 
any computer, such as the 6502, but what 
good is a 6502 version of CP/M if all the pro- 
grams that run under CP/M are written in Z80 
machine language? 

Commodore CP/M 

The CP/M cartridge for the 64 is a Z80 with 



some control circuitry. It's designed so that 
it can take control of the 64's memory. When 
using this cartridge, you're essentially using 
another computer. The Commodore 64 CP/M 
BIOS was actually written in 6510 machine 
language. The Z80 remains in control until it 
needs to do something like printing a character 
to the screen, or reading a byte from disk. The 
Z80 then reawakens the 6510, and puts itself 
"on hold." The 6510 takes over, finds a re- 
quest from the Z80, acts on it, then transfers 
control back to the Z80. It's unusual, but it 
works.' 

However, the 64 does not make a great 
CP/M computer. To get around memory 
hmitations, CP/M resorts to intensive disk ac- 
cess. At the speed of the 1541, this makes pro- 
grams run quite slowly. Also, most CP/M 
computers use a 64 or 80-column wide screen. 
The Commodore 128, with its 80-column 
screen and high-speed disk interface, may be 
much more suitable as a CP/M machine. 

The disk that comes with 64 CP/M con- 
tains the CP/M operating system, plus some 
utility programs that let you do things like 
copy files and format disks. When you run 
CP/M, all you really have is an alternate DOS. 
It does nothing on its own, unless you're 
merely interested in programming the Z80 on 
your own. The missing link is CP/M software. 



26 COMPUTB's Gazette April 1985 



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design. At first glance, one is re- 
minded of an IBM-PC. It's a 
smart-looking, sleek machine 
with an off-white color. The 
keyboard has been thoughtfully 
designed, especially for those 
upgrading from a 64. With the 
exception of the function keys, 
the 64's keyboard is intact (see 
photo). But there's a lot more. A 
numeric keypad is included to 
the right of the main character 
keys. A top row, from left to 
right, includes ESCAPE, TAB, 
ALTernate, CAPS LOCK, HELP 
(similar in function to the help 
key of the Plus/4}, LINE FEED, 



40/80 DISPLAY, and NO 
SCROLL, Continuing on that 
row are four cursor keys, pro- 
viding an alternative for those 
who never liked or got used to 
those on the 64, and four func- 
tion keys, identical to those on 
the 64. 

The 128 might be seen as 
an entry into the lower end of 
the business market currently 
dominated by the IBM-PC and 
its compatibles. While this is ar- 
guable, the fact that it seriously 
upgrades the power and flexibil- 
ity of home computing is not. A 
huge array of CP/M-based soft- 



ware exists, although the PC 
market has moved away from 
CP/M in favor of MS-DOS (see 
"What Is CP/M?" for more on 
this). A plus for the new ma- 
chine is its support of true 80 
columns with RGB output. Un- 
fortunately, Commodore owners 
with composite monitors, such 
as the 1701, 1702, or 1703, will 
have to upgrade to an RGB 
monitor to use the 80-columns 
of the 128. While the technol- 
ogy of the 128 is not new. Com- 
modore is offering a solid 
product at a very affordable 
price. 




Where's The Softwaze? 

Thousands of good programs were written for 
CP/M and are still in use today. CP/M users 
and user groups created a vast amount of 
public-domain software. Most of this software 
would run under 64 CP/M, if you could get it 
into memory. But the 1541 disk drive can't 
read a CF/M disk. More 1541 -readable soft- 
ware is necessary for CP/M to have any value 
at all. A large New York user group has been 
busy transferring public-domain software to 
1541 format (see the "Horizons" column in 
the October 1984 GAZETTE for more infor- 
mation), but the amount of usable CP/M soft- 
ware is still dismally small. Commodore, at the 
time of this writing, has two programming lan- 
guages you can run under CP/M: Nevada Co- 
bol and Nevada Fortran. Soon, Commodore 
will release a set of business tools, the Perfect 
software series (see the CES feature story for 
more on this). 

The new 1571 disk drive helps solve the 
problem. CP/M for the Commodore 128 re- 
programs the disk drive so that it can directly 
read disks created on other disk drives. 

Why bother with CP/M at all? There are 
many good CP/M word processors, but there 
are several word processors for the 64 that are 
every bit as good. There's much more business 
software available to CP/M machines, but 



most home computerists won't really want to 
run an Accounts Receivable program. When 
the 64 was first introduced, CP/M looked like 
an excellent way to get around the paucity of 
available software, but there's now almost too 
many 64 programs to choose from. 

A Business Bcorgoln 

However, CP/M may make the Commodore 
128 a bargain buy for small businesses. The 
price of the Commodore 128 with the 1571 
disk drive is competitive with the IBM PCjr. 
CP/M software has been around long enough 
to be time-tested and bug-free. There's so 
much CP/M software that there's a good 
chance you'll find special-interest programs — 
programs that wouldn't have mass appeal, but 
could be just what you're looking for. For ex- 
ample, some programs are customized for 
particular businesses, such as a bookkeeping 
system designed especially for a dental 
practice. 

CP/M promises a cornucopia of software. 
Some of this software may be useful to you, 
although most of it probably won't. It remains 
to be seen though, with all the technological 
advances we're now seeing in hardware and 
software, if anyone really wants to run five- 
year old software. 



28 COMPUTEIs Gazette Apnl 1985 



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perfectly with the Commodore 64, or to imitate 
Commodore's own printer. Even Commodore's 
graphic character set can be reproduced on 
Epson, Okidata, Star, ProWriter and other popular 
printers. 

Exclusive Grappler CD features provide a variety 
of graphic screen dumps, text screen dumps and 
formatting. No other Commodore interface can 
offer this. 

If you own a Commodore 64. . . 

If you're serious about quality, trouble free 
printing... You need the Grappler CD. 

Contact your nearest Commodore dealer or call 
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• Full Code Translation From Commodore's PET 
ASCII to Standard ASCII, the Language of Most 
Printers. 

• Complete Emulation of the Commodore 1525 
Printer for printing of Commodore's Special 
Characters. 

• Dip Switch Printer Selection for Epson, Star, 
Okidata, ProWriter and other popular printers. 

• Conversion Mode for Easy Reading of Special 
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• 22 Unique Text and Graphics Commands 

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In support of the 128, Commo- 
dore also has a new line of 
peripherals: the 1571 Disk 
Drive, the 1901 Monochrome 
Monitor, the 1902 RGBI/ 
Composite Monitor, and the 
Commodore Mouse. Although 
prices have not yet been set on 
any of these new products, they 
should be available at about the 
same time as the 128. The 1571 
drive is double-sided (360K stor- 
age per disk) and far more intel- 
ligent than the 1541. Although 
it's serial and reads at the same 
speed as the 1541 in 64 mode, 
it's five times faster when used in 
128 mode and almost 12 times 
faster in CP/M mode. Most 
CP/M software, regardless of for- 
mat, can be used with the 1571. 
The drive is also compatible with 
the 64, Plus/4, and LCD. 

The 1901 is a green screen 
80-column monitor designed for 
business and productivity appli- 
cations such as word processing, 
data base management, and 
spreadsheets. The 1902, ideally 
suited for the 128, contains a 
front video switch for composite 
or RGB display. In 64 mode, 
composite (40 X 25 columns) 
would be selected, thus emulat- 
ing the display of the 1700 moni- 
tor series, and in 128 or CP/M 
mode, either composite or RGB 
(80 X 25 columns) is available. 

The Commodore Mouse, 
functionally identical to Apple's 
mouse, provides an alternative 
to a joystick. No price and few 
details were announced, but it 
should be available for the 128 
later this spring. 

Commodore also an- 
nounced the 1670 Modem, a 
300/1200 baud modem which 
features auto answer/auto-dial, 
auto baud, and parity. (Auto 
baud determines the baud rate 
of another computer and auto- 
matically adjusts the rate of data 
transmission.) It's compatible 
with the 64, Plus/4, and 128, 
Although we didn't see the 
1670 at the show, it should be 
available this spring. It may be 
priced at less than $100, a real 
bargain for a 1200-baud modem. 

30 COMPUTErs Gazatta April 1985 




Amonj^ the new Commodore peripherals are the Mouse, MPS 802 Prhiter, 
1902 RGBI /Composite Monitor, and the 1571 Disk Drive. 



Commodore's second major 
entry, the LCD, is a porta- 
ble lap computer, with built-in 
software, modem, and flip-up 
screen. Commodore was show- 
ing only prototypes of this ma- 
chine, so it was difficult to 
assess the software (word pro- 
cessor, file manager, spread- 
sheet, address book, scheduler, 
calculator, and memo pad), 
some of which was incomplete. 
However, we did note that the 
LCD screen is exceptionally fast. 



The Commodore LCD Computer 
includes a flip-up screen which 
displays 80 columns and 16 
vertical lines. 



and the 80 X 16 column dis- 
play is highly readable. The ma- 
chine runs on four AA alkaline 
batteries or external power, and 
is easily transportable, weighing 
about three pounds. 

The microprocessor used in 
the LCD is the 65C102, a modi- 
fied and faster version of the 
6502. Importantly, Commodore 
has included several I/O ports: 
RS-232, Centronics parallel, 
barcode, standard Commodore 
serial, and the 300-baud, auto 




Compose music, even 
if you cant read a note. 




simplicity. It's not a toy. It's a 
tool. 

In fact, MusicWriter has 
everything you need to com- 
pose a serious symphony 
It has repeats, endings and 
triplets. It has articulation and 
transposition. It can shape 
tones, store 75 staffs, and play 
up to 4 voices. 

But even if you don't know 
what all that means, it won't 
stand in your way Because 
if you can hum a tune, you 
can write a tune. 



With the Bank Street 
MusicWriter by Glen Clancy 
you compose by computer 

It's so simple, people who 
don't know a pianissimo 
from a pizza can start com- 
posing in less than an hour 

All you do is match tJne 
sound that you hear in your 
head. And the MusicWriter 
writes it down. 

But don't be fooled by the 



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answer/auto-dial modem. The 
LCD is programmable (BASIC 
3,6 is included), and it stores 
files permanently. If peripheral 
file storage is appropriate, the 
LCD is compatible with the 
1571 and 1541 disk drives. 
Curiously, Commodore was 
showing Sony-standard 3-1/2" 
serial disk drives in use with 
the LCD, but little infor- 
mation was available on these 
obviously raw prototypes. 

If Commodore delivers the 
LCD for under $600, it should 
have a very strong competitive 
edge in the "notebook" com- 
puter market. 



Several other important an- 
nouncements were made at 
Commodore's CES press confer- 
ence. One of the most hearten- 
ing, for Commodore owners, 
was the establishment of a na- 
tional service network which in- 
cludes 160 RCA service centers, 
about 800 Sears stores, and 
nearly 1300 other outlets which 
include computer stores. Com- 
puters and peripherals in or be- 
yond warranty can be serviced 
at these locations beginning in 
March. 

Although a lot of software 
for the 64 was announced by 
third party companies (see "CES 
Perspective: Much More For The 
64"), Commodore introduced 
only two new packages, both 
for the 128. Jane, developed by 
the Arktronics Corporation, is 
icon-based productivity software 
featuring an integrated word 
processor, spreadsheet, and fil- 
ing system. It's designed for use 
with a joystick or the Commo- 
dore Mouse. Reminiscent of 
Macintosh software, Jane uses 
pop-up menus and windows. 
For 80-column CP/M mode on 
the 128, Commodore an- 
nounced the Perfect Series, pro- 
duced by Thorn EMI, This 
integrated software line, which 
includes Perfect Writer, Perfect 
Calc, and Perfect Filer, has been 
on the market in MS-DOS for- 



mat for the IBM-PC and 
compatibles for some time. No 
prices were announced for Jane 
or the Perfect Series. 



While Commodore has an 
impressive array of new 
hardware. Atari has the jump 
on offering a new technology to 
the low-end market, jack 
Tramiel and dozens of ex- 
Commodorians (collectively self- 
identified as the "New Atari" — 
although others may prefer the 
"Old Commodore") unveiled six 
new computers, seven printers, 
three disk drives, and four 
monitors. 

Atari's new computers rep- 
resent two new series, the XE 
line (four machines upwardly 
compatible with the Atari 800 
and 800 XL),' and the real show- 
stoppers, the 130ST and the 
520ST. The ST machines, driven 
by the 16/32 bit Motorola 
68000 microprocessor, the same 
chip found in the Macintosh, 
can basically be understood as 
color Macintoshes with a choice 
of input devices (keyboard, joy- 
stick, or mouse) and several 
more features. For $599, the 
520ST offers 512K RAM, a 
built-in hard disk interface (for 
$399 you can get an extra 15 
tncgaln/te hard disk for storage, 
the equivalent of about 90 Com- 
modore 1541 disks), three 
screen graphics modes (640 X 
400 pixels in hi-res), a three- 
voice sound generator with a 
MIDI interface for communica- 
tion with external electronic in- 
struments such as synthesizers, 
and a GEM operating system, 
which controls graphics features 
such as icons, windows, and 
drop-down menus. 

The 130ST is a 128K ver- 
sion of the same machine and is 
priced at $399. The XE series in- 
cludes the 65XE, a 64K en- 
hanced version of the 800XL, to 
sell for $99; the 130XE, a 128K 
version for under $200; the 
65XEP, a transportable version 
of the 65XE which includes a 



built-in monochrome monitor, 
37: -inch disk drive, and battery 
pack, to sell for under $400; and 
the 65XEM, essentially a 65XE 
with an eight-voice AMY sound 
chip that includes 64 oscillators. 
Reportedly, the AMY chip can 
be programmed to simulate any 
musical instrument. This ma- 
chine will be offered for under 
$200. 

The support peripherals for 
all of Atari's new machines are 
also priced very low in keeping 
with Jack Tramiel's marketing 
philosophy. Release date for 
Atari's new hardware is April or 
May. (For more details on 
Atari's new products, see the 
CES report in April COMPUTE!). 



With Atari and Commodore 
as the two remaining 
gladiators in the low-end arena, 
1985 will prove to be an inter- 
esting year. Both Commodore 
and Jack Tramiel are notorious 
for underselling the competition, 
and the new hardware prices, 
while surprisingly low, are not 
really unexpected. But, while 
both companies are claiming 
Apple and IBM as targets, 
they're also aiming at each 
other. One source told us that 
the Atari ST is really Commo- 
dore's Amiga (also with a 68000 
microprocessor), that some of 
the engineers brought to Atari 
from Commodore by Jack 
Tramiel knew the Amiga well 
enough to produce a replica. But 
Commodore denies this, hinting 
that the Amiga is more powerful 
and different than the ST. All 
intrigue aside, we'll see the 
Amiga in the market later this 
year. (For details on the Amiga, 
see "The Editor's Notes" in the 
November 1984 GAZETTE.) 
We're sure to see more 
from Commodore and Atari at 
the Summer CES in June, and 
possibly even before then. But 
their announcements at this 
CES are significant if only for 
one reason: much more power 
at much lower cost. 



32 COMPUTErs Gazetta April 19B5 



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Much More For The 64 



Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer 



Christopher Cerf had some explaining 
to do when he bought a home com- 
puter a few years ago. Cerf, a long- 
time author and designer of 
children's educational tools, was told by a 
friend that he would no longer be a good 
writer, "You shouldn't be using a word proces- 
sor," said his friend. "Everyone knows that the 
only time you have a good idea is when 
you're pushing the manual carriage returns on 
an old Royal typewriter," 

In spite of the computer industry's 
progress in recent years, that kind of attitude 
still prevails among a number of people. Fear 
of the unknown, and the inevitable failure of 
myriad hardware and software companies and 
trade publications, have given the public (and 
the press) countless opportunities to predict 
extinction. 

If last January's Consumer Electronics 
Show was the beginning of the end, it didn't 
look like it. This was to be the CES, said many 
industry observers, where everyone would be 
holding his breath. 

It appears, rather, that it was just the end 
of the beginning. True, the ranks continued to 
thin out. But the strong showing by Com- 
modore and Atari, as well as the promise of 
healthy third-party support for both compa- 
nies, were encouraging. The next generation of 
home computers is well on the way, 

"We're just at the beginning of the in- 
dustry," says Jim Levy, president of Activision. 
"The doomsayers are saying it's not what they 
thought. Well, it is what it is. What it is, is 
very young. There are still only a few million 
real computers, and state-of-the-art in software 
is still primitive. 

"We can't look for an overnight explosion, 
but it's not going backwards either. The com- 
puter is too fundamental a consumer product 
revolution not to happen. Over the next few 
years, there will be nice, steady growth. And it 
will still be one of the fastest growing con- 
sumer industries." 



e 



Though some very promising software ap- 
peared at CES, the main excitement on the 
floor was over hardware. Young employees of 
the new Atari Corporation, uniformly dressed 
in gray slacks and maroon sweaters, stood next 
to their new machines for hours, tirelessly 
answering quesdons. Prototypes of the new 
Commodore computers revolved in a show- 
case window as crowds constantly pushed 
through the booth for a closer look. 

Besides the new computers, many new 
peripherals for Commodore were introduced 
by third party companies. At least four 
Commodore-compatible disk drives were 
shown, from Cardco, Indus, MSD, and Blue 
Chip Electronics. 

Printers are getting even cheaper, faster, 
and more powerful, Okidata introduced the 
Okimate 120, a dot-matrix, 120 cps printer. 
Unlike its sister, the Okimate 10, it does not 
print color. It uses a cartridge ribbon for longer 
wear. Price is expected to be under $300, 

Star Micronics, manufacturer of the popu- 
lar Gemini- 1 OX, premiered a new line of dot- 
matrix printers, including the SG-10, an 
enhanced lOX priced at $299. It runs 20 per- 
cent faster, has a near-letter-quality (NLQ) 
mode, and a larger buffer. Prices in the new 
SG, SD, and SR printer lines range from $299 
to $799. 

At least two companies showed new music 
keyboards for the Commodore 64. The Music 
Port, by Tech Sketch, features a full-size elec- 
tronic keyboard with true digital synthesizer 
capability. With software, it has a suggested 
retail price of $149, Sequential Circuits an- 
nounced the MusicMate, a full-size keyboard 
priced at $99 with the starter software package 
(expansion software is available for $39,95). 

Activision was one of dozens of compa- 
nies at the show introducing new entertain- 
ment and home productivity software for the 
64. New programs include The Music Studio, a 
music composition and audio synthesis pack- 
age; Web Dimension, a rich sound -and-graphics 



34 COMPUTEfs GazettB April 1985 



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48 states must be paid by certified U.S. funds, C.O.D.'s shipped to U.S. addresses only, add $4.00. School orders welcome. 

DISKMAKER PAYS FOR ITSELF THE FIRST TIME YOU USE m . 




3463 state Str«at • Suit«1S41A • Santa Barbara • CA 93105 




The Star Mkronks SG-10, a faster, 

less expetisive version of the Gemini 3 OX, 

was introduced at CES. 



trip through the evolutionary stages of man 
("from atoms to astronauts"); and Rock 'n Bolt, 
a humorous strategy/action game. 

^neak previews of summer releases were 
also on display: Countdoivn To Shutdown, a 
futuristic action/adventure game involving a 
team of robot commandos which must prevent 
a reactor shutdown; Alcazar: The Forgotten For- 
tress, a fantasy/adventure set in a Spanish 
countryside; The Great American Road Race, a 
cross-country trek; and Fireworks, a fireworks 
display construction set. 

Levy and his staff try to determine what 
will please their home computer audience the 
same way a film studio decides on projects, or 
a soap company tests different scents and 
sizes. "Consumers are looking for what 
they've always looked for," says Levy. "Two 
things. The things he has to do in his life — he 
wants them to be easier, quicker, and more in- 
teresting. The second is good things to goof 
off with. We all live that way. We eat and 
sleep, and the rest of the time we either work 
or play. So it's important to recognize that the 
computer has two fundamental functions from 
a software standpoint; things that you have to 
do that the computer can help you do easier, 
faster, and better; and creative use of goof-off 
time." 



Creative, inexpensive use of goof-off time 
was offered at the show by Mastertronic, 
a British software firm that has recently begun 
U.S. distribution. "Sales of game software did 
not reach projections for the past year, mainly 
because of price," says Mastertronic's Dave 
Harding. "Mastertronic Ltd. did something 
about this, first in England (where it has sold 
more than two million pieces since April), and 
then in Canada. We will do the same here." 

The inidal ten titles, priced at $9.99, in- 
clude arcade games {Chiller; 1985-The Day 
After; Dark Star; More Adventures Of Big Mac, 
The Mad Maintenance Man) and one adventure 
game, Monty Python's The Quest For The Holy 
Grail. Ten additional programs will be released 
by mid- 1985: arcade games, strategy games, 
and the firm's first four educational programs. 
Also a part of this group will be The Games 
Creator ($19.99), an arcade game construction 
set which lets nonprogrammers create or alter 
every aspect of game play. 

"You Can't Kid A Kid" was software pub- 
lisher Epyx' theme, and kids ran the show at 
their booth. Several 8 to 15 year olds dem- 
onstrated Epyx' line of entertainment software, 
including 13 new titles. Ballblazer, developed 
by Lucasfilm Games, is a futuristic two-player 
fantasy game using a split screen and distinctive 



36 COMPUTEIS Gezene April 1985 



y^hy settle for less 



■.ii.«i-.wl.Ji.„i4,^y|mjIjJ5JJ 



When you can have Mo? 



^ 











Introducing Mltey Mo, 

the readr-to-go modem 

that turns your Commodore 64^ 

Into a telecommunications giant. 

Miley Mo is the complete-and 
aflordable - Selecommunicotions 
system loryour Commodore 64, It will 
open up a world ot pradical and 
exciting uses for your computer, and 
it will take you online faster and 
easier than anything else you can buy 

Now you'll be able to send and 
receive electronic moil, link up with 
community bulletin boards, play 
computer games with people in dis- 
tant places, do electronic banking, 
and top into library resources to iind 
the material you need lor your 
reports. All at your convenience. 

Until Miley Mo, Commodore's 
1650 Automodem was the obvious 
choice when you went looking for a 
modem tor the C-64, Like Mitey 
Mo, it has "auto-answer"— it 
receives data while 
unattended. And 
both modems 
are "auto dialers" 
—you dial right 
on the compu- 
ter's key- 
board. But 
that's about 
lA^ere their 
similarity 
ends. 

Suppose 
you dial a 
number, 



IfODEU FZHimiS 


lirmruo 


COUHODOn 


Auto Dial 


YES 


YES 


Auto Answer 


YES 


YES 


Auto Redtal 


YES 


NO 


Smart 64 Soltware 
Included 


YES 


NO 


Upload/Download 

Capability 
VT-62AT- too Emulation 
Menu Driven 


YES 

YES 
YES 


NO 
NO 

NO 


28K Software Butler 


YES 


NO 


Printing Capability 
Easy-to-Use Manual 
Bell 103 Compatible 
Multiple Baud Rotes 
Cables Included 


YES 
YES 
YES 
YES 
YES 


NO 
NO 
YES 
YES 
YES 


Single Switch Operation 
Warranty 


YES 
1 year 


NO 
90 days 




Somo mighty tnteiestlng featuies — 
OUTS and th0lis.%Hizs to decide. 



and you find that it's busy Mitey Mo has 
"auto redial"-it hangs up and redials 
immediately until it gets through. With 
the other modem you have to redial 
each time — and somebody with auto 
redialing can slip in ahead ot you. 
Mitey Mo is menu-driven. 
It lists the things you can do on 
the screen. Select a number 
and you're on your way Since 
Automodem isn't menu- 
driven, you'll be hunting 
through the manual a lot. 
Mitey Mo has only one 
switch, the customized soft- 
ware does the rest. Every 
family member virill find it 



easy to use. With the other modem 
you'll have to remember to check 
three switches, othervrise you may 
be answering when you mean to 
be originating. 

Mitey Mo gives you access to 
14 pages of memory (28,000 bytes), 
so you can store data and review 
or print it later The other modem 
doesn't let you store or print 
anything. 

Mitey Mo is half the size of 
the other modem. The very latest 
technology allows miniaturization 
and increased reliability, as well. 
Mitey Mo is so reliable, we gave it 
a full one-year warranty The other 
modem gives 90 days, tlien you're 
on your own, 

Not only will you find Mitey Mo 
mighty useful, you'll find it mighty 
reasonably priced. Call us at (415) 
633- 1899 and order your Mitey Mo 
today 





CDi., 'Computer Devices Int'l 
1315-A2Doolitlle Drive 
San Leandro, CA 94677 
(415)633-1899 



three-dimensional graphics. Rescue On Fractidus 
is a space action /strategy game featining 3-D 
flight simulation also developed by LucasfUm. 
SuiHfuer Games U, sequel to the successful Summer 
Games, and The Right Stuff, a flight simulation 
game set during the Battle Of Britain in Worid 
War II, were also introduced. 

Synapse Software initiated its Electronic 
Novel series, a new line of interactive adven- 
ture games/novels. The Electronic Novels are 
written by an author-programmer team, using 
a proprietary language developed by Synapse. 
The first titles in the series are Mindwhccl, a 
journey into the minds of four deceased peo- 
ple of extraordinary power (written by Robert 
Pinsky)/ and Essex, the story of an intergalactic 
search and rescue mission. 

Professional Software rolled out the sec- 
ond volume of its popular Trivia Fever, as well 
as a special sports edition. Trivia Fever, Volume 
2 retails for $24.95, Super Sports for $29.95. 

The Music Shop, one of Brfjfderbund's new 
releases, is both a music composition tool and 
music synthesizer. It offers a Macintosh-like 
environment for ease of use and will sell for 
$44.95. 

Creative Software has added to its line of 
entertainment and personal productivity soft- 
ware for the Commodore 64 with TroUs And 
Tribulations, a strategy /action game in which 
the player leads his six trolls through treach- 
erous underground caverns to recover hidden 
treasures. It retails for $24.95. 

Shakespeare and sports are the themes of 
Imagic's new software offerings. In Macbeth, 
from Imagic's Time Traveler series, you return 
to eleventh century England to find out if the 
character Macbeth was a murderer and tyrant 
or a hero tricked into self-destruction. The Ac- 
tion Sports series includes Tournament Tennis, 
Grand Slam Baseball, and Touchdown Football. 



Strategic Simulations, Inc, long rec- 
ognized for excellence in strategy and war 
games, introduced Kampfgruffe, SSI's answer to 
the advanced wargamers search for a technical 
level warfare game on the eastern front during 
World War II. It retails for $59.95. 

CaiKit is Batteries Included's latest entry in 
the home productivity market. It's a flexible 
home finance and math package designed like 
a simplified spreadsheet. {Batteries Included 
also has a new interface that links the Com- 
modore 64 to printers from all the major 
manufacturers.) 

Mindscape president Roger Buoy had been 
offered four different software companies by 
the third morning of CES. A bad sign for the 
educational software industry? Not at all, he 
says. 

"People make all this noise about the 
shakeout, but it's really a lot of nonsense," 
says Buoy, "What's going on in this business is 
no different from what's going on in other 
businesses. You always have companies that 
are not properly funded and not properly 
managed that fall by the wayside. That's not 
an abnormal phenomenon. It happens in every 
new business. But this one is highly visible, 
and it has a lot of pop culture in it," 

Buoy recalls a CES three years ago when 
there were three or four educational software 
publishers exhibiting. Two years later, he says, 
there were 79. "The market has grown 
tremendously, but when you're trying to share 
it with 79, the personal shares become less." 

Mindscape showed two new programs in 
its Sprout line, educational software developed 
by children's author Mercer Mayer: Castle 
Clobber and Subtraction Fair (S24.95), Bank 
Street Storybook, by George Brackett, and Bank 
Street MusicWriter, by Glen Clancy, were both 
being demonstrated by their authors. Software 



Software developers Christopher Cerf and Joyce 
Hakonsson teamed up to produce Kermit's Electronic 
Story maker, one of a series af programs being mar- 
keted under the banner of the Muppet Institute of 
Technology and published by Simon & Schuster's Elec- 
tronic Publishing Group. The programs are designed to 
stimulate reading and writing skills, and to encourage 
imagination. 




38 COMPUTErs Gaxetto April 1965 




What you get if you cross 
a Commodore 64 with a Fferrari. 



\ VfHi got the incredible 
[Li) Indus GT'' disk drivo. 
You gL^ brains. You gut iieauly. 
But, thiit'snotallyouget, 
Ynu get <i disk drive that can 
handle 100% ot Commodore's 
software. Upto400"'„ faster. 

YoLi i^cl the disk drive with the 
best service record around. With 
a one year warranty on parts and 
labor to prove it. 



And, you get the only disk drive 
tliat comes witli free s(jflware. 
Word processing. Spreadsheet. 
Database manager. Plus, a carry- 
ing case that doubles as ,in 80 
disk storage file. 

jMost of all, you get luxury. 
From the sleek lines of its sound- 
proofed chassis to the respon- 
sive AccuTouch™ controls at the 
Indus CommandPost!" From the 



LED display that keeps you in 
control of your Commodore to 
the air-piston operated dust 
cover that protects your disks 
and drive. 
So, you know what you really 
get if you cross a 
Commodore 64 
with a Ferrari? 
You get the 
best. 




INDUS 



6 IntKn SysH'm".. 9304 Dt'i-iipiK Avemii-. Ch.ilvwurlh, CA 91111 (Blfl) 882-9600. Thf Inriu* CT ii a pioduri of Indus Sy^iems. Commodoci' i* i 
rcBislorptl K.ulcm.irk ol Commodort BusiiiP".-. M.Khirifi, Int. Ferr.ifi p<. <i tesistereri ir.iiifmafk of Ferr.ifl Niaih Americi, Inc. 




Sequential Circuits MusicMate, a $99 musical keyboard for the Commodore 64. 



developer Tom Snyder was also on hand to 
show people around the universe with his new 
project for Mindscape, The Halley Project: A 
Mission In Our Solar System, a real-time 
simulation of the solar system. And ColorMe: 
The Computer Coloring Kit, lets young children 
design their own pictures, coloring books, and 
stickers, then print them out. 

Like Mindscape, a subsidiary of SFN 
Companies (a large textbook publisher), CBS 
Software has major financial backing. "It's 
comforting not to have to answer to bankers 
and investors," says president Ed Auer. "The 
CBS vision goes far beyond the last quarter of 
'84 or the first quarter of '85, We're in it for 
the duration." 

CBS introduced 12 new programs at CES, 
expanding their line to a total of 58. Success 
With Algebra includes four classroom-tested al- 
gebra tutorials for grades 7-12. The Sea Voy- 
agers is an electronic learning game which 
chronicles the lives and discoveries of 30 New 
World explorers. Children's TV show host Fred 
Rogers was involved in the development of 



Mil HI/ Ways To Say I Love You, a design tool 
that allows children to create their own elec- 
tronic greeting cards. In The Railroad Works, 
you can plan and build railroad empires. 

Auer is not nervous about the state of the 
industry. "We never did believe the predic- 
tions of a few years ago, that 40 percent of 
homes would have computers by 1987. By the 
90s, that's entirely feasible. We're very 
comfortable that it's going to be a significant 
industry," 



Perhaps those people who weren't holding 
their breath at last winter's CES were 
catching theirs. "We have the opportunity to 
manage our businesses better now that things 
aren't moving so rapidly," says Activision's 
Levy. 

"We're now evolving into a real industry 
from sort of a business. This gives us a chance 
to develop some good management and plan- 
ning within our companies and within the in- 
dustry, to stop misbehaving so much." m 



40 COMPUTSrs Gazefte April 1985 



® 




ss^c^ 




4 



OMMODORE OWNERS: 

"Finally, A Universal Graphics Interface!" 

Ttitt ALL NEW "MICROGRAFIK' parallel irterface by Micro World 
Eleclronix Inc., Is a complete switch selac table interface with full 
graphic capabilities lof the ViC 20"'' and Commodore 64™. Il's 
Iruty the most universal ol Interlaces wilti the capacity lo print the 
Commo<lore' graphics set, since II is switch selectable (or virtually 
all conlronics compatiblo paiallel printers including Daisy wKeel 
prinlors. 
Features; 

1) Fully inlefligsnt Inlerlace that plugs into the Stanaard Com- 
modofe' printer sockel. 

2) Complete graphics capability that will allow popular matrix 
printers lo lully pass the Commodore" Printer lest (including 
Inverse texl"tabbing, cursor upJdown, etc.). 

3) Works with virtually all software, since it provides emula- 
tion ot the Standard Commodore' Printer. 

4) Optional user inslalled "tK butter lo speed up graphics and 
lext printing. 

5) Complele built-in status and selt-tesl report. 
6| Switch Selectable Commodore" graphics mode for most 

popular primers (Epson, Siar Microncs, C. Itoh, Prowriter, 
Okidala, Solkosha, NEC, Riteman, Banana, BMC, 
Panasonic, Mannesman Talley and others) plus a Univer- 
sal Switch mode for letter quality printers. 
7) Complete with emulate mode, transparent mode, total text 
mode, ASCII conversion modes thai will insure virtually total 
compatibility VKith popular Software. 
No mnin HOM chnnges or fixtra shelf space laken up. The 
Microgialix (ntorfaco is easier lu stock since one Interlace will 




Orider From: y 




EVERYTHING YOU EVER WANTED IN A DISK UTILIT Y ... AND MORE!! 

FOR THE COMMODORE 64* 

• Fully automatic back-up of almost any protected disk. 

F-k Copy files [PRG, SEQ. RND] with full screen editing. 

' • Three minute back-up of standard disks [even many protected disks]. 

• Format a disk in ten seconds. • View and alter sector headers, 

• Remove errors from any track/sector. 

* Edit sectors in HEX, ASCII — even assembler. 

• Create errors on any track/sector [20, 21 , 22, 23, 27, 29J instantly. 

• Drive/64 MON, even lets you write programs inside your 1 541 

• All features are fully documented and easy to use. 

* None of our copy routines ever makes the drive head "kick." 




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■ S39.35 



Continuing Customer Support and Update Policy 



WRITE OR PHONE 



rit^isliMuil triitr..iphkik (ir 



8K>RP0IMT SOFTWARC 

Star Route 10 Gazelie, CA 9S034 [ 91 fi| Alii, r?371 



COD wsers add an afld'l S3 .00 snippitiij 
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Douglas Adams 

and 
Steve Meretzky 

Designers Behind 
The Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy 

Sharon Darling, Research Assistant 



The happy result of those 
two very different back- 
grounds is a microcom- 
puter game version of 
the popular Hitchhiker's Guide to 
the Ga!ax}/. 

It took six years for Adams' 
original idea of a story about a 
guide to the universe— similar 
in nature to those books on how 
to travel the continent using 
one's thumb — to come to fru- 
ition. However, that idea, 
launched while Adams was 
hitchhiking through Europe, 
quickly snowballed from a sim- 
ple concept into a long-lasting 
fad which has put such phrases 
as "don't panic" and "don't for- 
get your towel" into the vocab- 
ulary of millions of people, first 
in England, and then in the 
United States. 

The first volume quickly led 
to three other books: The Res- 
taurant at the End of the Uni- 
verse; Life, the Universe and 

42 COMPUTEIs Gazette April 1985 



Take two minds that have 
created some very witty 
books and computer games, 
put them together, and what 
do you get? The zany game 
version of The Hitchhiker's 
Guide to the Galaxy. 



Everything; and So Long, and 
Thanks for All the Tish. 

Imagine yourself as hapless 
Arthur Dent, a mild-mannered 
Englishman loho is quite fond of 
ale from the local pub. Upon 
groggily waking up one morning 
loith a terrific headache from too 
much beer at that same pub, you 
discover that your house is sched- 
uled to be demolished in order to 
make room for a neio highway. 

Little do you realize that that 
is the least of your worries to- 
day — for earth is scheduled to be 
destroyed, also — to make room for 
an infergalactic bypass. 

From there you begin a 



journey through the universe, 
accompanied by your friend 
Ford Prefect, a professed actor 
who is really a roving researcher 
for the Guide (a sort of comput- 
erized radio that's hooked into a 
encyclopedic database, very 
useful for hitchhikers). In real- 
ity, he's also an alien who hails 
from near the star Betelgeuse. 
Prefect's mission on Earth: To 
come up with a more detailed 
description of the planet than 
the two words contained in the 
Guide's current issue.' "mostly 
harmless." 

Since the game doesn't 
hinge on the action in the book, 
players don't need to have read 
Hitchhiker's Guide in order to 
play it, Meretzky says. "If 
you've read the book, it will 
probably make the first part of 
the game a bit easier for you, 
but that's about it," he adds. 

But both Adams and 
Meretzky worked long and hard 



Ad(ii^'^ 




Curricuhim Vitae, Steven 
Meretzky 

Place of birth: United States 
Graduate, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technatogy (MIT), breeding 
ground for many of Infocom's 
computer game designers, Work 
history: Before realizing /i/s call- 
ing IIS a computer game designer, 
worked in construction project 
management; started play test ing 
games for Infoconi in //is spare 
time. Eventually moved up to 
writing games. 

Ganw -writing credits: Planet fall 
and The Sorceror. 




to make sure the game was 
faithful to the book, while at the 
same time turning it into a new 
adventure. What they did weave 
into the fabric of the game were 
detailed explanations of events 
tliat are mentioned only briefly 
in the book. 

"In some ways it's easier, 
and in some ways, it's harder" 
to write a game from a book. 



versus using an original concept, 
says Meretzky. "It's easier be- 
cause you have some constraints 
on the universe you're going to 
be designing, and on the charac- 
ters you're going to be using . . . 
and you don't have to come up 
with as many ideas. 

"On the other hand, there's 
more of a challenge because you 
want to take advantage of the 



features of an interactive game, 
and you don't want it to be just 
a translation of the book, be- 
cause the book is necessarily 
linear, [f it was just a transla- 
tion," he adds, "there wouldn't 
be any reason to do it at all. 
You have to avoid getting into 
the trap of 'well, this is the way 
it was in the book, so this is the 
way it has to be in the game.' " 

COMPUTE'.'s Gazette April 1985 43 



An Open Letter To The User Community 



5FW 




^^^^^^^^, ,^ofbme Pul^lj,i;he,ts Assg^piafion 

Dear User Group President and Bulletin Board Sysop:^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Although the microcomputer software industry receives ample coverage by the media, the 
focus is generally on software and hardware developers and vendors. We frequently forget 
that there is another group of heroes that gets insufficient credit for promoting the growth 
of our unique industry. The Software Publishers Association, the trade association of over 
one hundred publishers of microcomputer software, salutes you, the user group president 
and bulletin board sysop, as an unsung hero. Space prohibits us from detailing the extent 
of your contribution to the growth of the microcomputer industry. Suffice it to say, how- 
ever, that without the growth of hundreds of user groups and electronic bulletin boards, 
the industry would not be where it is today. 

Just as user groups and electronic bulletin boards have promoted the growth of the in- 
dustry, these same groups hold the key to the solution of one of the most difficult prob- 
lems now facing the software industry — the unauthorized duplication and distribution of 
microcomputer software. The problem is not new. Wliat is new, however, is the extent of 
the lawlessness involved. The law is clear. It is a violation of U.S. Copyright Law to re- 
produce software (except for purely personal archive purposes) without authorization. The 
penalties are also clear. Violators are subject to fines of up to $50,000 and prison terms of 
up to five years. Since the violation of the copyright laws is a federal offense, the FBI has 
become increasingly involved in enforcing the law. The software industry has sought to 
deal with this problem in several ways. One has been an "arms race" of copy-protection 
systems. Another has been litigation against offending companies, user groups, and bviUetin 
board operators ^^^^g^^gg^^^jp^ 

There must be a better way for the software industry an3 fh'e user group community to 
work together to protect everyone's rights. We seek a, dialogue witl7.1e,^d^f,s of j^ser groups 
and bulletin board sysops. Le 
Please direct your comments 



Department P 

Software Publishers Association 

Suite 1200 

1111 19th Street, N 

Washini 



m^ 




WMM 



Kenneth A. Wasch 
Executive Director 



About the Software Publishers Association 

Formed in April 1984 by leading publishers of microcomputer software, the SPA has 
grown to include more than 100 firms, representing all of the major segments of the micro- 
computer software industry': business, home, entertainment, and education. The members 
of the SPA recognize "hat the future health and growth of the microcomputer industry de- 
pends on establishing a partnership among all segments of that industry, including the most 
important segment — the computer user. 




rs & Associate Membei^ ^ 



of the . Avvv.v 

Software Publishers Association 




m 



'y>'/ 






AcdvUton, Inc. 
Mountain Vtow, CA 

AddtKuvWosiey 

l^eddJng, MA 

Allenboofi Induilrtet, Inc. 

Ccirtstiad, CA 

AjtiIon-Iat« PubWeolioM Sroup 
Reslon. VA 

A^wn Sytlom) Coipotoltott 

ftockv«lo, MD 

Alaiiion 

Sunnyvote, CA 

Avont-Go/de CjeolJons, inc. 
Eugone, On 

BNAScflwQfo 
WoiWriylon. DC 

Sontom $of)worB 
Now Vort(. W 

Blue Chip SoHware, Irvc. 
ConoQa pQfd. CA 

R. R. Bowtier Company 

New Vort(. N/ 

Btockmon Aiioclales 

New yofk. NY 

Brodefbund Sottvrara, Inc 

San RaJool- CA 

CBSSottwato 

Gft^&nwfCfL. CT 

Chlldian'i TaMvtslon Woikttiop 
Now Vto*. NV 

Cogneflct 

Prtnc6ton, NJ 

Columbia Houw 
New VOV, f)iy 

COMPUTE) Publlcallont 
G^&pn5£>orG, MC 

Compuler Law Advlieri 

Spflngdeid, VA 

Conlfol vickio Cofpeiatlon 

Vienoo. VA 

Creollve Softwote 

Sunnyvale. CA 

□LM 

Aden, TX 

Data IfaniJ«fni. Inc. 
Oonver. CO 

Dolamoft. Inc. 

Cholswortti, CA 



R. R. DonrvollBy R Sons Compony 
Stamford. CT - -'- 

DOW lonnat k Afbettion 
WostvngrlCMi, OC 

Dvorak. John C. 
Altiony. CA 

Ediclel 

Potjj^ Franco 

Enlei MogoiIn8/C1iU*en'j TetevUlon Worttshop 

New York. W 

Epv>! 

Sunnyvale. CA 



% 




KardJ Technical Sytlemi. Inc. 
Lncom. r« 

Hoyden Software 

Cambndge. MA 

HesWare. Inc. 
Brisbane, CA 

Hetfnran. O, W. 
Eugene. OR 

IblcJnc 

New VOrV. NV 

irrvaglc 

Los Golos, CA 

Intocom. Inc. 
Camferi^o, VIA 

Intormalton Sytlemj. he. 
Artnglon. VA 

Intormotlon T«chnologJe> 

Pittsbuio«i. PA 

Inlenvatlonol Acceiioflei 
Pawfuctfil. Ri 

Krel) Softwota Corporollon 

Stony arooK. NV 

Langenicheldl Publtshets, 
Maspeth, NV 

LangitaQS Arls, Inc. 

Portland. OB 

Tlie Isammg Conwony 
Manio Pofli. CA 

Link HoioufCBj 

Now Ybrk, W 

MocmHIon Sotlware 
Now yorv. NY 

Mortech 
Da«a5. rx 

McGrow Hin Book Company 

Now YorV, NV 

MegatK3us 

Son Diego. CA 

Microbllt P«itphe<al 
AJbony. OR 

MIcroLab 
Htgtitand Porn, it. 

Mlllonluni Group, Inc. 

Now York. NV 

MHIIkofi PubllJfilrvo Co. 
Si Louj, MO 

Mlndscope. Inc. 

Northbfook, iL 

Mtnnesoto Educallofiol Conipulet Corp. 

St. Pout, IVtN 



Pfit star Sottwote.lnc 
^-■Y6i*. NV .,'■■' 

Media 
Goioen Ciiy. NJ 

Future Ccmpullng 

Ricnordjon, TX 



GtoUer Electronic Pubilstiing 
New yofV, NY 

Han>et S Row Sodwoto 
New yor)4. NV vZ ' 





Origin Svitemi, tnc. 
NiJtth Andovof. MA 




f rogran Dejlgn. Inc. 
Groonwicft. CT 

protecllt TecbnoJogy 

New Vorti. N¥ 

Quality Educoltonol Designs, Inc. 

Portland, OI; 

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YA 



Tackling computer games was 
a new experience for Ad- 
ams, even though he has Ford 
Prefect referring to the Guide as 
an electronic book, a familiar 
computer term today, but a new 
concept in 1977. "As far as I 
was concerned, it was com- 
pletely imaginary," Adams says. 
"1 didn't even become computer 
literate until about a year ago, 
whereupon it suddenly sort of 
swept over me like a tidal wave." 
Author, humorist, and com- 
poser Christopher Cerf brought 
Adams and Infocom together. 
"I'd seen Infocom's games in 
detail, and one or two other ad- 
venture games briefly," Adams 
says. "I'd not been interested, 
but Infocom's were obviously a 
great deal better than the oth- 
ers—they'd been written with 
style, wit, and intelligence, and I 
just felt that here were guys on 
the same wavelength." 

Adams' ideas about adapt- 
ing a creative work in print 
form to video perhaps explains 
how Hitchhiker's Guide has 
maintained its integrity and 
style in all its various permuta- 
tions. "Rather than just picking 
up a book and entering it into 
the computer, you have to go all 
the way back to the very jumble 
of ideas about what might be in 
it, just a sort of feeling about it. 

"Then, you get interested in 
the medium, and explore that 
medium with some of those 
ideas in mind, rather than doing 
just straight text. The nice thing 
about Hitchhikers," he adds, "is 
it's not a concrete story, it's not 
particularly firm in any one me- 
dium — it's just a set of ap- 
proaches and attitudes, with a 
few rough ideas about some 
characters." 

That fluidity meant that 
there were several points in the 
book's story line where Adams 
and Meretzky could let their 
imaginations loose to create new 
situations for the game version. 
One thing that remained intact, 
though, was the humor inherent 
in the book. 

46 COMPUTE'S Gazetto April 1985 




"A lot of the same humor is 
explicitly there, just in the text 
of the game," Meretzky says. 
"Also, a lot of humor is created 
just by using the style of the 
game." For example, one com- 
mand common to all Infocom 
games is "inventory," where 
you find out everything you are 
carrying at any particular mo- 
ment. At the start of Hitchhiker, 
you are told that Arthur Dent's 
inventory consists of a) no tea, 
and b) a splitting headache. 

One convention carried over 
from the book was foot- 
notes, which are sprinkled 
throughout Adams' novel. "1 
thought there must be some 
way to incorporate [those] into 
the game," Meretzky recalls. 
"So what happens is, at various 
points in the text of the game, 
you'll see a reference to a foot- 
note, and simply as your turn, 
you type in footnote 12, or 
whatever, and you get the text." 

While some of the footnotes 
are straightforward, they can be 
amusing, such as one referenc- 
ing a ray gun that never seems 
to work properly. "It's not a 
very good ray gun, is it?" the 
game responds to that footnote. 
"There's a lot of that, kind of 
taking a step back from the 
game and laughing at it from 
the outside," Meretzky says. 

Putting British humor into 
perspective for an American au- 
dience never posed a problem, 
Adams says. "I tend to feel the 



difference between Enghsh and 
American humor is much more 
apparent than real. I've never 
had the slightest problem in en- 
joying American humor. Every- 
one told me I was going to have 
immense difficulty in getting 
American audiences to respond 
to Hitchhiker, which has abso- 
lutely not been the case." 

The book's humor has suc- 
ceeded on both shores of the 
Atlantic perhaps because Adams 
didn't have any particular audi- 
ence in mind, besides himself, 
when he wrote it in 1977. "Tar- 
geting something toward a par- 
ticular audience, that's not 
something writers do, that's 
something that marketing or ad- 
vertising people do," Adams 
feels. "I'm not selling tooth- 
paste, I'm making ideas." 

The process of translating 
those ideas from a novel to a 
computer game took about eight 
months, with Meretzky and Ad- 
ams first meeting for about a 
week in Boston to map out the 
game's general direction. Then, 
Adams returned to England, and 
the two corresponded daily 
through electronic mail. 

"When we had got a lot of 
it sitting there waiting to make 
sense, and not apparently being 
about to do that, Steve came 
over to England, and we ham- 
mered out answers to make it 
look as if the way it ended was 
what we'd intended all along," 
Adams recalls. 

During the writing process, 
Meretzky says he tried to 
closely emulate Adams' style. 
Apparently, he succeeded, as 
Adams commented once that he 
couldn't tell whether he or 
Meretzky had written certain 
parts of the text. 

As your game's journey continues, 
your survival depends on a very 
motley crew. Playing Arthur 
Dent, you've survived Earth's de- 
struction by hitching a ride on a 
passing spaceship, but you're not 
sure that was really as lucky an 
occurrence as it first seemed. For 
7tow, your fate rests loith two- 



headed Zaphod Beeblebrox, presi- 
dent of the Imperial Galactic Gov- 
ernment; his girlfrierjd, Trillian, 
whom you realize is the same girl 
you tried to pick up at a party re- 
cently; Ford Prefect; and Marvin, 
a paranoid android. Good luck. 

Meretzky says one of the 
main reasons he was chosen to 
work with Adams was because 
of his previous work with co- 
medic science fiction in Planetfall, 
an award-winning game. He was 
also a Hitchhiker fan, as were 
most of the folks at Infocom. 

The two started out their 
collaboration by following the 
plot of the book closely. Then, 
"I guess he (Adams) got used to 
the idea of writing interactively, 
and the more I got used to the 
idea of giving him ideas and of 
working with him, the more the 
ideas started to flow," Meretzky 
says. "By the end, we had way 
more ideas than we were able to 
use." 

All those extra ideas that 
never made it into the game are 
"definitely" enough for a se- 
quel, Meretzky adds. However, 
don't necessarily look for a fifth 
book in the Hitchhiker saga, Ad- 
ams says. He claims the recently 
released fourth novel is the 
"final, final, final one. There is 
definitely, definitely, definitely 
not another one after this — at 
least not for a while." 

But don't panic. Audiences 
both here and abroad have not 
heard the last from Adams. 
After filming is completed on 
the movie version of Hitchhik- 
er's Guide, he says his next 
project will probably be a 
screenplay. A novel based on 
that movie will be written after- 
ward, he says. 

And Meretzky also has 
more games up his sleeve. 
While he's got some science fic- 
tion game ideas in mind, he's 
also contemplating a mystery 
game, which would be a new 
area for him. 

Until then, enjoy your jour- 
ney through the galaxy. And 
don't forget your towel. 9 



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COMPUTErs Gazotte April 1985 47 



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Pool 

Joseph T. Woyton 



Chalk up your cue stick and sharpen your 
skills with this exciting simulation of 
pocket billiards. For one or two players. 
Originally written for the unexpanded 
VIQ we've added a version for the 64. 



The rules of "Pool" are simple — you try to sink 
the billiard balls on the table by aiming and 
shooting the white cue ball. 

The VIC version accepts either keyboard or 
joystick input (for details on how to play 64 
Pool, see the programmer's notes accompanying 
this article). Use the joystick {or f3 key) to rotate 
the cue stick around the cue ball. Shoot it by 
pressing and holding the fire button (or fl). The 
longer you hold it down, the softer the shot, For 
a hard shot, release the button or key 
immediately. 

Your turn continues as long as you keep 
pocketing balls. If you miss or scratch, your 
opponent takes over (if you're playing solo, try 
playing left against right hand). After a scratch, 
the cue ball may be positioned anywhere behind 
the scratch line using the joystick (or f3 and f5). 
Once you've selected a spot, tap the fire button 
(or fl) and continue playing. 

The 15 balls are randomly placed after the 
last ball is sunk. You can then continue the game 
(up to a mutually agreeable limit) or respond to 
the prompt for a new game, 

VIC Program Description 

The main play routine of the program makes the 
billiard balls move, carom, and collide, In this 
routine, motion is simulated by POKEing a ball 
character to the next screen position in the direc- 
tion of travel, and then POKEing a blank space 
to the previous position, erasing it. The resolu- 
tion of the VIC's screen permits only eight direc- 
tions of movement. 

The program PEEKs ahead for upcoming 
collisions. When the edge of the table is reached. 



the direction of travel is reversed. When pockets 
(CHR$(102)) are detected, the scoring subroutine 
is called. 

The ball slows down as it travels by using 
progressively longer time delays between screen 
POKEs. Sound effects punctuate ball impact, 
scoring, and turnovers. The RE Mark statements 
should help you follow the flow of the program. 

VrC Program Variables 

A = character under cue stick 

B ■= current ball character 

BO = cue ball, CHR$(87) 

Bl = object ball, CHR$(81) 

C = player code; -1-1 for player A, —1 for player ; 

D = ball velocity time delay 

H = 1 for hit pocket, for no score 

I "• ball direction increment 

J = joystick input 

K = keyboard input 

P = ball placement during table setup 

Q = current ball location 

QO ~ cue ball scratch location 

QC = cue ball play location 

SA ■= player A score 

SB = player B score 

T = sound effect time delay 

V = cue stick or cue ball vector 

Z = cue stick character 



Entering VIC Poo! 

Almost all of the unexpanded VIC's memory is 
used for the program and variables. Do not add 
any unnecessary spaces. REM statements mark 
the beginning of subroutines; don't delete them 
unless you change the GOSUBs accordingly. 

If you prefer not to type in the program, I'll 
make a copy of the VIC version on tape on re- 
ceipt of a blank tape (sorry, no disks), a pre- 
stamped mailer, and $3. 

Joseph Wo]/ton 
106 Braddock Drive 
MauUin, SC 29662 

See program listings on page 124. 



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After a scratch, the cue ball is placed anywhere behittd 
the Hue (VIC version). 




Player 2 carefully plans a shot— red ball in the comer 
pocket. (64 version). 



Progrconmex's Notes: 64 Pool 

Kevin Mykytyn, Editorial Programmer 

Rather than translating the VIC version di- 
rectly to the 64, an entirely new high- 
resolution Pool was written. It requires a joy- 
stick (two joysticks in the two-player version). 
The 64 version is written entirely in ma- 
chine language, so MLX is required to type it 
in. If you do not have a copy of MLX (pub- 
lished periodically in the GAZETTE), type it in 
and save it to tape or disk. Then run it, and 
enter the following information: 

Starting Address: 49152 
Ending Address: 52903 

When you've finished, save the program. 
Load it back into the computer using a second- 
ary address of 1: LOAD "POOL",8,l (disk) or 
LOAD "POOL",l,l (tape). SYS 49152 starts 
the program. 

The title screen comes up first, with a rag- 
time melody playing in the background. You 
choose a one- or two-player game, The screen 
clears and the pool table appears. 

At the start of the game, the white cue 
ball is at one end of the table and six balls are 
arranged at the other end. There are six (rather 
than 15) because only eight sprites are avail- 
able on the 64, Using the joystick, position the 
cue ball in the "kitclien," behind the scratch 
line. When you're ready to shoot, press the 
joystick button once. A crosshair appears on 
top of the cue ball. 

Move the crosshair in the direction you 
want to shoot. Unlike the VIC version, which 
has eight directions of movement, 64 Pool al- 



lows you to shoot in any direction. Pressing 
the joystick button starts the cue ball rolling. 

The distance between the cue ball and 
crosshair determines the strength of the shot. 
The farther away, the harder the shot. There is 
a limit on how far you can move the crosshair 
(approximately two-thirds the length of the 
table). On the initial break, you'll probably 
want to shoot hard. On later turns, the 
strength of the shot will determine how far the 
cue ball travels after a collision. Strategic soft 
shots can help you set up the table for the 
next shot. 

The goal in the one player game is to 
clear the table in the fewest number of shots 
(the record here at COMPUTE! Publications is 
eight). When all balls are in the pockets, 
you're ranked according to your ability, from 
Pro (the best) to Pool Shark, Amateur, and 
Novice. 

In the two-player game, you try to out- 
shoot your opponent. When you sink a ball, 
it's placed on your side of the screen. With six 
balls in play, tie games are possible. 

A scratch occurs when you knock the cue 
ball into a pocket, or when the cue ball doesn't 
hit anything before coming to a stop. You lose 
your turn, one of the balls to your credit is put 
back on the table, and the cue ball is placed in 
the starting position. Your opponent can then 
put the cue ball anywhere behind the scratch 
line. 

64 Pool does not completely follow the 
laws of physics, although it offers a realistic 
simulation. The sprites are moved pixel by 
pixel, but the movement is calculated in 256ths 
of a pixel for increased accuracy. 9 




mmmsammmammiimKak :.- 

\ Their only hopewas your promise to bring them home! 




The continuing saga pits allied forces against the cruel dictator who escaped the destruction of the 
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A true "head to head" two player game with voice simulation and superb multiscreen graphics. 
Produced for the COMIVIODORE 64 and coming to a Computer Store near you! [PG 



n.i[H-^.lFr.p.rrr.[ t<' 



WrittEfi by Roger & Bruce Carver Directed by Bruce Carver Produced by Chris J. Jones Distributed by David L Ashby 

Cineniato^faph/: Marjotie Haiin Ptoduclion Assistant Audree Jones Caitioj Jean Miner Spetial Effect Kathryn Ashb/ Pfnonotion: Connie Stringliani Execulive Productioii; Kevin L. Jones S Associates 
Voices: Electronic Speecli Systenis lllustralions: Dong Van Oe Grift Based upon tlie book "Tlie Goliath Syndrome" by James L Slade 



=5js= Software incorporated jy 

Look torthflsvaddltianalAcceu Productions ' 




Apple Hunt 



James Arlet 



Speed is important, but good strategic 
moves will ensure success in this clever 
game for the VIC and 64. A joystick is 
required. 



As the main character in "Apple Hunt," you find 
yourself in a forest with apples scattered here 
and there. Your job is to eat as many as you can. 
However, you must avoid the trees and the mov^ 
ing monster, who is fond of devouring every- 
thing — apples, trees, and you. You're also 
working within a time limit, so lengthy pauses to 
study the situation are not advisable. The key to 
success in this game is to think before you 
move- — but don't think too long. 

Your sole weapon in this game is the "zap," 
which clears out everything in the adjacent eight 
screen locations. It's activated by pressing the fire 
button. You can use it to clear out trees to get to 




An unsuccessful attempt to "zap" the monster (VIC 
version). 

54 COMPUTBfs Gazette April 1985 



an apple or use it to zap the monster. Occa- 
sionally, a ruby appears on the screen. You must 
try to get it before the monster does— it's worth 
a lot of points. 

Game Ploy 

When you run the program, you'll be asked if 
you want game instructions. Press Y to read 
them, N to get right to the game. Using a joy- 
stick (port 2 for the 64), move your man toward 
the apples or ruby, and use your fire button to 
"zap," Notice that you can wrap around the 
screen from all four sides — a feature you'll need 
to use, 

You begin with two men and two zaps in 
wave 1, To complete each wave, you must eat 
five apples, pick up a ruby, or zap the monster — 
any of these within the time limit. Each new 
wave includes more trees, making maneuvering 
progressively more difficult. Before the dme ex- 
pires, the screen will flash red indicating a few 
seconds left. Using a zap (if you haven't used 
both of them) resets the time to zero for that 
wave. If you eat four or less apples, then lose a 
Hfe, those collected carry over to the next wave. 
This does not happen if you collect a ruby or zap 
the monster. 



VIC Notes 

The VIC version of Apple Hunt is in two 
parts, Type in Program 1, "Redefined 
Characters," and save it. Then enter Pro- 
gram 2 and save it with the filename "P2". 
Tape users should save Program 2 immedi- 
ately after the first. Disk users should 
change the 1 to an 8 in line 470 of Program 
1, and delete line 450. 



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(213) 373-9473 



Davidson & Associates, inc 
6059 Croveoak Place * 12 
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90274 






AppJe, IBM and Commodore 64 are trademarks re&pecUvety ol Apple Qomputera, li^c, International Qusmess hlachmes Corp , an^i Corrrrodore Business Machlnea. Inc. 



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Moving left toward the apples (64 vcnian). 

Points are awarded as follows: 50-500 for 
apples, 1000 for zapping the monster, and 3000 
for a ruby. Bonus points are given according to 
how fast you complete a wave. If you finish a 
wave after the screen flashes red, no bonus 
points are given. Also, an extra man and an extra 
zap are given after completing waves 5, 10, 15, 
20, and 25. The highest score to date is 104,753. 

See program listings on page 153. <gf 




CHORD- POWER 

FOR GUITAR 

THIS DELUXE REFERENCE FEATURES: 

• Quick Access to Over 8,000 Chords With Sound 

• Chords Displayed on Color Graphic Guitar 
Fretboard with Each Note Played 

• Chord Formulas Displayed Showing 
Corresponding Notes 

• For Beginner to Professional 

• Easy and Fun to Use - Just Enter Chord 
Desired and it Will be Displayed and Played 

In addition to being an excellent chord reference, 
CHORD-POWER will help unravel the mystcdes 
of chord construction and advance your chord and 
solo playing! 
- Program Runs on C-64* With Disk Drive - 

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A Printer For All Reasons 

Search For The Best High Quality Graphic Printer 



If you bcive been looking very long, you hove 
probably discovered Ihcl there ore just too 
many claims and counter clcmns in the printer 
market today. There are printers that have 
some of the features you wont, hut do not have 
others. Some features you probably don't caie 
about, others ore vitally important to you We 
understand. In fact, not long ago, we were m 
the same positioa Deluged by claims and 
counter claims. Overburdened by rows and 
lowB of specilicationa, we decided to separate 
all the facts — prove ot disprove all the claims 
to oui own satisfaction. So we bought printers. 
We bought samples oi all major brands and 
tested them. 

Our Objective Was Simple 

We wanted to find that prinlei which had oU the 
featuioa you could want and yet be sold 
directly to you at the lowest price. We wanted 
to give our customers the best printer on the 
ttiOlket today at a bargain price. 

The Results Are In 
Hie search is over. We have reduced the field 
to a single printer thol rneels all our goals (and 
more) The printer is the GP-5S0CD from 
Seikosha, a division of Seiko (manufacturers of 
everything from wrist wotches to space hard- 
ware). We ran this printer through oui battery of 
tests and it came out shining. This printer can 
do it all Standard draft printing up to a re- 
spectable (and honest) 86 characters per sec- 
ond, and with a very readable 9 (horizontal) by 

8 (vertical) character matrix. At this rote, you 
wiM get on average 30 hne letter printed in only 
28 seconds. 

"NLQ" Mode 

One of our highest concerns was about print 
quality and readability. The GP-S50CD has a 
print mode termed Near Letter Quality printing 
(NLQ mode). This is where the GP-550CD 
outafiinea oil the competition Hands down! The 
character matrix in NLQ mode is a very dense 

9 (horizontal) by 16 (vertical) This equates to 
14,400 addressable dots per square inch, Now 
vire'ie talking gualiiy printing. You con even do 
graphics in the high resolution mode. The 
results ate the best we've ever seen The only 
other printers currently available having reso- 
lution this high go for $500 and more wilhout 
the interface or cable needed to hook up to 
youi Commodore ! 

Features That Won't Quit 

With the GP-550CD your computer can now 
print 40, 48, 68, 80, 96, or 138 characters per 
line. You can print in ANY of 18 font styles. You 
not only hove the standard Pica, Elite, Con- 
deru^ed and Itahcs, but also true Superscripts 
and Subscripts. Never again wiU you hove to 
vrony about how to print HjG or X^. This fan- 
tastic machine will do II automatically, through 
easy software commands right from your 
keyboard. All fonts hove true descenders. 

One of the fonts we like best is "Proportional" 
because it looks most like typesetting The 
spacing for thin characters like "i" and "1" ore 
given less space which "tightens" the word 
making reading easier and laslei. This is only 
one example of the careful plcmning put into 
the GP-550CD. 




Do you sometimes wont to emphasize a word? 
It's easy, just use bold (double strike) to make 
the words stand out. Or, if you wish to be even 
more emphatic, underline the words. Or do 
both You may also wish to "headline" a title. 
Each basic font has a corresponding elongated 
(double- wide) version. You con combine any 
of these modes to make the variation ulmosi 
endless, Do you want to express something that 
you can't do with words? Use giapliics 
with your text — even on the same line. 

You can now do virtually any line spacing you 
Want. You may select B, 8, 7H oi 12 lines per 
inch, PLUS you have variable line spacing oi 
1.2 lines per inch to infinity (no space at all) 
and 37 other software selectable settings in 
between. You control line spacing on a dot- by- 
dot basis li you've ever had a letter or other 
document thai was just a few lines too long to 
fit a page, you can see ho-w handy this feature 
is. Simply reduce the line spacing slightly 
and VOILAI The letter now tits on one 
page 

Forms? Yes! 
YoiiT Letterhead? Of Course! 

Do you print fonns'' No problem. This unit will 
do them alL Any loim up to 10 inches wide. The 
tractors are adjustable from 41i to 10 inches 
Yes, you con also use single sheets. Plain 
typing paper, yovu ielterhead, short memo 
forms, anytliing you choose. Any siie under 10" 
in width. Multiple copies? Absolutely! Put 
forms or individual sheets with carbons (up to 3 
deep), and the last copy will be as readable as 
the first Spread sheets with many columns? Of 
course I Just go to condensed mode printing 
and print a full 136 columns wide. Forget ex- 
pensive wide- carriage printers and changing 
to wide carriage paper. You can now do it all 
on a standard 8W" page. 

Consistent Print Quality 

Most printers have a continuous loop ribbon 
cartridge or a single spool ribbon which gives 
nice dark printing when new, but quickly starts 
to fade after a while. To keep the printers' 
output looking consistently dark, the ribbons 
must be changed more often than is healthy for 
the pocketbook. Tlie GP-550CD solves this 
problem completely by using a replaceable, 
inexpensive ink cassette which is separately 
replaceable from the actuxil ribbon, it keeps 



the ribbon loaded with ink at aU times. You only 
replace the ribbon when it truly wears out, not 
when it starts to run low on ink, Just another 
example of the superb engineering applied to 
the GP-550CD, (When you finally do wear out 
your ribbon, replacement cost is only $10,95, 
Ink cassette replacement cost is only $5,95, 
both postpaid,) 

The Best Part 

When shopping loi a quahty printer with all 
these features, you could expect io pay around 
S500 or more. Not any more! We have done our 
homework. You don't have to worry about inter- 
faces or cables. Everything is included. We ate 
now able to sell tliis fantastic printer for 
only $259,951 The GP-530CD is built espe- 
cially for the Commodore 54, VIC-20, Pius 4 
and C-16. All Commodore graphics are in- 
cluded This printer does everything the Com- 
modore printers do but has more (eatuies You 
need absolutely nothing else to start print- 
ing-just add paper. We also have specific 
models for other computers. Call for details. 

No Risk OHer 

We give you a 15 -day satisfaction guarantee. If 
you are not completely satisfied for any reason 
we will refund the full purchase price. A 1 -year 
warranty is included with your printer. The war- 
ranty repair pohcy is to repair or replace and 
resfiip to the buyer vrilhin 72 hours. 

The Bottom Dollar 

The GP-550CD is only $259 95 Shipping and 
insurance is 18.00 — UPS within the conti- 
nenlal USA If you are in a hurry, UPS Blue 
(second day air) is $18.00. Canada, Alaska, 
Mexico are $25.00 (air). Other foreign is $60.00 
(air). California residents add 6% tax. These 
are cash prices — VISA and MC add 3% to 
total. We ship the next business day on money 
orders, cashiers' checks, and charge cards. A 
14 -day clearing period is required for checks. 

TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 

l-teOO) 962-5800 USA 
or 1 -(800) 962-3800 CALIF. 

Of send payment to: 

APROPOS TECHNOLOGY 

1071 -A Avenida Acaso 
Camarilto, CA 93010 
Teclinical tnfo; 1-1805) 482-3604 
I 1 984 APROPOS TECHNOLOGY 



sooRE = ei03©s nave: = © 



-•^-'-^msG.^iii&immkmsiAm 



'.■ jir'ii'.tv.r-.'iW Bii 



It's hard to hit the wihiiy bouuiing spdLiships hi "AstroPANlC!" 

Astro-PANICl For The VIC 



Sean D. Wagle 



In the February 1984 GAZETTE, we pub- 
lished Charles Brannon's "Astro-PANIC!" 
for the 64, a popular game with our read- 
ers. Sean D. Wagle, a 16-year-old pro- 
grammer, has created a version for the 
VIC. It's all machine language, and is 
faithful to the original 64 version. We 
think you'll be surprised at this unique 
programming accomplishment. The pro- 
gram has smooth and lightning-quick 
movement, excellent playability, and sprite 
emulation— all on the unexpanded VIC. A 
joystick is required. 



As the name implies, "Astro-PANIC!" is a 
frantically paced space game. The pace gets 
faster and faster the longer you're able to sur- 
vive. The object is simple: With a joystick, you 
must defend your cannon, at the bottom of the 
screen, by maneuvering it left and right while 
trying to destroy a fleet of alien saucers which 
dodge and dive unpredictably in a furious attack. 
You have only three ships (two in reserve at the 
start of the game), and there are 15 levels, each 
increasingly difficult. Your goal is to make it 

58 COMPUTE! s Gazette Apfil 1985 



through Level 15, If this challenge is too much 
initially, you can play for the highest score. 

If you survive through Level 15, the game 
loops back to Level 1, where the pace slows 
down. Only a few will make it this far, however. 
If you wish to pause the acdon, press the SHIFT 
LOCK key. Press it again to resume play. To be- 
gin a new game at any time, press any alphabetic 
key. 

Typing In The Game 

Astro-PANIC! is written entirely in machine lan- 
guage and requires VIC MLX (published in alter- 
nate months in the GAZETTE) to type in. After 
entering and saving VIC MLX (8K or greater re- 
quired), turn off your computer, but leave the 
memory expander inserted. Now, turn your VIC 
back on and type POKE 44,30:POKE 
7680,0:NEW. Load MLX and type RUN, At the 
starting and ending address prompts, enter 4608 
and 7679, respectively. Next, type in Astro- 
PANIC! and save it. Turn off your computer, re- 
move the expansion cartridge, and then load the 
game with this format: LOAD "filename", 8,1 
(for disk) or LOAD "filename",l,l (for tape). To 
start, type SYS 6560. 

See program listing on page 130. • 



The ultimate reference book 

The complete encyclopedia for the Commodore VIC-20, is now available. COMPUTE! 
Books, one of the leading publishers of application-oriented consumer computer books, 
has released Programming the VIC by Raeto Collin West. And this extraordinary volume is 
only $24.95. 

Now you con own the definitive book on the VIC-20. There has never been a book 
published for the VIC-20 that gives you what this one does. 




Programming the VIC 

Raeto Coll[n West 

S24.95 

ISBN **09423e6-52-3 

608 pgs, 

paperbound 



Programming ttre ViC Includes: 

• Detailed descriptions of every BASIC 
command in the ViC's vocabulary 

• Discussions and examples of BASIC and 
machine language programming techniques 
Comprehensive guides to VIC sound and graphics 
A thorough mapping of the ViC-20'!; ROM 
An annotated iist of 6502 opcodes 

A practical guide to selecting and using 
printers, plotters, and modems 



Programming tt\e VIC's 1 7 chapters ad- 
dress virtually every programming situation 
that you, a VIC user, ore likely to en- 
counter. The book contains hundreds of 
examples and dozens of complete pro- 
grams published in ready-to-type-ln form, 

Beginning to advanced programmers 
alike will find Programming the VIC to be 
an indispensable VIC resource. Whatever 
your programming level and whatever 
your VIC needs, this is a book that you'll 
refer to again and again. 



Wail your prepaid coupon to; COMPUTEl Books, P.O. Sox 5406, 
Greensboro, NC 27403 or call 
YesI Send me . 



1 



. copies of Progranvnkig the VIC at S24.95 per copy. 



AH ord&(3 must 
be prepaid 
In U.S. tunds. 



Add S3.00 shipping & handling per book. . 
N.C. Residents add 4,5% sales tax. 

Total payment enclosed. S . 

D Payment enclosed (check or money order). 

D Charge my a Visa a MasterCard a American Express 

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COMPUTING 




or-f amilie s 



The World Of Mimi 
The Ant 



Fred D'Ignazio, Associate Editor 



What Is A "Fourml"? 

Recently I received a letter from Monique 
Gosselin of Logidisque in Montreal, Canada. 
Monique asked me to take a look at a program 
called Miiiii by Anne Bergeron. Mimi is an early- 
learning program for the Commodore 64 that 
Logidisque had just begun shipping. 

1 unpacked the program from the mailing 
wrapper, but when I saw the program's manual, 
I panicked. The manual was short enough^only 
eight pages — but it was written entirely in 
French, 

Luckily, my five-year-old son Eric was hang- 
ing around, and he spotted the cartoon on the 
front of the documentation. It looked like a little 
child playing a flute. Except that the child had 
antennas. 

"What's that?" Eric asked. 

"1 don't exactly know," I told Eric. "Except I 
don't think it's human." 



I looked at the directions. The program's title 
said, "MIMI: Les aventures de Mimi la fourmi." 

"Mimi's a 'fourmi,'" I told Eric. 

"What's a fourmi?" Eric asked. 

I knew he would ask that. "Just a second," I 
told him. 1 ran upstairs and dug a French-English 
dictionary out of my daughter's bookcase. I 
looked up "fourmi" and found that it was an 
"ant." 

A Visit To Mimi's World 

"C'mon," 1 told Eric, when I returned to the 
computer. "Let's take a look at Mimi." 

Eric and I booted the Mimi disk and entered 
Mimi's worid. 

Mimi's world was quite simple. At the lower 
lefthand side of the screen was Mimi's house. 
The house was cut away on the side so that we 
could see in. A pathway led from Mimi's house 
to a bridge over a tiny stream. Past the stream 




Day ("jour") 

60 COMPUTErs Gazetta April 19B5 



ami nigjit ("nuit") in Mimi's worid. 



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the path wound around a tree and out of the pic- 
ture. In the lower righthand part of the stream 
was a pond fed by the stream. 

The picture was simple, but it was well- 
drawn and had a charming, storybook character. 
Mimi, too, was appealing. She walked upright 
and was dressed in overalls and bare feet. Except 
for her antennas, she resembled a child more 
than an ant. 

Joining Mimi in her world were a worm (le 
ver), dancing snails (les escargots), a bee 
(I'abeille}, fireflies (les lucioles), and butterflies 
(les papillons). Since Eric and I couldn't under- 
stand the directions in the manual, we began 
randomly pressing keys on the Commodore. It 
didn't take us long to figure out that what we 
were watching was an animated, choreographed 
picture book accompanied by music. Each time 
we pressed a key, Mimi or her friends would do 
something different. 

At first Eric and I just experimented by 
pressing the different keys and watching what 
happened. Soon, however, we wanted to repeat 
certain keys, so 1 opened the manual and discov- 
ered a summary of the letter keys and their asso- 
ciated scenes and music. 

I had a smattering of French in college, and 
the descriptions were simple and brief, so 1 be- 
gan to understand a httle of what was going on. 
"Push N for nuit," I told Eric. Eric pressed the N 
key and the sun set, and the moon came up; it 
became "nuit." 

"Press J for jour," 1 said to Eric. He pressed J 
and the moon set, and the sun rose. Once again 
it was "jour." 

About that time something magical began 
happening. Eric and I had traveled into many 
different microworlds inside the computer, but 
somehow entering Mimi's worid was different. 
Maybe it was because the "keys" to the world 
were all in French, and they seemed romantic 
and mysterious. 

Or maybe it was the music, which was 
unlike anything we had heard on the Com- 
modore 64. It was simple but very fresh and 
uplifting— something that 1 associated with a 
good movie or video animation for children. 
Along with familiar songs like "Happy Birthday" 
("Bonne Fete") and "Frere Jacques," there were 
many new songs like "Poire, Poire," "Abricot," 
"Dame Tartine," and "Roi Dagobert," and 
"Extrait de la Sonate no. 1 de J. S. Bach." Later, I 
learned that the songs were a mixture of popular 
French nursery rhymes, folk songs, and classical 
melodies. 

Perhaps the most entrancing part of the pro- 
gram was its seeming ignorance of the heated 
debate about children's software. Almost all the 
educational software my children and 1 had seen 

62 COMPUrSis GazBtta April 1985 



was either game-oriented, drill and practice, or a 
"tool kit" or "builder kit," But Mimi wasn't any 
of these things. There was no sense of Mimi or 
her world being mechanically contrived to "moti- 
vate" or "educate" a child. Instead, Mimi and 
her world simply existed. And by being natural 
(like the characters and scenes in a good movie 
or picture book), they beckoned Eric and me to 
believe in them and to enter their world, 

Perhaps the most magical scene in the pro- 
gram is when the child presses the R key for reve 
(dream) after pressing the N key for nuit (night). 
Mimi walks over to her bed, lies down, and goes 
to sleep in her darkened house. Then Mimi's 
dream begins and a "dream Mimi" floats out of 
bed, up through the ceiling of her house, and up 
into the sky. Mimi lands on the crescent moon 
and swings while the computer plays "Ah! vous 
dirais-je Maman" ("Twinkle Twinkle, Little 
Star"). Then, the dream Mimi goes back into her 
body, and the dream ends. 

Learning French With Mimi 

When Eric pressed B, Mimi took a baignade 
(bath) in the pond. When he pressed D, Mimi 
did a danse (dance) on the bridge with the little 
ver (worm). While the ant and the worm danced, 
the computer played the familiar French tune, 
"Sur le pont d'Avignon." 

In each case, the letter Eric pressed corre- 
sponded to the first letter of a French word. As 
Eric and I played the game, we began talking 
more and more in French. I began reading the 
French directions in the manual out loud, and we 
began referring to the scenes by their French 
names: Miel (honey), Violettes (violets), and 
s'Habille (Mimi gets dressed). 

Some of the letters — and scenes — only work 
in daytime or nighttime, and if Eric tried to do 
them without pressing the J (jour) or N (nuit) key 
first, 1 would get excited and shout, "No, jour!" 
or "Nuit!" The crazy thing is that Eric under- 
stood me and made Mimi's world turn into day 
or night. 

Eric's two favorite scenes were Mimi's dream 
(le reve) and when the Httle worm sneaks into 
Mimi's house and hides (se cache) in Mimi's 
closet. Eric would press Q to make the worm (le 
ver) hide, and U to make the mischievous little 
fellow pop out of the closet and surprise Mimi. 

The Mimi Storybook 

After a week of playing Mimi daily, Eric and I fi- 
nally discovered that by pressing the + and — 
keys, we could speed up and slow down the 
scenes. This produced some humorous effects 
and revived Eric's interest in several of the 
scenes. 




/ 



with 



If., i ^} _ii;,'''?' -^'»-'f~ :■ 







gs- 



W'^'i^%^44^ 





Anne Bergeron, seated between 
two admirers, and her brother, 
Eric Bergeron. 



A couple days later, Eric was fiddling around 
with the Commodore 64 keyboard, and he stum- 
bled into a menu with four activities. After 
experimenting, we found that Memoire Courte 
(Short Memory) would let us create a Mimi 
"story" by letting us record a sequence of two 
scenes in the computer's memory. Memoire Lon- 
gue (Long Memory) let us create an ambitious 
Mimi story with up to ten scenes. When we 
chose Retour a Mimi, the computer returned us 
to Mimi's world. When we pressed the i7 key, 
the computer started the story. (We learned we 
could stop the story by pressing the f5 key.) 

To actually create a story we had to choose 
the Enregistrement (Recording) option. Then we 
reached a second menu. By making choices from 
this menu, we found we could press several let- 
ter keys and compose a new story, or press the 
cursor keys and the DEL key and edit an existing 
story. We could attach speeds to each scene in 
the story by pressing the + (speed up) or — 
(slow down) key. 

A Conversation With Mimi's 
Author 

1 had the opportunity to have lunch with Anne 
Bergeron, the author of Mimi, while I was in 
Montreal as a speaker at the second international 
"Computers in Education" conference sponsored 
by McGill University. 1 bumped into Monique 
Gosselin of Logidisque and she arranged for 
me to interview Anne over lunch the following 
day. 

Bergeron turned out to be just as fascinating 
as Mimi. She was a mother, a mathematician, 
and a programmer. She told me that she had 

64 COMPUTEI's Gazene April 1985 



bought a Commodore 64 only two years earlier 
as a gift to herself for Christmas. 

The computer was supposed to be her toy, 
but as soon as she sat down at it, her 18-month- 
old daughter Aleck wanted to climb in her lap 
and bang on the keys. Anne let Aleck bang, and 
she also began searching for a program that 
would be appropriate for Aleck to use. After fail- 
ing to find anything worthwhile, she gave up the 
search and set out to write a program of her 
own. 

During the day, Anne worked as a math- 
ematician, and her daughter went to day care. At 
the end of the day, Anne would pick up Aleck 
and her three-year-old niece Anouk, and they 
would go home. She worked with Aleck and 
Anouk at least a half hour every night, asking 
them what they would like to do on the com- 
puter and letting them test different children's 
programs she was writing. 

When Anne began writing Mimi, she knew 
nothing about programming, and she didn't 
know English. She soon gave up on program- 
ming manuals, and began reading COMPUTE! to 
learn how to program. Less than a month later, 
she grew frustrated with how slowly her pro- 
grams ran in BASIC and she began learning ma- 
chine language. 

Over the next six months, Mimi began to 
take shape. Anne hstened carefully to her daugh- 
ter and her niece's suggestions, and watched 
them play with Mimi. At lunch she told me, 
"They had lots to say. Sometimes just one ques- 
tion presented me with a whole week of new 
programming." 

The kids' questions and suggestions contin- 
ued, but after six months Anne was finished — 



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except for the music. "I knew nothing about 
music," Anne said. "But my brother Eric did," 

Anne enlisted her 16-year-old brother's help, 
and they tracked down 26 songs that they could 
match with the 26 letter keys on the computer 
keyboard. Eric arranged all the songs, and he and 
Anne programmed them in machine language. 

A New Miml 

Last summer Ml mi competed along with 300 
other programs from all over the world and won 
a special prize at the Avignon International Soft- 
ware Festival. Anne and Eric went over to the 
SICOB Trade Show in Paris in September and 
accepted the prize in Mimi's honor. 

Mi mi's success led Anne to start working on 
Mmii Two, which she says may be published 
very soon. Working with Anne on the new Mimi 
program is Pierre F. Brault, the composer and 
musician who creates the music for Canada's ac- 
claimed "Passe-Partout" TV program for young 
children. According to Anne, "Passe-Partout" is 
Aleck's favorite program. It's the French equiva- 
lent of Sesame Street. Pierre is composing all 
original computer music for Mimi Two, and the 
program will begin with a song entitled "The 
Mimi Symphony." 

The Inner Mimi 

Part of the magic of Mimi is the program's 
gentleness and accessibility, even to a very 
young child. According to Anne, "hi Mimi, there 
is no concept of right or wrong answers. Every- 
thing a child does is constructive." 

Anne says she started out thinking of Mi'mi 
as a book. "Each scene is like the page in a 
book," she said. "But then 1 saw that it was more 
than a book. In Mimi, you can mix up the pages. 
You can make up your own books." 

Anne continued; "Actually, Mimi is a little 
film. When I watched TV with Aleck, she always 
wanted me to reverse the show, so she could 
understand it. But she can do that with Mimi. 
She can slow Mi mi down. And she can play 
Mimi over and over until she understands each 
scene." 

I asked Anne how Aleck and her cousin 
Anouk used Mimi. She said that, despite appear- 
ances. Mi mi was not software for learning letters; 
that was a side effect. 

"Mimi is there for discussion," said Anne. 
"The child needs someone there to talk to and 
discuss what happens when she presses a certain 
key. 

"Little children can use Mi'mi to learn how to 
talk, sing, dance, construct a story, and impress 
friends." 

"Impress friends?" I asked. 

ee COMPUWs Gazmie April 1985 



"Aleck is only three and a half," said Anne, 
"but she is an expert on Mimi. When a big kid 
(someone 5 or 6) comes over, Aleck is the 
teacher. She announces a Mimi scene before it 
happens, and she feels important. 'Look at what 
Mimi can do!' she says." 

"Will Mimi Two be Uke Mimi One?" I asked. 

"Now that I am done, Mimi One looks 
easy," Anne says. "Miini Two will be much bet- 
ter. It will be baroque — each time children look 
at it they will see something new and delightful. 
There will be a Mimi disco that encourages chil- 
dren to dance with their friends. And there will 
be all sorts of guessing games for Mimi and the 
children to invent." 

An English Mimi, Too 

Mimi runs on the Commodore 64 computer with 
a disk drive. It now comes in English as well as 
French (though I would still recommend the 
French version). Each version costs $34.95. 

To order Mimi or to find put more infor- 
mation, contact: 

Logidis(]ue Inc. 

C.P. 485 Succ. Place D'Armes 

Montreal, Quebec 

Canada H2Y 3H3 

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Your arithmetic skills may just steer a 
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multiplication and division. For the VIC 
or 64. 



In "Number Quest," you're given five chances to 
guess a number between 10 and 100. For each 
incorrect guess, you're given a "hint." 

This hint can be a number indicating how 
many times greater or smaller the answer is. For 
example, if the correct number is 75 and you 
guess 15, the computer responds 5 TIMES TOO 
LOW. But if your guess is less than two times 
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you see a skydiver descend safely to the ground. 
But if your quest is unsuccessful, the skydiver 
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The hints offered in Number Quest make it 
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table. 

Numbers 1 and 2 are illegal guesses — many 
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turn. If 1 or 2 is entered, the computer responds 
with THAT'S TOO EASY! 

If you wish to modify the number of guesses 
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and the value for TN (6) in line 500. The 6 in 
this statement indicates that TN (for Turn) has 
gone over 5. In the VIC version, change the 5 in 
line 170 and the value for TN in line 380. 
See program listings on page 138. 




A correct guess allows the parachutist to descend on the 
landing pad instead of in the drink (VIC version). 



The clues in "Number Quest" teach children math 
concepts (64 version). Qg 

COMPUTBs Guette April 1985 67 



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HINTS&TIPS 



Programmer's Notebook 



Paul Barnes 



If you've discovered a clever timesaving 
technique or a brief but effective program- 
ming shortcut, send it to "Hints & Tips," 
c/o COMPUTES's GAZETTE. If we use it, we'll 
pay you $35. Due to the volume of items 
submitted, we regret that we cannot al- 
ways reply individually to submissions. 



When you're programming, it's helpful to keep 
reference materials close at hand — books, mem- 
ory maps, copies of computer magazines, a Ust of 
CHR$ values, the Programmer's Reference 
Guide, and so on. Ironically, some of the most 
creative and logical programmers work in the 
midst of chaos. They may discover a useful 
POKE and u'rite it down on a scrap of paper. But 
two days later, the note is buried somewhere in a 
pile of books, magazines, and other notes. "I 
know it's here somewhere." Sound familiar? 

A three-ring notebook can eliminate some of 
the mess. Whenever you find a new technique or 
programming shortcut, write it down in the note- 
book. You can also jot down ideas for modifica- 
tions and improvements to programs you've 
written. 

Here are a few techniques I've collected; 
they'll get you started on your own Pro- 
grammer's Notebook. With the exception of 64 
Emergency Joystick, all the following programs 
work on both the VIC and 64. 

A One-Line GET 

When you want the user to choose something 
from a menu, you wait for them to press a key 
and then continue. The most common way is to 
GET a character: 



100 
110 



GET A?: IF A$= 
IF A?="Y" THEN 



'" THEN 
500 



100 



An easier way is to use the WAIT statement. 
Location 198 keeps track of how many characters 
are in the keyboard buffer. So replace the two 
lines above with one: 

100 WAIT 198,1: GET A$ : IF A$="Y" THEN 50 


What's The SYS? 

Have you ever forgotten the starting or ending 
address of a machine language program? There's 
a way to figure out where an ML program loads 
into memory. 

If you're working with a Datassette, position 
the tape so the next program is the one you want 
to check. Then, in immediate mode, type 
OPENl:CLOSEl. Opening a program or data file 
copies the program header into the cassette 
buffer. And the header contains information 
about where the program should be loaded. 
Next, type PRINTPEEK<829) + 256*PEEK(830) to 
get the starting address and PRINTPEEK(831) 
-l-256*PEEK(832) for the ending address. 

The first two bytes in a disk program file in- 
dicate the starting address. Disk users can enter 
the following program to read these two 
numbers: 

10 OPEN 2,8,2, "PROGRAM NAME" 

20 GET #2,A$,B$! Z$=CHR$(0): CL0SE2 

30 PRINT ASC(A5+Z?)+256*ASC(B$+Z$) 

Now you have the starting address. To find 
the ending address, LOAD"filename" ,8,1 and 
then PRINTPEEK(45) + 256*PEEK(46). 

Automatic LOAD And RUN 

If you don't specify a device number (a disk 
drive is device 8) when you load or save on a 
Commodore computer, it defaults to tape. 

SHIFT-RUN/STOP automatically loads and 
runs the next program on tape. Apparently you 
can't use this feature if you have a disk drive. 



70 COMPUTE! s GazettB April 1985 



COMPUTE! Books brings you the companion volume to the best 
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But you can; try this: 

LOAD "fihnam^',%: 

Make sure you put the colon just past the 8. 
And don't press RETURN. While the cursor is 
blinking to the right of the colon, hold down the 
SHIFT key and tap RUN/STOP. The word 
LOAD appears and the program loads from disk. 
Once it's in memory, it automatically runs. 

Also, if you don't like typing long program 
names, you can load them right from the disk 
directory. LOAD"$",8 and then LIST to see the 
directory. When the program name appears on 
the screen, pre ji.s RUN /STO P. Cursor up to the 
beginning of the line with the program name and 
type LOAD . Then cursor righ^-^st past the sec- 
ond qjjo'fation mark and tv pe\8:J again, be sure 
to include t he colon) . Press Rb'l"URN and the 
program loa~ds. And you didn't have to type the 
program name. 

Undimenslonmg Anays 

Arrays can take up a lot of memory. By changing 
the array pointer, you can clear the array space 
without affecting other variables. Try this 
program: 

10 DIM A{100) 

20 POKE 49, PEEK (47): POKE 50, PEEK ( 4fi ) 

30 DIM A(10) 

Without line 20, line 30 would return a 
REDIM'D ARRAY ERROR. A couple of POKEs is 
all you need to erase all arrays, freeing up mem- 
ory (or allowing you to redefine and redimension 
arrays). 

IFTHEN-ELSE 

On an IBM PC, vou can use lines like 10 IF A = 5 
THEN PRINT A' ELSE PRINT "NOT 5" where 
ELSE works like an "otherwise." IF-THEN-HLSE 
is not available on the VIC or 64. Or is it? 

Normally, if the condition is not true^ the 
computer drops through to the next line. Using 
ON-GOTO instead of IF-THEN, you can simu- 
late ELSE and stay on the same line. 

10 FDR A=l TO 6 

20 ON - {A=5) GOTO 30: PRINT "NOT 5— ELSE 

" :G0T0 40 
30 PRINT A 
40 NEXT 

The statement (A = 5) is evaluated as if it's 
false, and as —1 if it's true, [f A = 5 is true, the 
program goes to 30. Otherwise, it continues to 
the statement after the colon, rather than falling 
through to the next line. 

Blinking Cursor For GET 

If you prefer GET to INPUT, but want to see the 

72 COMPUTErs GBzelto April 1985 



cursor blinking, here are a couple of POKEs that 
do the job: 

10 POKE 204,0! WAIT 198,1: GET A$ 
20 POKE 205,3: V^TAIT 207,1 
30 PRINT A$;: GOTO 10 

Line 10 turns on the blinking cursor and 
waits for a keypress. After the user presses a key, 
line 20 waits until the cursor is off (to avoid 
reverse characters). The character is then printed 
to the screen and the program goes back to line 10. 

64 Emergency Joystick 

You may have left your only joystick at a friend's 
house. Or perhaps it broke when you were 
defending the planet from nasty aHens. If you 
need an emergency substitute for the joystick, try 
using these keyboard equivalents: 



Direction 

down 

up 

left 
right 

fire 



Joystick #1 

back arrow 

1 

CTRL 

2 
space 



Joystick #2 

CTRL-A 
CTRMCRSR RIGHT) 
CTRL-D 
CTRL-6 
CTRL-J 



It seems a bit awkward at first, but you do 
get used to it. This technique works because the 
keyboard and joystick share some input lines. 
This is convenient when you need to simulate 
joystick movement, but it can cause problems. If 
static electricity sparks against the joystick port 
when you reach to turn on your 64, you may zap 
the chip that reads the keyboard. The only way 
to repair it is to replace the chip. 

PRINT@ 

Two memory locations keep track of the cursor 
location in X and Y coordinates. The number in 
211 is the column number. Location 214 holds 
the row number. You can PEEK these locations 
to find out the screen position of the cursor. Or 
POKE to these locations to simulate the PRINT@ 
command available in some versions of BASIC. 

10 PRINT CHR? (147) 

20 POKE 214,9: PRINT 

30 POKE 211,19: PRINT"LINE U, COI.UMN 20" 

First the screen is cleared. Next, in line 20, 
we put the cursor at Hne 10 (the top line is num- 
ber zero, so nine is actually the tenth screen 
line). Every time you POKE 214, you must 
PRINT a blank line for the message to work cor- 
rectly. We're now a line further down, on row 
eleven. Finally, the cursor goes to the twentieth 
position and a message is printed. 

These tips are helpful, but they're not much 
good if you can't find them when you want to 
put them to use. A Programmer's Notebook is a 
handy way to keep track of useful techniques. QB 



SUPER PRINTER 
PACKAGES 

Gemini lOX tmd 

Cordco + G 323 

P rewrite r and 

Cordco + G 389 

Panasonic 109 and 

Cordco G + 364 

Panasonic 1090 and 

Cordco G+ 295 

Legend S80 ond 
Cordco G+ 309 



Ko addltlonol stilpplng 
chorges on Printer Pock- 
ages in Contlnentol USA 



PRINTERS 

Epson 

Silver Reed 

Proiw liter 8510 . . 

Rifeman 

Toshiba 1351 . . . 
Toshlbol340,.. 
Axiom -CM -550 
Legend 880 . , . 
Panasonic 1090. 
Panosonic 1091 . 



.Call 
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309 
,289 
.Call 
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279 
239 
.219 
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COMMODORE64f 



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tiome wtrti p.e. The Forty 
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and the CBM 64 49.95 



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Gemini 15X 
Delta lOX . 
Delta 15X. 
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629 

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Turboprint GT 69.96 

Connscflon Call 



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Special Package 
G4 System Price 



CBM 64 Calf 

1S41 Disk Dilve . Call 
1530 Datasette. .66 
1702 Motiltoi . . Call 



MODEMS 

HoyesSmartModsmJOOCttll 
Mork VII /Auto Ana/ 

Auto DIol CjII 

MaiV XII / 1700 B<liill.. .Cull 
WestrMija AA/AD . 7495 

Tolol tW Modem 6995 

MlgOFf Mo 74.95 



COMMODORE 
MODEM SPECIAL 

Westrldge Modem + 
VIP Termlnol....ll9 

Total Modem + 
VIP Terminal.. ..115 

Mighty Mo -^ 
VIP Terminal.... 119 



Animotion Station 
Touch ToWei.. , .59.95 



W 



i 



ACCESS 

Neutral Zona-D/1 23.95 

Sprttonraster-D/r. 23.95 

aMcnhmd-O/T 23.95 

Mosior Composer- D. . .27,95 
Rold Over Hi]«c(w-D/I27,95 
Scrolls 01 Abodon-D/T 23.95 
ACCESSORIES 

WICO Joystlcli Goll 

FUpn'Flia-D.. 20.95 

Flip -n' File Cort 20.95 

Joyssnsoi 24 9S 

WICO Irakball 37.95 

EIS CompuServe KB , , , 64.95 
VIDTEX 29 95 

Gemini "loy SK uparaoe , Con 

Monlrors Call 

CompuServe SUiler . . . 27.95 

TAG III jQVsHck M.95 

U^Prlnt [>rtniter aifflsr 

16K, 32K 01 64K Coll 

DusJ Covers Con 

Compermon Pro Jpysrfcli Coll 

Giti Ceitincoies Con 

ACTIVISIOH 
Stor Loogue 

Boseboll-D/r 23,95 

On -Field Tennis -D/T, 23,95 

Space Stiuttle-0 24,95 

On -Field Foutliall-D... 23.95 
Daslflner's Pencil - D .. . 24.95 

6t)OS!liiJSiers-D 29,95 

AVALON HILL 
CoU tor iiems ond Prices 
BATTERIES INCLUDED 
Super Busscord II Call 

Homo Inventonr - D , 23.95 

R»d|>e-D 2395 

AuOW/VKJeo Col -0. 23.95 

MoiiUst.D 2395 

SromjB-D 23.85 

ei BO Cord Coll 

HomaPok-D 3795 

Col-Kit Coll 

BRODERBUtfD 
Bank Stroetwnter-D.. 34.95 
Op«iotlanW(ilr1wlml-0 27.95 
MosKottno Sun -0... 27.95 

Dr. Crwp'D 20.95 

Gumt>oil-D 2095 

BunaeUng Boy-D 20.65 

Spelunker . D 20.95 

StMirti-D 2095 

WhIslieriBromor-D. 2095 
Ctu]inpk>nstilp 

Lodemnner-D 2395 

Pitnr Stiop-D 3495 

Serpmrs Stor-D 2755 

Koieiko-D 20.95 

car[k;d 

CarOpnnr/S 47.95 

cordco + Q G9.9S 

CordUoorO/S 59,95 

Cardksy 39,95 

Cass«ne Recorder , . . , 37 95 



CARDCO (com) 
PftnlBf Ulinty-D/T . 19.95 
Write Now-Cod... 34.95 

Moll Nowi-D 29.95 

HleNow-D 29.95 

Gropti Now -D,,.. 29.95 

Spell Now-D 29,95 

Cole Now -D 29.95 

Super Disk Utillly-D .... 
69.95 
CBS SOFTWARE 
Con ![;f \U:!r', ond Prices 
COMKOBORE 

AssemDier-D 3995 

Easy Finance I, II, 

III, iv-0 19,95 

Eosy Cote-O 34.95 

EosyMoll-D 19.95 

Eosy Scnpr-0 44.95 

Easy Spell -0 1995 

Logo-D 49.95 

Tt5e Monofler -0 34.95 

Gsneral Ledgsr-D 34 is 

Accts, Rec,-0 34B5 

Accis.Poy,-0 34.95 

WOQlo Desk -Cod 39.95 

Ini, Soccer -Cort 22.85 

Mcgio Voice 54.95 

Suspoct-D 24.95 

Cunnroats-0 24.95 

Simon's Bosic -Con Coll 

Inventory Man-D 34,95 

Super Eiponder Cod 2995 

Just Imootne-O 24.95 

MIcro-llluarotor-D .... 21.95 
Micro. Asitoioger-D, . , 2195 

Ctwss-O 21.85 

Poiif Sp««dM»-D .... 21.95 

Huli.D 21.95 

Spsaeinvon-D .21:95 

I3ATAS0FT 
Conon/BortMrkin- D/T 27.95 

BfucB Lee-D/r 27.95 

LostTomO-D/1 23 95 

Mr Do-on 27,95 

Dig Dug- D 20.95 

PtJe Position -D 20.95 

Pocmon-D 20,95 

DISKETTES 

Dyson 

Vertjotim Coll 

Cflrtron For 

Eieptionr 10 Pok 

Moxell And 

Mwnonw QuonWy 

JIM-WqehwiIcs Pricing 

BASF , 

V.'aCasn 

D-Qlik r-Catullt 
Csrf-Carirltfge 



DYNATECH 

Adventure Wrrter -0 41,95 

Codewrter-D 6995 

OkJiog-D 41,95 

EltSystem-D 41,95 

HomoRleWmsr-O ,,.41.95 

Reportwrller-D 41.95 

Menuv;(r)tBr-D 34.95 

Speedwrltct - D 49.95 

ELECTRONIC ARTS 

Archon-D 29.95 

PinboU Consmicnon-0. 29.95 

M.U.LE..0 2995 

Murder /Zlndeineut-D 2995 

One On One-D 2995 

A(cnonll-D 2995 

Financial Cookbook -D . 37.95 
Music Carstructkin-D . 29.95 
7CitlesOtGoM-D..,.2995 
Sronding Srones-D.. .29.95 
Mall Order Morsrer-D . 2995 
AOvenrure Construciton 

kti-D 37,95 

Rocing Destruction 

kll-B 29,95 

EPVX 

Orogons/ Pern -D/T, , ,27,95 

Pltsropll-D 27.95 

Robots ot Down-D. . . .2795 

Summer Gomes 27.95 

Impossiblo Mission -D . 23.95 
World's Greatest 

Boseboll-D 23.95 

FostLooO-Con 27.95 

Scrooble-D 2795 

FIRST STAR 

Con lor Items ond Pnc«s 

HANDIC 

64 Form -Cart 2995 

64 Grot-Con 2395 

Srot64.Can. ,. 23 95 
Calc Result Eosy -Can. 34.95 
Colo KesultAO^.-Cort.. 69.95 

Thi Dkiry-Can 23.95 

tne Tool-Cart 29.95 

Bdilge Cort 29.95 

HESWARE 

Meswora Coll 

INSTA (CtMMARON) 

Insia-Wnier-Cort 34,95 

tnsto-Mall-0 2795 

Insto-File-D 44 95 

Matxigement Combo , ,C9.95 
tnsto -Cole- Cort/O,,, 34.95 

Insta-Gropli-D 24.96 

Insto-Vestor-D 29.95 

tnsto-SpeeO-0 64.95 

Invest Combo 64.95 

vyofdCron.O 44.95 

Insw -Ledger -0 Con 



INFOCOH 

Deofllino-O 29.95 

Encnonter-0, 2395 

intlttBl-O 29.95 

Plonettoll.D 24.95 

Sorcerer-D 29.95 

Starcross-D 29.95 

Suspondod-0 29.95 

Wlmoss.D 29.95 

Seo Stolket-D 24.95 

Zork I, II. or lll.D 27.95 

KOAU 

Gibson Llgrti Pen 69.95 

Kocki Touch IablBt-D.69.95 

KooK) Toucn Tobiet.C . 74.95 

Mupper Learn Keys -D, 54.9 5 

MICRORJN 

Coll to* ttems ono Prices 

MICROPROSE 

Fkjyd/ Jungle -0 23.95 

Hellcat Ace-D/T 23.95 

NATO Commonder-0 . 23.95 

SoloFtaht-D/I 23.95 

SplttlteAcs.D/T ,..,23,95 

Air Rescue -D/T 2395 

Ctiollenger.D/T 2395 

F.15 StnkBEoglB-D... 23.95 

MINDSCAPE 

Coll tor Items and Prices 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Quick Brrrwn 

Foi.D/Con 34.95 

Uirlmo lll.D 41.95 

Flight Slmulotor II -0... 3795 
Nignt Mission / 

Pinbal|.D/T 20,95 

Home Accoontom-D 49.95 

Boirons Sot.-O 67.95 

Teresior 64.Cart 3795 

Cosno WoBenstein.D. .2095 

Mosiertype.D 2795 

Ailec-0 27.95 

Miner 2049er. Con.... 27.95 

Strip Pa*ei-D 23.95 

Astro Cnose -D/T .... 20.95 

Flip Flop-D/r 20.96 

Bejand WoKensleIn - D . 23.96 

Som.O 41,95 

Mao Assembler. D,,,, 49,95 

J uplier Mission -D 3495 

Borron-D 37.95 

Tycoon - D 37.95 

Millionaire -D 27.95 

kwik. Load. D........ 16,95 

Sorgonlll-D 34,95 

BnicsLeeD/r 23.95 

Mongopler-D 27.95 

Meridian lll.D 27.95 

MostentigTIie Sat -□. 104.95 
HesFortn.Con 31.95 



MISCELLANEOUS 

Pogo Jo«-0/r 2035 

MovtaMoker.D 3295 

Typing Tutor III- 34.95' 

Space Toxl- 20.95 

VIp Termlnol , 41,95 

Doodle-D, 27.95 

Supeitose -640 09.95 

Indlono Jones-D 23.95 

Ultima IV-B 4195 

Advonfure Mostsr - D . . . 34.95 
Adventure Wrirer.D.. .4195 

Codewiltet ■ D 69.95 

Spy vs Spy-D 2395 

DMin/Conbbean-D . . 27.95 

Boulder DosTi-O 27.95 

IllaHBiSI-D 2395 

Moff aruriios Reveoge • 29 95 

Gytus-Can 3495 

Spy Hunter-O 29.95 

Topper -0 2995 

Ultimo ll-D 4195 

BlueMox-D/T 23.95 

Reto-0 79 95 

Zoxxon-D/T 2795 

Koolo- Printer -D 19.95 

Frogger.D/l 23.95 

Gel lilct) Series -D ...34.95 

Strip Poker-D 23.95 

Micro -Leogue 

Basaboll-D 29.95 

HomePok-D 37.95 

Movie MakW-D 37.95 

PARKER BROTHERS 
Coll tor liems ond Phcas 
SCARBOROUGH 
MostertypoD/Can. . ,2795 

NetWorm-D .54.95 

SonjwrtrerD 2795 

Run to( me Money- D. .27.95 
Figures and Fomiuias -D 20.95 

Wnting Wizata-O 49.95 

SCHOLASTIC 

Co!l tor Items and Prices 

SCREENPLAY 

CaEI tor Items ond Prices 

SEGA 

Coll tor Items ana Prices 

SIERRA ON-UNE 

Coll tor Items ond Prices 

SPIKNAKER 

Adventure Creotor - Con . 22.95 

Aerobics . D . 27.95 

Af In ttM Cony Cov«s-C 2Z95 

Alpnobet Zoo- Cort ...22.95 

D eno Drowi ng ■ Con , , 22. 95 

Fccemoker-Cort 22.95 

Froctun Fmer-Cort . . 22.95 
KI<15 cn Keys. Cod .2295 



SPINNAKER (cent ) 

Kldwiter-D 22,95 

Snooper 1-D 2295 

Snooper "2-0 22,95 

Slory Machine -Cort , , ,22,95 

Trolns-D 22.95 

Grondmo's House -D . . 19.95 
SSI 

50MNHonCrusn-D...27,95 
Botrie/Normandy-D/T 27.95 
Combot looOet.D/T , . 27.95 
Computer Bosoboll-D 27.96 
Cosmic Bolonra -D .... 27.95 

Eoflles-D 27.95 

Fomess-0 23 95 

Germorry 1965-0 4195 

knIght/Oesaft- D/T... 2795 
Protesskinol Goll-D 2795 

RF019SS-D 2395 

Ringside S«at-D 27.95 

Tigers In ihe Snow- D.. 27.95 

BoltlcBS-D 2395 

Broodsldes-0 27.95 

Questron-D 2795 

Con^puter Quortntiadt - D 27.95 

flold o(Flre-D 27,95 

Cottier Force. D 4195 

BrBoklhmjgh/Anlainas-D 4195 

President- Elect- D 27.95 

SYNAPSE 

Coll tor Items ond Prices 

TIMEWORKS 

Accounts Poyobie/ 

Checkwrtter-D 4195 

Accounts Receivoble/ 

Invoice -D 41.95 

Cosh Flew 

Monagemeni . D ..... 41.95 
Doto Manoger 2-D .. 3495 
Doln Manoger D/T . . . 19.95 

DIetion.O/T 1995 

Dungeon Algebro 

Drogon-D/T 19.95 

Electronic 

Cneckbook-D/T.... 19.95 

Genetal Ledger-D 41.95 

Irrffiiiioty Management -D 41.95 
Monm Manager - D /T . . 19.95 
Payroll tdonogement-D 41,95 

Evelyn Woods - □ 49.95 

TRILUUM 

Amazon. D 2295 

Orogonwond-D 22.95 

Forentiett451-D 2295 

Rendemiui w/Romo 22.95 

Shodowkeep-D 2295 

WAV^ORM 

Coll tot ttems end Prices 

WINDKAM CLASSICS 

Coll for ttems end Pttces 



Fof Technical Inlrj, Ordsr 
Inquiries, or for Wise, Orders . 



*^* j8^^^ 



KundTBds ot tletns 
To Order Call Toll Free inquiriea, or for wise, Ordors . available (or the 

800 ■ 558 - 0003 41 4 - 351 ■ 2007 ''" '' '""'"'' "" 



^•4^ 






c 



j£ompai(^6i/it^ 



% 



'(p], 



%. 



>g" I 



'<>^. 



Est. 1982 



ORDERING INFORMATION. Please specity system. For fast delivery send cashier's ctieck, money orderordirecttianK transfers. Personal 
and comoaay checks allovi 2 weeks to clear Cnarges loi COD are KS.OO, School Purchase Orders welcome. In eONTINENTAL USA, in. 
elude S3,00 stiipping per sottware otder. Include 3*/c shipping on all Hardware orders, nnlnlmum $3.00. Maslercard & Visa please Include 
card » and expiration date. Wl residents pieass add 5% sales lai. HI, AK, FPO. APO, Canadian orders — add 5% shipping, mmrmum S5 00. 
All other foreign orders, please add 15Va shipping, minitnum £10.00. All goods are now and include factory v^arranty. Due irjour low prices, 
ail sales are final. An defoclivo returns must havo b relurriaulhorlzallon numbet. Please call 414.351-2007 lo obtain an f^M ot your iolutn 
will NOT be accepted lor leplaconneni or repair. Prices and avaliaBllily are subject lo change without notice. 



COtyiPUTABiLity 
p.r;. Boi i7saj 

f^ilft-sukee Wl 53Z17 

"order lines open 

MoiiFn n Al^ ■ 7 PM CST 
S.1t 12 PM , 5 PU est 



REVIEWS 



Dream House 

Several years ago, I started a 
doll house kit. I laboriously laid 
out all the wood parts and fol- 
lowed instructions to build the 
doll house. Although 1 enjoyed 
working on it, I never com- 
pleted the project. We've moved 
several times since then, and 
each time I've had to carefully 
hand carry that doll house. 

Dream House, developed by 
Joyce Hakansson Associates for 
CBS Software, is a less bulky 
way to build a house — either a 
doll house or your own "real" 
house. 

You can be an architect, a 
landscaper, and an interior de- 
signer. Four basic styles of 
houses are included: the Colo- 
nial Farmhouse, the San Fran- 
cisco Victorian, the Manhattan 
Penthouse, and the Hideaway 
Cottage. Choose one of these 
basic houses, or start with one 
of the houses and customize it. 
Each of the houses has a floor 
plan you can view, then you 
can go into the individual rooms 
to paint and decorate. 

You can choose indoor and 
outdoor furnishings, landscape 
the yard, and put furniture in- 
side. You can even use the 
workshop to build your own 
furniture. Several of the objects 
are animated. For example, 1 put 
a birdcage in one living room 
scene, pressed the animation 
option, and a bird started 
swinging and chirping. 

The introductory music is 
fun, and the graphics are su- 
perb. The strength of this pro- 
gram, however, is its 

74 COMPUTEVs Gazette April 1965 




the feeling of creative 
accomplishment. 



— C Regena 



educational value. Children can 
iearn to read a floor plan and 
relate that floor plan to the dif- 
ferent perspectives of the house. 
They can have fun with color in 
designing, and they can manip- 
ulate the objects within a design 
plan. 

The manual ("Designer's 
Guide") is well-written and easy 
to understand. It contains step- 
by-step examples you can fol- 
low before designing your own 
house. After completion, you 
can save the interior or exterior 
(or both) from those screens. 
Later you can load your design 
to continue work on it. 

Dream House is recom- 
mended for ages eight and up. 
There's a wide variety of shapes 
and options available to keep 
children interested. With 
computer-aided design, you can 
be creative without a lot of has- 
sle. The manual suggests several 
activities for using the program 
with several people, such as 
building cooperatively and dis- 
cussing different approaches or 
playing hide-and-seek by using 
different colored paints. This 
program can provide many 
hours of fun, enjoyment, and 



CBS Software 
One Fawcctt Place 
Greemvich, CT 06856 
$39.95 (disk) 



Sargon III 

This sequel to the popular Sar- 
gon U chess program is an even 
tougher opponent and adds a 
smorgasbord of features. 

Select from nine levels of 
difflculty with an average re- 
sponse time ranging from Ave 
seconds per move on level 1 to 
ten minutes per move on level 
8. On level 9, the computer 
keeps thinking until you stop it, 
at which point it plays the best 
move it has found. On any 
level, the computer condnues to 
think while it's waiting for your 
move, thus strengthening the 
computer's play. This feature 
can be turned off by selecting 
Easy Mode, effectively doubling 
the number of levels. 

During the opening, the 
computer plays "book" moves 
based on a huge library of over 
68,000 positions. An opening li- 
brary that size is usually found 
only on mainframe computers. 

Additional features make 
Sargon III more friendly than its 
predecessor. You can take back 
moves, set up any position, 
change sides with the computer, 
review all the moves of the cur- 
rent game from the beginning, 
save a game to disk, print out 
the move list or current posi- 
tion, and even ask the computer 



f.'.'^' !'-> 





COMPUTEI'S 

DATA 

FILE 

HANDLER 

"1 tor Ifv9 CommwaoH) M 








,, Comme ,^ _ . 

J; Standag©,'^3b1in L. Darrig/ttennefh D. Stdndage'^ 

Data File Handler \s a series of integrated programs tliat 
give tlie user a database processor, a sequentio! data 
fiie editor, and a disk operation supporf set. The book 
consists of ali tlie necessary program listings and docu- 
mentation to use this powerful database management 
system, Few computer programs are as well-explained or 
as cost-effective as this one. Anyone who wants an 
effective information management system for their Com- 
modore 64 or PET/CBM will find this an extraordinary 
software/documentation package. 

lSBj)iM^2386-86-,8, 
//A 




llmocfo;lre 64: 

l?aeto Collin West 

Programming the Commodore 64 is an encyctopedic, 
thorough reference guide to the Commodore 64. tn the 
^tradition of the renowned Programming the PET/CB!^. ou- 
^^thor Roeto Cotlin West has compiled 1 7 definitive chap- 
•- ters which cover this computer in its entirety. There are 
dictionaries, maps, BASIC and machine language exam- 
ples, and programming aids. Unlike many computer 
.books, which con be read once and discarded, Program- 
'i^fnlng ttie 64 will remain valuable for the life of the com- 
' '^'' puter. It starts with BASIC and probes more deeply with 
each chapter. Ready-to-type programs show how to use 
the BASIC and Kemal ROMs; the 6502 microprocessor; the 
CIA, VIC, and SID chips; and the hidden RAM beneath 
the ROM in the 64. And major peripherals — tape and disk 
drives, printers, plotters and modems — are also discussed 

at length, 

95 

ISBN 0-942386-50-7 




to prdof,"call t6lWreQl-«aO-3M-OM«!6r'mail your payroont (to 



handling charges) to COMPirr^;! Books, P,< 




3068, 



Doro, 



27403 




COMPUTE!' Publications Jnc. 

On& of ttw ABC Putnahino Compan*^! 

32^ W Wsnckjvof Avenue. Sufle 200 GfoonsbofD, NC 2/dOe. 919-27&^?a09, 

fvit^ifwi tf cowvrii , cc**\T:t' :■■« &3wn* co*jnji \ i » c^mr** t^., 'jcwpun i &?c*i. crj gcw^ir i 




REVIEWS 



to suggest a move for you. You 
can also play a friend and let 
the computer act as referee. The 
"Window On The Search" lets 
you see the moves the computer 
is considering as it thinks. 

Sar^ou in fills both sides of 
the disk. On the flipside are 107 
of the greatest chess games ever 
played from 1851 to the 
present. Each of these can be 
loaded and replayed move by 




move. Other positions stored on 
the disk are used along with the 
manual to illustrate the opening 
moves, strategy and tactics, 
endgame play, and checkmate 
situations. 

The 80-page manual thor- 
oughly explains each feature 
and includes a summary of the 
rules of chess, 

— /o/iJt Kratisc 

Hay den Software Company 
600 Suffolk Street 
Lowell, MA 01854 
$49.95 (disk) 

Turbo 64 

Many car racing games tend to 
get old rather quickly. They're 
exciting at first, but end up on 

76 CQMPUJBs Gazettt April 1985 



the shelf in a short time. Turbo 
64 may be a break in that pat- 
tern. Limbic Systems calls its 
program "a thrilling second- 
generation racing car simula- 
tion." Note the word simulation. 
Although it is a game, it's also a 
well-designed simulation — not 
for those who expect to make 
their madcap way through a 
crowd of howling cars and fre- 
quent random explosions. 

It's available on disk or 
tape, and at a most reasonable 
price. Those who buy the cas- 
sette version get a bonus. 
Through the use of a special 
system, the game loads in only 
four minutes. Conventional tape 
loads of comparably complex 
programs can take five to ten 
minutes longer. 

Once into the game, there 
are a number of choices. You 
must decide between two 
widely differing racing circuits, 
choose whether you want auto- 
matic or manual shift, set the 
number of laps and the drivers 
who will be competing over 
them (nine is the maximum in 
both categories), and determine 
whether you want joystick or — 
surprisingly — keyboard control. 

With the preparations out 
of the way, you wind up on the 
track of your choice — alone, it's 
important to remember that this 
is a Formula 1 {Grand Prix) 
simulation. Your highly-tuned 
car and the twisting, turning 
track are unforgiving, to say the 
least. You'll need all the preci- 
sion and concentration you can 
muster. At this stage, the dis- 
play consists of your cockpit in- 
struments, the front of your car, 



and the open road ahead. Once 
you're under way, the instru- 
ments return information on 
your speed, engine RPM, gear 
selection, lap and timing details, 
and score. 

Even with this information, 
you'll find it hard to stay on the 
track at first. You can drive on 
the margins, but you'll lose 
points, and the accompanying 
noise is dreadful. Since the car 




has been programmed to be- 
have like a Formula 1 racer, it 
had better be in the right gear 
when you go around the turns. 
But if you crash, the program 
puts you back on the road at the 
point where you drove off. Of 
course your score has been re- 
duced drastically, just as it will 
be for the serious crime of over- 
revving your engine. This is a 
real car. And the object is to 
take it around the track as 
quickly as you can, without 
damage. 

The graphics in Turbo 64 
are stunning. The displays are 
all well-designed and detailed. 
The 3-D effects are smooth and 
fluid — with the road snaking 
awav toward the realistic 



^^ 



background. The illusion of real- 
ity in Turbo 64 is reinforced by 
some excellent sound effects. The 
changes in engine tone are as 
impressive as the graphics, and 
they provide you with impor- 
tant clues about the state of 
your vehicle. Also, pay close at- 
tention to the frequent warning 
signs on the sides of the road. If 
you do, they can be lifesavers; if 
you don't, they're only danger- 
ous barriers. On the more diffi- 
cult track, you may find yourself 
driving off the road as you be- 
come familiar with the various 
landmarks. There's a delightful 
mountain community there. If 
only you could get off the track 
and into the hills, 

But of course you can't; 
you're a race car driver, and 
your focus is the road ahead. In 
Turbo 64, that's a difficult road 
indeed, and you'll need every 
advantage. Here, the unusual 
option of playing from the key- 
board offers a great deal of help. 
You can steer the car with two 
hands, which seems to give 
much better control than a joy- 
stick. In manual gearshift mode, 
you use the function keys to se- 
lect gears — which is almost im- 
possible to do with the joystick 
controls. 

Turbo 64 is an excellent 
piece of software. As a challeng- 
ing simulation or as a purely en- 
tertaining game, its detailed 
realism and careful design make 
this one a winner, 

— Lee Noel, jr. 

Limbic Systems, Inc. 

560 San Antonio Road, Suite 202 

Palo Mto, CA 94306 

$9.95 (tape), $19.95 (disk) 



f^aixodif, cofUe^ ielte^ // 




Since November 1984. Mr. Nibble has 
successfully copied heavily protected 
diskettes for grateful C-64 owners! 



TM 




delioeu! 



The next generation in archival 
methods is here today! 

• Wo better disk copier at any price 

• Essy-to-uso — no complicated 
instructions 

• Totally automatic — no knowledge 
ol DOS required 

• You'll LOVE MR. NIBBLE" — it not. 
return wittiin 10 days for full refund 

Own THE FINEST DISK COPIER SYSTEM for 
The C-64 and 1541 disk drive - 0,^Jg^ todau I 



\ 
Full Circle 



FULL CIRCLE SOFTWARE, INC. 

P.O. Box 1373 
Da/tan. Ohio 45401 

Phone (5131 223-Z102 



A //^ ^£ fncfud«s shipping & handling 
w TrJr'Jr^ (Ohio rcsfdenis add 6'.i salei lax) 



to day fiJlurn privilege 



Special MSD Version now available! 



COMPUTErs GbzbUb April 1985 77 



REVIEWS 



stealth 

First impressions are often mis- 
leading, especially when you're 
looking at commercial game 
software. After a while, one 
tends to put things in pigeon- 
holes. Arcade games, adventure 
games, strategy games. And 
subgroupings like shoot-'em-up 
games, chase games, and maze 
games come too easily to mind. 

Stealth, an arcade game for 
the Commodore 64 from 
Br0derbund, suffers from this 
first-impression syndrome. 
Glancing at the screen, even 
playing a few rounds, may give 
you the idea it's just one more 
shoot-or-be-shot contest. There 
are dozens of games already out 
there like it. At least, that might 
be what you'd think. Fortu- 
nately, it's not true. 

Graphically, Stealth is out- 
standing. It has one of the best 
3-D views we've seen. You look 
over the rear and top of a low- 
flying fighter plane. In the dis- 
tance are a chain of mountains 
and the Dark Tower, which 
looms over the horizon. As you 
fly toward the Tower, it in- 
creases in height. And as you 
skim the ground, various struc- 
tures and machines become visi- 
ble. At first they're only 
insignificant blurs in the back- 
ground. But as you get closer, 
which takes only a moment 
when you're flying at top speed, 
they grow larger. Sometimes 
' large enough that they're hard 
to avoid. 

Five levels, the first three of 
which you can enter when the 
game begins, test your reflexes 

78 COMPUTE! s GaZBlte April J98S 



and eyesight. You move to the 
next higher level once you've 
destroyed the Dark Tower. You 
have to get there first. Starting 



10,000 meters away, you must 
fly through a collection of radar 
stations, energy fields, and on- 
rushing opponents. And you 



:t^^'■ 



A-^^^ 



New Technological Breakthrough ! 

. ULTRABYTE 
^ DISK NIBBLER 



The Ultimate Bit by Bit Disk Duplicator 
For The Commodore 64 and 1541 Disk Drive 

ULTRABYTE DISK NIBBLER COPIES 
ALL SOFTWARE EXCEPT ITSELF 



SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 



Return for refund within 10 days 
if not completely satisfied 



$ 39 95 



Introduclory Price 



plus S 3.00 Shipping and Handling 

MASTERCARD, VISA. CHECK, Of M.O., 

Foreign Orders or COD Add S 2.00 

Calif. Add G,5 S ( i 2.60 ) Sales Tax 

BACKUP COPIES S 20.00 PLUS $3.00 SHIPPING 



Based an new proprietary Disk Operating System (DOS] that 
reads and writes bits on the disk independent of format. This 
process, called nibbling, treats disk errors, extra sectors, 
renumbered tracks and other protection schemes exactly the 
same as ordinary data, 

• Simple to use. Just load and run 

• Fast, Copies entire disk on single 1541 in 6 minutes 

• One easy step. No separate analysis or error production 

• Uses revolutionary Track Scan Technology to make 
an exact replica of the original disk. 

Write or Call 24 Hour Order Line 

ULTRABYTE ( 818 ) 796 - 0576 
P.O.Box 789 La Canada, GA 91011 



SOFTWARE AUTHORS PLEASE WRITE 




:"".;=( 







don't have all day to do it. Once 
your ship's energy is depleted, it 
implodes. The only way to re- 
fuel is to fly through the posi- 
tive (colored yellow) energy 
fields. Avoiding the red fields, 
which sap your fighter's fuel, is 
a major problem. Of course, you 
can shoot the oncoming scouts, 
fighters, missiles, bunkers, and 
tanks, but that too depletes your 
energy reserves. 

So you point your ship's 
nose at the Dark Tower, push 
the joystick forward, and hope 
for the best. Flying at top speed 
like this is dangerous, for you 
don't have much time to react, 
especially when the machines 
start to come at you one after 
the other (often hiding behind 
each other). But at least you 
have a good chance of reaching 
the Tower before your fuel is 
gone. Once you've closed the 
distance (an indicator keeps 
track of how far away you are), 
you have to line up exactly with 
the structure. One hit is all it 
takes in the first level; each suc- 
ceeding level requires an addi- 
tional hit to bring the Tower 
down and make the mushroom- 
like cloud appear. 

Stealth is addicting. You're 
so involved with the action that 



it's hard to tear yourself away 
from the screen. This game may 
fit in that shoot-'em-up arcade 
game pigeonhole, but it's one of 
the best around. 

—Gregg Keizer 
Br0derbund 
17 Paul Drive 
San Rafael, CA 94903 
$29.95 (disk) 



Mind Prober 

Imagine a computer program 
that can analyze vour friends. 



family, business or school ac- 
quaintances — -even yourself — 
telling you things about likes, 
dislikes, fears, desires, hidden 
attitudes, and insecurities. 

Mind Prober for the Com- 
modore 64 is just such a soft- 
ware program. And despite the 
oversimplifications which are 
necessarily a part of this kind of 
package, the results are fascinat- 
ing and often startlingly appro- 
priate. Using Mind Prober, you 
can build a personality profile of 
anyone. The premise, as stated 



Required Reading for 
^our CX)MraODORE 64 



TTIK 
GFWrilCSBOOK 

fmntr 

COMMotOtf; 



•^s 



rODB 
rOKlJSE 
1 OMWXJR 

iCommoixwj: 





«ii»i nw nil 



,1 "WKNTDHt 
fWRBCXJK im 




TRICKS & TIPS Tieasury ol pragrammrng 
lechnques. Advanced (jfaphics, easy inpul. enhanced 
eASICCP'U.cn2rjCtersels.mcte2TS|>lgu S19.9S 

GRAPHICS BOOK Basic lo advanced, best 
relercnce available Spiite animation. Hues. Mullicoloi. 
Iigtilpen. IRQ, 3D graphics 350 p4g«s St9.9S 

SCIENCE & ENGINEERINQ Discuss 
vanatle typss. computational accuiacy, son algonihms. 
more Topics from chemistry, ptiysics. biotas/. 
astronomy electronics 2S0 pagtt S19.95 



ANATOMY OF C-64 ins'defs guide to the 

64 inlcrnals Grapfiics. sound. I/O. kernal. more Com- 
plete CPmmenled POM listings 309 pig«t 113.95 

PEEKS ft POKES Programming quiclues that 
Hill s-mply amne you. Ttiis guide ts packed tull ol tectini- 
que: lor tlie BASIC programmer tflO fugii S14.95 

ANATOMY OF 1541 DISK DRIVE 

Bcstselling handbook on floppy disk. Explains disk liles 
wiih examples and utilities Includes complete com- 
mented 154 f ROM listings 320 piggt S19.9S 



Other titles available. Phone for name of nearest dealer Phone:(616) 332-4154 

Postage & hancHing S4,00 ($8.00 foreign). Money order, ctiecks, VISA, MC, 
AM EX. Mictiigan residents (incl. 4% sales tax), ■■rn 
CANADA: Book Center, Montr eal (514) 332-41 54 |B°3 

Yog On Count On I fffy^yHH gl 



m I Yog C.n Count on ffHSIinS ^^ A^ 

AbacusliH Software 



P.O. Box 7211 Crantt Rapids. Ml 49510 ■ Telex 709- 101 • Phone 616/241-5510 



COMPUTE! s Gazette Apnl 1985 79 



'OMMODORE 



64 



COMPUTER AND SOFTWARE 



SALE 



(with $12.95 Bonus Pack Purchase) 



159 



OO 



■170K Disk Drive ST9S.0O* 
• Tractor Friction Printer 1169.00* 
> 13" Hl-Rei Color Monitor 1195.00 * 
*iess coupon discount 



* COMMODORE M COMPUTIR S159.00 

Yqu pay only SI 59.00 wh&n you arder Ih« powerful 
B4K COMMODORE M COMPUTER! ieSS ihe volue of 
ihe SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPOM w« pock wilh your 
compuler (hot ollows you to SAVE OVER S5O0 oM 
)oflwor« loLv pricvtil Wilh only flOO ol ioving» 
spplltd. your nel computer coit i> SS^.OOI I (S*« pag« 

*170K DISK DRIVE t19S.OO 

You poy only JI95.D0 when you ordof iho I70K Diik 
Drivel LESS the value of Iho SPECIAL SOFTWARE 
COUPON we pack wilh your disk drive thol ollows you 
to SAVE OVER SSOO olf tollware safe prrcesi! Witli 
only S100 oi iovingi applied, your net disk drive cost 
IsSTS.OO. 

* 80 COLUMN 80 CPS 
TRACTION/FRICTION PRINTER «U9.00 

You pay only $16?. DO when you order ihe Comitor T/F 
deluxe line prir^ter that prints 9*^ix\ I full lii*. single 
theel. roll or ton fold poper. labels, etc. Impact dot 
matrii. bidirectlonol. LESS the volue of Ih* SPECIAL 
SOFTWARE COUPON we pock witfi your primer ihoi 
allows you to SAVE OVER SSOO off soltwore sale 
prices!! With only $100 of sovingj opplied your rel 
printer cost is only S49.00. 

* 13" Ht-RES COiOR MONITOR IT9S,0(1 

Vou pay only SI95 00 whan you ordur ihij 13 COLOR 
MONITOR wilh ihorptr ond dtorvr reiolution ihan 
any oth«r cofor rromlQf% wv hav* fti1*d' LESS volua 
c\ lh» SPECIAL DISCOUNT COUPON wt po(k w«h your 
monitor iho) olbwi you lo vavti ov«r $500 off soltwore 
%q\9 priCAs! ' WjtK only SIOO of sovtngs applied, your 
fwl color monitor coil ii only $95,00, [16 Colon). 

10 COLUMN BOARD »89.00 

Now you program SO COLUMNS on the icreen at one 
limef Converit youf Conimodofe 64 to 30 COLUMNS 
whvn you plug in the &0 COLUMN EXPANSION 
BOARDH PLUS 4 tloJ expondan Con u&a wilh moil 
exiting ioltsvare. 

so COLUMNS IN COLOR 
EXECUTIVE WORD PROCESSOR t39.00 

This EXECUTIVE WORD PROCESSOR is the finest 
available for the COMMODORE 64 computer! The 
ULTIMATE FOR PROFESSIONAL Word Processing, 
DISPLAYS 40 or 80 COLUMNS IN COLOR or block and 
whltel Simple to operote. powerful text editing with 
250 WORD DICTIONARY, complete cursor and 
Insert/delete key controlt line and paragraph 
Insertion, automatic doletion, centering, morgin 
settings and output to all printers! Includes 
powerlul moil rrkerge. 
List $99.00 SALE t».»t Coupon |}f .95 



WE 


WE 


HAVE 


HAVE 


THE 


THE 


BEST 


LOWEST 


SERVICE 


PRICES 



SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON 



We pack a SPECIAL SOFTWARE DISCOUNT 
COUPON with every COMMODORE 64 
COMPUTER DESK DRIVEPRINTER- 
MONITOB we sell! This coupon allows you to 
SAVE OVER 5500 OFF SALE PRICESIl 



lExampTesI 






PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE 




COMMODORE 64 




Heme 


Lilt 


(ol* 


Coupon 


EMvcuttve Word Processor 


t?9.CI0 


S39.0O 


(39 95 


Esoculivv Oslo eosfl 


(69.00 


(39 00 


(19.95 


^0.000 Word Diciionary 


H4 95 


(14 95 


(10.00 


EtecironfC Spr^qd Sh*»t 


t!9 95 


(49.00 


139 00 


AccoonTing Pock 


S49 00 


(39 00 


(39 00 


ProCticok 


S59 9S 


(34.95 


(39 95 


Prograrrm^fi l!etefenc:« 


(30.95 


(16 95 


(13 50 


Guida 








Prograrnrn^rs ttelper 


159.95 


(39.95 


(39 95 


(Disk) 








SG Column Screen (Disk) 


JS9 95 


(39 95 


(39 95 


DiikF.l*r{byFtip-N-Fits) 


S39.95 


(14.95 


03.95 


Deluxi iDpeCosseiie 


Sa9.oo 


139.00 


S39 95 


Pro Jor Stick 


15J.95 


(1595 


(tj 00 


L.ghl Pen 


(39.95 


(1495 


1 9 95 


□ utf Coyer 


i 6 95 


( 6 95 


( 4 40 


P090 Joe 


(79 95 


(19 95 


(Ilk 95 


Pilsic^p tt Epyn 


(3995 


114 95 


(19 95 






• PluiOotflUE 


Music CnIc t 


M9 9S 


139 95 


(34 95 


Fttewfiier 


iS9.9S 


(39.95 


(31 95 



(See over 100 coupon items in our catalog) 

Write or call for 

Sample SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON! 



EXECUTIVE QUALITY 
PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS SOFTWARE 

The Cadillac of Business Programs 
for Commodore 64 Computers 



SUPER AUTO 
DIAL MODEM 

(Best communications package in USA) 



64 




00 



• Computer Ledrning Pad $39.95 

• New Voice Synthesizer $59.00 

• 13" Green or Amber Monitor $79.95 

• 13" Daisy Wheel Printer $249.00 



Item 

Inventory Manogomflnt 
Accounts l^eceivoblo 
AcCDunFS Poyoble 
Pnyrotl 
Oflnorol Ledgnr 



lltl 
(99.00 
(99 00 

S99.00 
(99.00 
(99.00 



* Sola 
134. 9S 
134.95 
134.9! 
(34.95 
134.9! 



Coupon 
S39 95 
139 9! 
(39.95 
S39 95 
(39 95 



* SUPEH AUTO DIAL MODEM SS9.00 

Eosy to us?. Just plug into your Con^modore 64 
computer and you're reody to tronsmit and receive 
rnessoges. Easier to use ihon dioNng your telephone, 
just push one key on your computerl Includes 
exclusive easy to use pro9ram for up ond down 
looding to printer and disk drives. List $179.00 SALE 
IJ».(I» 

NEW COMPUTER LEARNING PAD $39.91 

Mokes other graphics tohlets obsolete. Thi} new TECH 
SKETCH LEARNING PAD ollows yog to draw on your 
T.V. or Monitor ond then you can print whotever you 
drow on Ihe screen on your printers, FAtslTASTlCf I ! 
Li5t$79 95IAtl«f.9i 

NEW VOICE SYNTHESIZER $59,00 

for Com'64 or VIC-20 computers. Just plug II in ond 
you <or progrom words and sentences, odiujt vclume 
ond pilch make lolking odventure gomes, ^ound 
oction gomes and customiied tolkiest! FOR ONLY 
$19. 9S you con odd TEXT TO SPEECH, just type a word 
ond heor your computer lolk — ADO SOUND TO 
7ork . SCOTT ADAMS AND AARDVARK ADVENTURE 
GAMES!! (Disk or tope.) 

12" GREEN OR AMBER MONITOR $79.95 

Your choice ol green or omber screen monitor, top 
quality. SO columns m 24 lines, easy to reod, Qnti- 
glore' PLUS 19,9$ lor ccsnrsecling coble, Com-64 or 
VIC-30 

13" DAISr WHEEL PRINTER 1249.00 

"JUKI" Superb letter quolity daisy wheel printer. 13" 
pxtro large carnage, up to 17 CPS bi-direCtional 
printing, drop in cossette ribbon. Centronics porollel 
or RS237seriol port built in! (Specify} 
List $399,00 SALI tMt.W 

COM-64 4 SLOT EXPANSION BOARD $19.9$ 

Easy to use. swiich selectable, reset button and LED 
indicotor — soves your computer and cortridges, 
LisiS7?.00Salailt.fl 

FLOPPY DISK SALE 9S' 

Lowest prices in the U.S.A.!! Single $ided single 
density, with hub rings, quolity guoronteed! [TOO 
bulkpoch 96' ea.) (Box of 10 $17.00) 



PHONE ORDERS 

B a.tn. - 8 p,m, Weekidoys 
9 a.m, ■ 12 noon Soturdoys 






• LOWEST PRICES • 15 DAY FREE TRIAL • 90 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY 
• BEST SERVICE IN U.S,A. • ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL - OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS 



Add $10.00 tor shipping. Koncfting qnd iniuranco. Illinois residents 
pleoseodd 6*; lax Add $70 OQ tor CANADA. PUERTO RICO HAWAII 
ALASKA APO-f PO orders Conadion orders must be in U.S. dotlors. 
WE OO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COi;NTR)£S 

Enclose Coshiers Check Money Order or P»r$onol Check Allow )4 
doys lor delivery 7 lo 7 days for phone orders. 1 day express maiM 
VISA - MASTER CARD -COD 



CM*TCDpD|7pC iWE LOVE OUR CUSrot4EnSl 

BOX 550, 8ARRINGT0N, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phone 312/382-5244 lo order 



NEW 128K —MEGA BYTE DUAL DISK DRIVE-80 COLUMN 

COMPUTER SYSTEM SALE! 

HOME • BUSINESS • WORD PROCESSING 




LOOK AT ALL YOU GET FOR ONLY $ X^ S« LIST PRICE 

B128 COMMODORE 128K 80COLUMN COMPUTER $ 995.00 

@ 4023 - 1 00 CPS - 80 COLUMN BIDIRECTIONAL PRINTER 499.00 

(S) 8050 DUAL DISK DRIVE (over 1 million bytes) 1795.00 

(5) 12" HI RESOLUTION 80 COLUMN MONITOR 249.00 

• BOX OF 10 LORAN LIFETIME GUARANTEED DISKS 49.95 

• 1 100 SHEETS FANFOLD PAPER 19,95 
. ALL CABLES NEEDED FOR INTERFACING 102.05 

TOTAL LIST PRICE $3717.95 

PLUS YOU CAN ORDER THESE BUSINESS PROGRAMS AT SALE PRICES 




Progrommers 

Reference 

Guide 

List S29.95 

Sale S24.95 



Professional SO Column 
Word Processor 
Profossionol Dalo Base 
Accounrs Receivable 
AccoonJs Payablo 



LfST 

S149.95 
S149.95 
51-19.95 
SI49.95 



SALE 

$94.00 
194.0(1 
$99.00 
$99.00 



SYSTEM 
PKICE' 
S49.00 
f49.00 



Payroll 
Inventory 
General Ledger 
Financiol Spread Sheet 
Order Entry 



LIST 
S149,95 
SI 49.95 
5149,95 
SI 49.95 
J 149.95 



SALE 
S99.00 
$99.00 
$99.00 
$99.00 
$99.00 



* When Bought 

with B128 

Computer 

System. 



,r PRINTER REPLACEMENT OPTIONS 

(replace the 4023 with the following printers at these 
sale prices. Interface Included) 



Olympia Executive Letter Quality Printer 
Ccjmstor Hi -Speed 160 CPS 15Vi" Business Printer 
Telecommunications Deluxe Modem Packoge 
IEEE to Centronics Parallel Printer Interface 



LIST 

S699.00 
S779.O0 
SI 99.00 
S179.O0 



SALI 

$369.00 
$459.00 
$139.00 
$139.00 



IS DAY FREE TRIAL. We give you 1 5 doys to try out this SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGE! I If it doesn't meet your expectations, just send it back 
tous prepaid and we wili refund your purchase price! ! 

90 DAY IMMEDIATE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY. If any of the SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGE equipment or programs fail due to foulty 
workmonship or niotoriol we will roploce it IMMEDIATELY with no service chorge! I 



Add $50.00 for chipping and handllngll 

WE DO NOT SHIP THIS SYSTEM TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES 
CANADA, PUERTO RICA, ALASKA, OR HAWAII. 
ErfClo5.o Co^hidTs Check, Woney Ordoir orPersonol Check. Allow 14 days for 
dofivtjry, 3 1o 7 dayi for phonfi anitin, I day express moih We accept Who 
nnd Ma^tmCoftl. Wt'^ %fiip) r.o.o to conSiiionial U.S. addrt^^ses only. 



ENTERPRIZES '^^•^^^EOunCUSTOMEfl^i 

BOX 550, BAftRJNGTON, ILLINOtS 60010 
Phont 3l2/3e!-5744 to ordtr 



DAISY WHEEL PRINTER SALE! 



■JUKI 



® 



(Japanese Highent Quality Award Winner) 




I 



Letter Quality Printer 




DELUXE LETTER QUALITY 
'DAISY WHEEL PRINTERS" 

■JUKr 

DELUXE COMPUTER PRINTER 

List Price $399 SALE $249 



• Supcrl) "Diiiay Wheel" Computer 
I'riritir 

• up {;h;u;;ic-ters 

• Bi-dirf't'lionol with special print 
enKancymeiUsmanv type Ktvles- 
$IH.!»r5 

• ['itch III, V2. inci'l 

• I'riiii Spi'cd up U) \2 t:i'S 

• I'liiU line width: I ITi, i;iH, 172 
fhiirac'tere 

• V.i" Kxtra I a rffe carriage 

• Driip in eassette ribbon 
(replacement S8.95) 

• Centronics parallel RS 232 
Suriiil iiUurface built in (specify) 



■JUKI 

DELUXE "COMBINATION" 
PRINTER/TYPEWRITER 



List Price $499 SALE $299 



Superb CornpiJti:!r Business printer 
combintici with worlci's finest 
electronic lypewnter' 
Two tnadiines in one— just a flick 
of thf .switch! 

Superb letter qiuUity conc- 
spuntience— hiinie, office, word 
processint;! 

13" Kxtra Uirtje carria(,'e 
Drop in caHsette ribhon — 
replacement $a.!15 
Precision daisy wheel printing- 
man v tyiJe stvlesl ,$18.95 
Pitch .selector- 11), 12. 1,t CPS, 
Automatic relocate l<eyl 
AtitomiUic marfiin control and 
Mcttinj,'! Key in l)nrfiT! 
Centronics parallel or RS 232 
Serial intertuce tiuilt-in (specify) 



15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty 



• COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER INTERFACE ONLY S49.00 



- ATARI INTERFACE S79.00 



ADD $10.00 for shipping and handling!! 



I Enclose Casniers Check. Money Order or Personal Cfiech Allow 



I 14 days lor delivery. 2 to 7 days lor phone orders. I day express 
I mail' Canada orders must be in U S dollars VISA — MASTER | 



CARD ACCEPTED. We ship CO D 



i ENTERPRIZES 



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REVIEWS 



in the packaging, is simply that 
"it's not wlio you know, it's 
liow well you know them.'" 

The 64 version of the pro- 
gram is based on whether you 
agree or disagree with each of 
56 adjectives when applied to 
the person you wish to analyze. 
Is the individual apologetic, se- 
cretive, warm, pessimistic, em- 
patlietic? From your responses 
to these adjectives. Mind Prober 
generates paragraphs of analysis 
under the headings of Relation- 
ships, Attitudes Toward Work, 
Coping With Stress, and What 
Makes The Person Tick. If your 
subject is 18 years of age or 
older, there is a section on Atti- 
tudes Toward Sex, For those un- 
der 18, that is changed to a 
section on Attitudes Toward 
School. 

After running numerous 
tests of Mind Prober, it's appar- 
ent that the program is surpris- 
ingly sophisticated in the ways 
in which it analyzes data. At 
times, the results can be un- 
canny in their accuracy. On 
other occasions- — especially if 
you don't know your subject 
very well — the responses can be 
a bit ambiguous. 

The software comes pack- 
aged in the back of a 148-page 
book, of which almost two- 
thirds is devoted to an introduc- 
tion on "reading" other people. 
There are also more than six 
pages of reference and biblio- 
graphical material at the end of 
the book for those who wish to 
pursue the subject more deeply. 
You can begin using the pro- 
gram without having to go 
through the manual, however. 

B6 COMPUTE! s Gazalle Apfil 1985 



Results can be shown on the 
screen or sent to a printer. 

While no one should take a 
program like this too seriously, 
it's an intriguing, sometimes 
addicting, approach to the al- 
ways interesting study of the 
people around you. It's also 
great for parties, or for small 
groups of people. Just be careful 
who you're with when you be- 
gin analyzing. 

— Selby Bateman 

Human Ed^c Software Corporation 
2445 Fabcr Place 
Palo Alto, CA 94303 
$49.95 (disk) 



Financial Cookbook 

Electronic Arts has a reputation 
for supplying good software, 
and Financial Cookbook is no ex- 
ception. As a smorgasbord of fi- 
nancial programs, this package 
makes it possible to use an inex- 
pensive Commodore 64 com- 
puter and a disk drive to check 
a wide variety of financial cal- 
culations normally handled by 
more powerful computers. In 
the context of the program title, 
cookbook means recipes for fi- 
nancial calculations and implies 
easy use. The name cookbook is 
used all too frequently these 
days, but in this case it is de- 
served. There are over 30 reci- 
pes ranging from "Under- 
standing Your Marginal Tax 
Rate" to "Leasing Your Car," 
each of which is aimed at help- 
ing you make sound financial 
decisions in specialized areas. 
Other representative topics in- 
clude "Living on Savings," 



"How Much Life Insurance,'' 
"Interest Rate of Loan," "Early 
Withdrawal IRA," and "Long- 
Term Investments," 

The process of testing a 
new program always involves a 
certain amount of fumbling 
around, trying to make sense of 
things that may be obvious to 
the author but not to a new 
user. With Financial Cookbook, 
however, I didn't waste much 
time before 1 was able to try an 
IRA calculation and check my 
home mortgage payment. 

I picked recipe 14, "An 
IRA's Future Value," from the 
menu. The program requested 
data, such as the amount depos- 
ited per year and interest rate. A 
short time later, the results were 
printed on the screen. The fig- 
ures were as expected. 

Using recipe 18, "Mortgage 
Schedule, Yearly," from the 
menu, 1 decided to check the 
figures I receive from the bank 
on my home loan. The bank's 
calculation of the monthly pay- 
ment was correct. However, the 
program may not be sophisti- 
cated enough to calculate the 
exact amount of remaining prin- 
cipal in a real situation. For ex- 
ample, there exists an escrow 
fund for taxes, which receives 
interest. Consequently, the cal- 
culated figures for remaining 
principal were not exact and 
only in approximate agreement 
with the bank's. 

For the most part, each rec- 
ipe is easy to use, and output 
can be directed to a Commodore 
or Commodore emulating 
printer. The 32-page manual 



includes a technical appendix, 
which lists all of the formulas 
used in the calculations. The 
body of the manual, however, 
seems a little disorganized. A 
good short tutorial which 
should come first, is included 
only after three pages of detail 
that most people won't need or 
want until much later. 

The program is DOS pro- 
tected, not easily copied, and 
may not run on disk drives 
other than the Commodore 
1541. Specifically, it did not run 
on a system using a BusCard 11 
and a 2031 disk drive. 

— Harvey B. Herman 

Electronic Arts 
2755 Campus Drive 
San Mateo, CA 94403 
Suggested rctaii $50 (disk) 



Reach For The Stars 

Before the advent of computer 
games, there was a popular and 
well-designed science fiction 
board game called Stellar Con- 
quest, currently out of print and 
rarely played. That classic game 
has now inspired one of the fin- 
est computer strategy games 
available. Reach for the Stars. 

The game designers have 
transported the broad scope and 
strategic interest of Stellar Con- 
quest to the computer medium. 
They've maintained the best 
parts of the old board game, the 
planning and economic basis, 
but they've used the computer 
to eliminate the tedious areas. 
Reach For The Stars is about the 
control of star systems. It's sub- 



titled "The Conquest of the Gal- 
axy," but conquest is rarely a 
viable strategy until the game is 
nearly half completed. Before 
that point, players are con- 
cerned with maintaining their 
home star system and whatever 
neighboring systems they man- 
age to get their hands on. 

The game allows up to four 
players. Learning the game well 
enough to play takes roughly 30 
minutes. But, like all good 
games, mastering it takes a long 
time. There are several scenarios 
and levels of play, and each 
player's turn is divided into sev- 
eral phases such as Movement, 
Production, Combat, and Plane- 
tary Conquest. 

You begin each game in 
control of a primary planet in a 
star system. Your first act 
should be to improve the indus- 
trial capacity of your home 
planet, and to produce explorers 
to look for other systems to col- 
onize. After you're sure your 
home planet will survive, you 
head for a nearby star system 
suitable for colonization. If no 
other player has already taken 
this system, you colonize the 
best planet and build it to self- 
sufficiency. You continue this 
pattern until your empire ex- 
pands into someone else's, at 
which point your goal changes. 
Rather than build an empire, 
you must now defend it. 

Somewhere in the distant 
corner of a galaxy, your main 
fighting force is locked in battle 
with the enemy, while a third 
party has just entered your 
near-defenseless home star sys- 



tem. Meanwhile, your major in- 
dustrial base has been deci- 
mated by a series of earth- 
quakes, and a promising colony 
is beginning to suffer the prob- 
lems of overpopulation. You re- 
alize, suddenly, that your 
empire is too big, too easy to at- 
tack, too hard to defend. What 
makes this an excellent game is 
that you control all these com- 
plexities with a few simple 
keystrokes. 

Reach for the Stars has 
much to offer the strategy 
gamer. It's straightforward in 
approach, but filled with sur- 
prises. It's complex, but highly 
manageable. Finally, it feels 
right. 

— Neil Randall 

Strategic Sludies Group 

1747 Orleans Court 

Walnut Creek, CA 94598 

or 

Groumi Floor, 336 Pitt St. 

Sydiic}/, Australia 2000 

$45 (disk) 



Seastalker 

As infocom's first junior level 
text adventure, Seastalker de- 
serves particular attention. De- 
spite the "junior" label, 
Seastalker is not "just for kids." 
And it doesn't compromise on 
Infocom's high standards in the 
slightest way. 

What it does is provide ini- 
tial help for the user and extra 
coaching along the way, and it 
does this in a variety of ways. 

The game's theme is that of 
a deep sea adventure, a la 
Tzvetity Thousand Leagues Under 

COMPUTEVs Gazette April 1985 87 



REVIEWS 



the Sea. You command a high- 
tech submarine, the Scimitar, 
and your uhimate goal is to 
save the Aquadome, which has 
come under attack by some type 
of giant sea monster. 

There are numerous sub- 
plots to be solved before the fi- 
nal test of skill. To this end, 
Infocom provides a nautical 
chart of Frobton Bay, u'hich lies 
between the research lab and 
the unknown sea area where 
the Aquadome resides. They 
also give you detailed floor 
plans of your lab and the 
Aquadome. 

Obviously, this provides the 
gamer with quite an advantage. 
However, Infocom has been 
very careful not to reveal too 
much about these places. 
Seastalker also contains a set of 
Hidden Clues cards, which are 
optional in game play. The 
more experienced (or less frus- 
trated) adventurer may wish to 
ignore these. 

What can't be ignored is the 
information on the back of each 
card. Necessary information 
about the sophisticated equip- 
ment found in the lab and 
aboard the Scimitar is provided 
on the cards, as is equally im- 
portant information about each 
of the crew members. 

This also provides a richer 
flavor for the adventure because 
personalities are brought into 
play, Infocom has, for all intents 
and purposes, created a multi- 
character adventure that can be 
controlled by one player. 

Other small areas of help 
are included. P'or example, on- 

88 COMPUTEi's GaieltB April 1985 



screen prompts help you use the 
correct syntax when inputting 
commands; the first three moves 
are given to help you get 
started. It's easy to see why the 
game is considered Junior Level 
when compared to Deadline or 
Sorcewr. 

Otherwise, Seastalker con- 
tains all the elements one has 
come to expect from Infocom: 
vividly detailed descriptions, in- 
triguing puzzles, and, of course, 
goodies inside the package (to 
reveal them would be unfair). 
The point system employed in 
other Infocom games is intact, 
and the adventure can be solved 



in any number of ways. 

It's important to reempha- 
size that veteran gamers should 
not ignore this product. It's an 
excellent program that will 
present numerous challenges to 
the gamer in spite of its billing 
as a Junior Level adventure. The 
sea environment, fascinating to 
explore, and the interaction with 
other characters give Seastalker a 
different feel from other 
Infocom games. 

— fames Trunzo 

Infocom, Inc. 

55 Wheeler St. 

Cambridge, MA 021S8 

$39.95 (disk) 9 



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Alternaiive lo the 1541 Disk Drivel 

Loadot save 8K in SOsecondsl It's less expensive than disk and can 

even be used as a backup lo the flahy 15411 

Yes. the RABBIT is ihat ond much more Uses Ihe Commodore cassette 
deck but loads and soves much, much (aster tiion regulor Commodore 
loadisave. Think about il — loads or saves on BK progtam m almost 30 
seconds. 16Kin 1 minute etc That's nearly as tost as the 1541 disk. RABBIT 
is on cartridge so it's olwoys there. Also has othei useful commands 
Specily tor use on Ihe 64. or on the ViC 20 — 

"It was the best putchose tor my "Congratulations on yout 64 
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MAE 



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The most poweriul Mocto Assembler/Editor ovailable lot ttie 

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We could go on and describfthe MAE but we thought you would 

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unedited comments trom correspondence obout the MAE; 

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This cortridge has a push-button switch on it that allows 

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install on your 64 Housed in an attroctive plastic caitridge 
complete with easy to install instructions, works with every 
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Create your own COMMODORE-64^'' Video game and program cartridges. 

Follow the simple and easy screen instructions to: 

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programs to cartridge cassette 

• Copy from cartridge to cartndge • Erase and reuse cartridges 



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Phone orders (215) 363-8840 





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sidents add 6% 

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' Inquiries Invited 
CARTf1IDGE-MAKER-64 & CARTHIDGE-64 
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CARTRIDGE-MAKER-S4 is not intended for piracy ot 

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V!SA-MASTERCAR[>C.O.D. -CHECK 



COMPUTEI's Gazatte April 1985 89 



How To Type In 
COMPUTEI's GAZETTE Progimns 



Each month, computei's GAZETTE publishes programs 
for the VIC-20, Commodore 64, Plus 4, and 16. Each 
program is clearly marked by title and version. Be sure 
to type in the correct version for your machine. Also, 
carefully read the instructions in the corresponding 
article. This can save time and eliminate any questions 
vi/hich might arise after you begin typing. 

We publish two programs, which appear periodi- 
cally, designed to make your typing effort easier: The 
Automatic Proofreader, and MLX, designed for enter- 
ing machine language programs. 

When entering a BASIC program, be especially 
careful with DATA statements as they are extremely 
sensitive to errors. A mistyped number in a DATA 
statement can cause your machine to "lock up" (you'll 
have no control over the computer). If this happens, 
the only recourse is to turn your computer off then 
back on, erasing whatever was in memory. So be sure 
to save a copy of your program before you run it. If your 
computer crashes, you can always reload the program 
and look for the error. 

Special Characters 

Most of the programs listed in each issue contain spe- 
cial control characters. To facilitate typing in any pro- 
grams from the GAZETTE, use the following listing 
conventions. 

The most common type of control characters in 
our listings appear as words within braces; {DOWN} 
means to press the cursor do^vn key; {5 spaces} 
means to press the space bar five times. 

To indicate that a key should be shifted (hold 
down the SHIFT key while pressing another key), the 
character is underlined. For example, A means hold 



down the the SHIFT key and press A. You may see 
strange characters on your screen, but that's to be ex- 
pected. If you find a number followed by an under- 
lined key enclosed in braces (for example, {8 A}), 
type the key as many times as indicated (in our ex- 
ample; enter eight SHIFTed A's). To type {SHIFT- 
SPACE}, hold down the SHIFT key and press the 
space bar. 

If a key is enclosed in special brackets, E I , hold 
down the Commodore key (at the lower left comer of 
the keyboard) and press the indicated character. 

Rarely, you'll see a single letter of the alphabet 
enclosed in braces. This can be entered on the Com- 
modore 64 by pressing the CTRL key while typing the 
letter in braces. For example, {A} means to press 
CTRL-A. 

The Ctuote Mode 

Although you can move the cursor around the screen 
with the CRSR keys, often a programmer will want to 
move the cursor under program control. This is seen 
in examples such as {LEFT}, and {HOME} in the pro- 
gram listings. The only way the computer can tell the 
difference between direct and programmed cursor 
control is the quote mode. 

Once you press the quote key, you're in quote 
mode. This mode can be confusing if you mistype a 
character and cursor ieft to change it. You'll see a 
reverse video character (a graphics symbol for cursor 
left). In this case, you can use the DELete key to back 
up and edit the line. Type another quote and you're 
out of quote mode. If things really get confusing, you 
can exit quote mode simply by pressing RETURN. 
Then just cursor up to the mistyped line and fix it. 



When You Read: 



Press: 






ICLRl 
[ HOME } 
tUPl 

Idown} 

I LEFT 3 

1 right) 

(RVS) 
tOFPl 
[BLK] 
tWHT} 

Ired] 

[CYN} 



SHIFT 




CLR'HOME 










CLR/HOIVfE 


SHIFT 




f CRSR ^ 






f CRSR ^ 



SHIFT 



♦ CR5R.»H i 



CTRL 



CTRL 



][ 



CTRl 



m 



When You Read: 

Ipur! 
[grn] 
UluI 
[yelI 

fFll 
lF2l 
1F3! 
(P4! 
iFSj 
lF6) 
{F7l 
(P8l 



Press: 



See; 



CTRL 5 




CTRL 1 6 


CTRL 1 7 


CTRL 


» 












" 


SHIFT 


« 




(S 





SHIFT 




« 










fS 


SHIFT 




fS 










fV 



SHIFT 




n 



Piess: 


SHIFT ^ 



When You Read: 

T 



Foi Conunodoie 64 Only 

Hi 5 

i2i • P 

i4i O 

183 



See: 



C' 



D 



J 



12 



] 



a 

Mil 



90 COMPUTEI'S GazeltB April 198S 



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CENTERS 

AMERICA 



Bug-Swatter: 

Modifications And Corrections 



• The article describing "Kahlam!" (January) in- 
cluded two sets of instructions for VIC owners. 

Readers who used a tape drive, 8K expansion, 
and VIC MLX will have problems because 
Kablam! is saved as an absolute file. To fix the 
program, insert the 8K (or greater) expander, turn 
on your VIC, enter the POKE and SYS from the 
instructions to move memory up (POKE 
642,32:SYS 58232), and load MLX. LIST 763 and 
change the third POKE (POKE782,l) to 
POKE782,0. Next, run MLX. Use SHIFT-L to load 
the Kablam! program. Now use SHIFT-S to save 
back to tape. You don't need to make any correc- 
tioi-,s other than the change in hne 763 of MLX. 

• Tlie Commodore 1600 VICmodem, the 1650 
Automodem, and the Telelearning and Westridge 
modems work with the original "C/G Term" 
terminal program {November 1984). But the 
Mitev Mo and HESmodem 11 have a slightly dif- 
ferent method of interfacing with the user port. 

The following POKEs will modify C/G Term 
to make it compatible with the Mitey Mo and 
HESmodem II. 

1. Enter the POKE and SYS from page 48 of the 
November issue. 

2. LOAD "CGTERM",8,1. After it's loaded, type 
NEW. 

3. Type in the following POKEs in immediate 
mode (without line numbers). 

POKE 4673,169:POKE 4674,2:POKE 4675,162 
POKE 4676,2:POKE 4677,1 60:POKE 4678,255 
POKE 4679,32:POKE 4680,T86:POKE 4681,255 
POKE 4682,169:POKE 4683,l:POKE 4684,162 
POKE 4685,147;POKE 4686,160:POKE 4687,2 
POKE 4688,32:POKE 4689,189:POKE 4690,255 
POKE 4691,32:POKE 4692,192:POKE 4693,255 
POKE 4694,169:PQKE 4695,102;POKE 4696,141 
POKE 4697,3;POKE 4698,221:POKE 4699,169 
POKE 4700,2:POKE 4701,141:POKE 4702,1 
POKE 4703,221:POKE 4704,76:POKE 4705,106 
POKE 4706,18 

For the VIC version of C/G Term, make these 
substitutions in the list: 

POKE 4697,18:FOKE 4698,145 
POKE 4702,I6:FOKE 4703,145 

92 COMPUTEfs Gazetle April 1985 



4. When you're finished typing, to be sure 
you've made the correct POKEs, check each loca- 
tion by PEEKing its contents to the screen: 

FOR X = 4673 TO 4706:PRINT X;PEEK<X);:NEXT 

5. Load and run MLX, give it the starting and 
ending address from page 48, and use SHlFT-S 
to save the modified version. 

These POKEs set the modem to originate 
mode, which you should use to communicate 
with the C/G BBS. When you use C/G Term to 
communicate with a friend who also has C/G 
Term and a Mitey Mo modem, one of you will 
have to set your modem for answer mode. To do 
this, load the modified version of C/G Term and 
POKE 4700,64 before you run the program. 

• "Address File" (February) contains a bug. 
When using the Display option to search for spe- 
cific last names, the program stops searching 
when it finds a match. If two or more different 
records contain the same last name, the first 
record is displayed, but not the others. The 
following changes will fix the bug: 

130 GOSUB660sFORI=lTON:IFB$=M${ I, 1)+", "+ 

M9(I,2)THEN150 : rem 65 

140 NEXTI: PRINT" {CLR}{DOVra}"B$Q$" [DOWN } IS 
NOT IN PILE. ":GOSUB620;GOTO40 

:rem ISl 
300 IFM? ( A , 1 ) +M? ( A, 2 ) <=M$ ( A+G , 1 ) +M$ { A+G , 2 

)THEN350 srem 30 

410 GOSUB6G0:FORI=1TON:IFB9=M$(I, 1)+", "+ 

M?f I,2)TMEN440 : rem 68 

660 PRINT" tCLRl f DOlfN] { 3 RIGHT) WHAT NAME D 

Y0U"Q5"(3 right JVJANT (LAST NAME)":! 

NPUT"[2 D0WN}";B$ : rem 14 

670 PRINT" (down) {3 RIGHTSENTER FIRST NAME 

": INPUT" (2 D0WN}";C$!B$=B$+", "+C$:RE 

TURN : rem 89 

• If "Turtle Graphics Interpreter" (October 1984) 
seems to have trouble interpreting commands, 
check line 5050 of program 1; there must be a 
space between the two quotation marks. 

Tape users may have discovered that while 
Turtle Graphics Interpreter works, it does not 
allow you to save defined procedures to tape. 
Reader Mark Smitka suggests these corrections: 

23018 POKE 53274,240 

23019 OPEN 2, 1,0,WD$+". TURTLE" 
23060 CLOSE 2iSYS 493 22: RETURN 

24018 POKE 53274,240 

24019 OPI^N 2,1,1,UD$ +". TURTLE" 
24040 CLOSE 2: SYS 49322: RETURN 

After making these changes, when you save 
or load a procedure, the prompt PRESS PLAY 
ON TAPE may be unreadable, but this does not 
affect the program's operation, 




THE BANNER MACHIHE'"" for th( Commodore 44 



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Triple 64 



Feeman Ng 



Three computers in your 64? This seven- 
line program creates three independent 
12K blocks which can be accessed very 
simply. An excellent tool for program 
development and comparison. 



Have you ever wished you could work on two or 
three programs at once and compare them? Or 
view a disk directory without erasing a program 
in memory? This short machine language pro- 
gram lets you do just that. 

"Triple 64" is a machine language program 
(in the form of a BASIC loader) which divides 
the 64's memory into three independent 12K 
workspaces. You can work in any of the areas 
without disturbing the others. You can even save 
and load from any of the three work areas with- 
out affecting the others. The program starts at 
40004 ($9C44) and uses only 71 bytes. Also, a 
favorite area of many machine language pro- 
grammers, 49152 ($C000), is unaffected. 

Accessing Three Gk>mputers 

After entering and saving Triple 64, type RUN. 
To access any of the three areas, type SYS 40004. 
Notice that the cursor disappears immediately 
after you press RETURN. Now, press 1, 2, or 3, 
the identification numbers of the three indepen- 
dent work areas, and you're ready to begin 
programming. If you've found that you don't re- 
call which area you're in, type PRINT 
PEEK{40061), This will return a 1, 2, or 3. 

Techniques And Applications 

The most obvious use of Triple 64 is to partition 
the computer to hold three BASIC programs. 
These could be games, utilities, or applications — 
or any combination. And switching between 
them involves only a SYS and a single keypress. 
Each work area holds up to 12K, space enough 
for a fairly sophisticated program. (BASIC pro- 
grams in the GAZETTE are rarely more than 5K.) 

94 COMPUTErs Gazelto April 1985 



Triple 64 may prove even more useful, how- 
ever, in the development of your own programs. 
Since the three workspaces are truly separate, 
this means, for example, one of them could hold 
a working version of your program, another 
might contain a test version you're enhancing, 
and the third section could provide a scratchpad 
area where you can try out new ideas and write 
short programs to test them. These testing 
routines could even examine the other two mem- 
ory areas for the effects on the programs residing 
there. When you've got something working well, 
you can transfer it to another area with this sim- 
ple procedure: 

1. List it to the screen. 

2. Select the desired Triple 64 workspace. 

3. Cursor up to the lines you want to transfer, 
and press RETURN over each of them. They'll 
immediately be inserted into the BASIC program 
in the new workspace. 

Triple 64 offers a wide range of possibil- 
ities — it's almost like having three instant 12K 
disk drives at your disposal. And if you have a 
disk drive as well, you can maintain its directory 
in one workspace while you work in the others. 
This is very useful if your programs will be using 
files on the disk currently in your drive. 

Triple 64 

10 FORY=40004TO40071 : READA : POK FHf , A t NEXT 

srem IBS 
20 FORY=14336T01 43. ■JR: POKEY, 0:NEXT : rem 29 
30 FQRY=26624T026626: POKEY, 0:NEXT:NEW 

:rem 72 
40 nATA174, 12 5,156,165,45, 157, 129, 156, 165 
,46,157,132,156,32,223,255,41,15,240 

:rem 19 
50 DATA249, 201,4, 176,245, 170, 142, 125,156, 
189,125,156,133,44, 189,126, 156, 13 3,56 

:rein 71 
60 DATA189, 129, 156, 133, 45, 133, 47, 133, 49,1 
89 , 132 , 156 , 1 33 , 46 , 1 3 3 , 48 , 13 3 , 50 , 96 , 1 

:reni 24 
70 DATA8, 56, 104, 152, 3, 3, 3,8, 56, 104 

: rem 174 




FLASH! 

Gets the Gold 

at the Computer Olympics 



The Skyles Electric Works 1541 
FLASH! dashed off with the gold at 
the Computer Olympics here. 

The 154^ FLASH.' loaded programs 
and files three times faster than an 

unerihanced C ommodore 1541 disk 

" factArthan drive could. Faster 

. . .lasier man ^^,3^ ^^y o,her disk 

any other disk drive with compatible 
Hriuo " disk format. 

ariVC... Three times taster! 

The device delighted the home 
crowd, which watched the 1541 
^ FLASH! set a meet record, and leave 
Its competition in the dust. 

Once Installed, the 1541 FLASH! is 
transparent. Computer operations 
all remain unaffected as it speeds up 
every disk-related function. The 
FLASH! is a permanent installation 
with both a software (ROM) and a 
hardware component. Through key- 
board commands or a hardware 
switch, you can even return to the 
old, slow loading method— if you 
really want to. 

And there is nothing new to learn 
for the FLASH! No special tricks or 



techniques. Once it's In, Just watch 
it go. 

But if you're really serious about 
programming, the 1541 FLASH! is a 
gold mine. The manual will show you 
how to write software allowing data 
transfer to and from the 1541 disk 
drive at speeds up to 10 tfmesthe 
normal. 

For programs that usually load 
with a " '*',8,1 •' command, just hit 
Shift/Run-Stop. A spreadsheet pro- 
gram like BUSICALC 3 then loads 
in about 25 seconds. 

The 1541 FLASH! even adds 21 ex- 
tra commands for the Commodore 
64 user. Some of these include edit- 
ing, programming and loading com- 
mands, as well as "DOS Wedge" 
commands. You can ignore all these 
commands, though, and just enjoy 
the rapid disk operations- 
it wowed the crowd at the Com- 
puter Olympics. Once you see its 
sheer speed, you'll know why. Call 
its coach, Skyles Electric Works, to 
place your order or to get more info. 



1541 FLASH'., an add-on assembly tor the Commodore 64/1541 , costs only $89.95.* 

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231 E South Whisman Road .-n i.ftnn.997.QQQfl 

Mountain View, CA 94041 ^^" l"**"""-^^ ^-3938. 

/ Aicln^t^ -1 -T-i r" ''^"^* J54I f LASH.' is a Irademark of Skyiss ElscUic vytorks. 

(415)965-1735 Co<iiriKxJofe64andSX-64atel«adefnaihso( 

Commodore. 



% 



w 



Michael S. Tomczyk 



Magic 



Putting Computer Math 
To Work For You 



The past two columns have been a "beginner's 
introduction" to computer math. We've seen that 
your computer has built-in math functions, and 
we've also seen how numeric variables (X, AB, 
etc.) are used in BASIC programs. But with all 
this built-in math power, many beginners still 
have trouble writing problem-solving programs 
in BASIC — so that's what we'll cover in the final 
lesson about math. 

These programs will work on your Com- 
modore 64, VIC-20, Plus/4, and 16. Before we 
get started, let's review computer math symbols. 



niques being used. And don't forget, you can 
tailor this program in many ways — for example, 
print some graphics designs or pictures in dif- 
ferent colors, or insert a sound effect when the 



_v- child gets the answer right. 

^*10 Y=l 



+ 



/ 

/ 

t 





for addition (PRINT 4 + 4) 

for subtraction (PRINT 9-5) 

for multiphcation (PRINT 2*5) 

for division (PRINT 10/5) 

for fractions (PRINT 1/2*1/3) 

for exponents (PRINT 2T2) 

for percent (.12) or decimal (.99) 

for formulas (PRINT (2/5)*(12.5))— 

always use same number of left and 

right parentheses 



Math Practice For Parents 

A lot of people, especially parents and teachers, 
like to write math practice programs for children, 
so let's start with an example to get you started. 
First, we have to decide a few things. What kind 
of math do we want to practice? Addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, division, or a 
combination of all four? What range of numbers 
do we want to use in our examples? And do we 
want to use specific examples or random 
numbers? 

In our example, we'll use addition and use 
only problems with numbers from 1 to 9. We'll 
look at a shorter program in a moment, but for 
now, enter this program and study the tech- 

96 COMPUTE'S Gazotte April 19B5 



20 FOR X=l TO 9 

30 PRINT "{CLRJIbLK) the ADDING GAME": FO 

R SP=1 TO 5: PRINT: NEXT 
40 PRINT "WHAT IS"X"+"Y: INPUT A 
50 IF A=(X+Y) GOTO 70 
60 PRINT "{CLR]t3 DOWN}WRONG . . .TRY AGAIN" 

: FOR T=l TO 700: NEXT: GOTO 30 
70 IF A=(X+Y) THEN PRINT " {CLR}{3 DOWNIR 

IGHTl": FOR T=l TO 700: NEXT 
80 IF Y=9 THEN GOTO10 
90 NEXT 
100 Y=Y+1; GOTO20 

Type RUN and press RETURN to use the 
program. To exit the program after you've got it 
running, hold down the RUN /STOP key and 
press RESTORE (RUN/STOP-RESET on the 
PIus/4 and 16). This program is actually a bit 
more cumbersome than it has to be, so we can 
show you some computer math and program- 
ming techniques. Let's look at the commands. 

Line 10 defines the variable Y as 1. Now the 
variable Y is the same as the number 1 — until we 
redefine Y in line 100, 

Line 20 is the beginning of a very long FOR- 
NEXT loop. Everything between the FOR in line 
20 and the NEXT in Une 90 will be repeated 9 
times. The FOR-NEXT loop keeps track of each 
repetition by increasing the value of X on each 
loop. Because of this, the value of X is 1 the first 
time the program runs through. The next time 
the program runs through the loop, the value of 
X becomes 2, then 3, 4, and so on up to 9. We 
can use the value of X in other places in our pro- 
gram — our X is defined by the FOR-NEXT loop 
which is "keeping track" of which loop it's on. 



but X still represents a number and we can use it 
elsewhere. 

Line 30 clears the screen and sets the color 
to black, then displays the opening message. The 
FOR-NEXT loop in this line is used to print five 
blank lines (the PRINT command by itself puts a 
blank line on the screen). This positions the next 
message farther down the screen. 

Line 40 asks our math question. First we 
print the words WHAT IS inside quotation 
marks. Then we go outside quotes to print the 
value of X (which is 1 on the first loop). Then in- 
side quotes to print the plus sign, then back to 
outside quotes to print the value of the variable 
Y (which we defined as 1 in line 10). Finally, we 
ask for an INPUT which automatically displays a 
question mark on the screen and waits for the 
child to type in a number and press RETURN. 
The variable A (for Answer) represents the 
child's number. From now on, the variable A is 
the same as the number the child types in. 

Line 50 is an IF-THEN statement. IF A = 
(X+Y) means literally "If A equals the sum of X 
plus Y." If, in fact, A equals X + Y, then we go to 
line 70. If not, continue with line 60 where we 
clear the screen, cursor down three times, and 
print the WRONG message. The FOR-NEXT loop 
in this line is a "time delay" loop. You can in- 
crease or decrease the delay by changing the 
number 700. Finally, if there is a wrong answer, 
the computer goes back to line 30 and repeats 
the question using the same values of X and Y. 
The program keeps looping back and will not go 
on until the child gets the answer right. This is 
one reason computers are said to be "infinitely 
patient" teachers. 

Line 70 is similar to line 50. If the answer A 
equals the sum of X-fY, then we clear the 
screen, print the RIGHT message, pause for a 
time delay of 700 and automatically move on to 
line 80. 

Line 80 checks to see if Y equals 9, which 
signals the end of the math sequences. If Y 
equals 9, the computer goes back to line 10 and 
resets the value of Y to 1, but line 80 does not 
change the value of Y (that happens in line 100). 

Line 90 contains the NEXT command from 
the FOR-NEXT loop we began in line 20. This 
command stops the computer here after each 
loop, sends it back to line 20, and increases the 
value of X by 1, Remember, Y still equals 1. 
Thus, in the second loop, the X + Y in our math 
problem becomes 2 + 1. In the third loop, X+Y 
becomes 3 + 1, and so on. When X equals 9, the 
computer completes the loop (F0RX=1T09) 
and, at that point, instead of looping back, 
continues on to line 100. 

Line 100 increases the value of Y by 1 and 
goes back to line 20. Now Y=2 and X=l. We 



repeat the FOR-NEXT loop so X + Y in our math 
problem becomes 1 + 2, 2 + 2, 3 + 2, etc., as X 
changes from 1 to 9 and Y stays at 2. When X 
equals 9, the program drops out of the loop to 
line 100, increases Y to 3, and loops through the 
math problems (1+3, 2-i-3, 3 + 3, etc.). This pat- 
tern continues until both X and Y equal 9. At 
that point, the IF — THEN statement in line 80 
takes effect and resets the whole program. If this 
is still a bit confusing, here's a short program 
that demonstrates how a FOR-NEXT loop 
changes the value of the "loop variable" M on 
each pass through the loop. Watch to see at 
which point the program leaves the loop and 
continues on to print the message in line 50: 

10 PRINT" {CLR}": FOR M=l TO 5 
20 PRINT "LOOP NUMBER" M 
30 PRINT "THE VALUE OF M IS" M 
40 NEXT 

50 PRINT "AT THE END OF THE LOOP THE PROGR 
AM CONTINUES. . ," 



Random Numbers 

You can make the computer generate the values 
of X and Y completely at random— which is 
probably a good idea if your child figures out 
that most of the questions in the previous ex- 
ample can be answered simply by counting in or- 
der. Here's what the same program looks like 
with random numbers: 

5 X=INT{RND(1)*9)+1 

10 Y=INT{RND{1 )*9)+l 

20 PRINT "(CLR}{BLK} THE ADDING GAME"; PO 

R SP=1 TO 5: PRINT: NEXT 
30 PRINT "WHAT IS"X"+"Yi INPUT A 
40 IF A=(X+Y) GOTO 60 
50 PRINT"[CLRH3 down } wrong ... try AGAIN": 

FOR T=l TO 700: NEXT: GOTO 20 
60 IF A=(X+Y) THEN PRINT" (CLR) f 3 DOVrajRIG 

HTl": FOR T=l TO 700: NEXT 
70 GOTO 5 

As you can see, it's actually easier to use 
random numbers than to try to put everything in 
order! Lines 5 and 10 use a random number for- 
mula (see below) to define X and then Y as a 
random number from 1 to 9. To get new random 
numbers for X and Y, all we have to do is go 
back to lines 5 and 10 and new numbers are 
automatically selected. The rest of the program is 
the same as our previous example except that at 
the end of the program all we have to do is go 
back to the beginning. 



A Q.uick Review 

If you're not sure what a random number is, try 
this little exercise: Take 10 pieces of paper, write 
the numbers 1 to 10 on each piece, and put them 

COMPUTBI's GazBtte April 1985 97 



in a hat. Now pick up one number without look- 
ing. You've just selected a random number from 
a range of 10 numbers. The lower limit of the 
range is 1 and the upper limit is 10. Now put the 
number you drew back in the hat and draw 
again. Keep drawing as long as you like, but 
make sure all the numbers are always put back 
in the hat before you draw. Your hat has now 
become a "random number generator." 

The computer can generate random numbers, 
too — but much faster. Instead of storing numbers 
in a hat, the computer stores the numbers in its 
memory. To use the computer to choose random 
numbers, you need a random number formula. 

In the following formula, we'll define vari- 
able R as a random number. To do this, you 
have to know the lower limit, the upper limit, 
and the range of numbers you want the com- 
puter to choose from; 

R = INT(RND(l)'range) + lower limil 

Let's tell the computer to choose a random 
number from 6 to 10, including the 6 and the 10. 
In this example, the lower limit is 6, the upper 
limit is 10, and the range is 5. To determine the 
range, subtract the lower limit from the upper limit, 
and add ]. If the lower limit is 6 and the upper 
limit is 10, the range is 5 because (10 — 6) + 1 
= 5. You can also see that if you count 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, you have 5 numbers, so the range of num- 
bers we're choosing from is 5. See how it works? 
To use the formula, just plug in the lower limit 
and the range like this; 
R = INT(RND(1)*5) 4- 6 

Now you have to decide what to do with your 
random numbers — print them, use them in a for- 
mula, a game, or what? Let's try something a 
trifle out of the ordinary. Type NEW and press 
RETURN, then enter this program: 

10 G=INT{RND{1)*3)+105 
20 PRINT CHR$(G); 
30 GOTO 10 

Type RUN and press RETURN, Your screen begins 
to fill up with graphics. If you look closely, you'll 
see that only three symbols are being used^ — but 
they are being selected and displayed by the 
computer in a random pattern. 

Line 10 defines G as a random number se- 
lected from these three numbers: 105, 106, and 
107. Line 20 displays the symbol represented by 
the CHR$ code. In this line, we're using the ran- 
dom number to represent a CHR$ code. Each 
symbol and command on your keyboard has its 
own CHR$ code, sometimes called an ASCII 
value. {CHR$ codes are listed in the back of your 
user's manual,) Printing the CHR$ code is the 
same as printing the symbol itself. Here, we've 
selected three CHR$ codes (105, 106, and 107) 

98 COMPUTErs Gazette April 1985 



and we're printing them at random on the screen 
to make a pattern. The semicolon in line 20 
causes the symbols to appear next to each other. 
Line 30 tells the computer to go back to line 10 
and choose another random number before print- 
ing the next CHR$ symbol Press RUN/STOP to 
stop the program. 

Guessing Game 

This program is one of the most classic computer 
math games. It may even be the first computer 
game. The object is to guess a number from 1 to 
10 — but the game isn't nearly as important as the 
concepts we're going to learn. We'll see how ran- 
dom numbers are used — we'll use the "greater 
than" (>) and "less than" (<) symbols, the "not 
equal to" (<>) sign, and, of course, variables. 
Type NEW and press RETURN, then enter this 
rogram and run it: 



i 



10 R=INT( (RND(1)*I0)+1) :C=0 :PRINT CHR?(14 

7)r 
20 C=C+1: PRINT "{2 DOWNIgUESS NUMBER" C 
40 PRINT "{DOWNIgUESS A NUMBER{8 SPACES }F 

ROM I TO 10": INPUT N 
50 IF N=R THEN PRINT "RIGHT! ": FOR T=l TO 

1000: NEXT: GOTO 10 
60 IF NOR THEN PRINT "WRONG... TRY AGAIN" 

: FOR T=l TO 1000! NEXTs GOTO 20 

The computer cliooses a random number 
from 1 to 10, You have to guess the number. The 
computer tells you whether you're right or 
wrong, then either asks you to choose again or 
selects another number. The computer also keeps 
track of how many guesses you've made. 

Line 10 defines the variable R as a random 
number between 1 and 10, sets the value of C 
(our "guess counter") to zero, and clears the 
screen (PRINT CHR$(147) is the same as clearing 
the screen). 

Line 20 uses a simple counter (C = C + 1) to 
keep track of how many guesses have been 
made, then prints the number of the "guess." 
Every time there's a wrong answer, the program 
loops back to this line and increases the value of 
C by 1, which "counts" the number of guesses. 

Line 40 cursors down a line, prints the mes- 
sage, and waits for a number (N) to be typed in. 

Line 50 is similar to the RIGHT messages in 
our math practice example. It checks to see if the 
INPUT number (N) equals the random number 
(R), then goes back to get a new random number 
if the answer is right. 

Line 60 contains the WRONG message. If N 
does not equal (<>) R, it prints the message, 
waits for a time delay of 1 to 1000, then goes 
back to line 20 to increase the "C counter" and 
repeat the guessing message. 



A Business Math Lesson 

You can use computer math to solve a wide vari- 
ety of business problems. Here's a quick example 
to show you how it works. Let's say we're going 
into business to manufacture a new kind of 
flower vase. The vases are made out of pottery 
and are designed with computer symbols. The 
vases will be sold through computer stores as a 
novelty item. 

It will cost us $3 to produce each vase, plus 
about 75 cents for a shipping carton and postage. 
So our unit cost is $3.75. 

Most vases currently sell for $12.95, but 
we're going to sell ours for a retail price of $8. 

Typically, a computer store gets a 30-40 per- 
cent discount off the retail price. Our discount 
will be 40 percent. 

The lohoiesde price is the price that we 
charge the computer stores who buy our vases. 
In this case, the wholesale price is the retail price 
($8) multiplied by the discount (.40). 

Gross margin is the profit we earn before 
subtracting production and selling costs. This is 
calculated by subtracting the cost from the 
wholesale price. You can express gross margin 
either as a dollar figure or a percentage. 

The gross rnargin percent is calculated by 
dividing the gross margin into the cost. 

Our challenge is to write a computer pro- 
gram that answers these questions: 

1. What wholesale price should we charge 
our dealers? 

2. What is the gross margin in dollars on 
each vase we sell? 

3. What percent of our cost does our gross 
margin represent? 

4. What are the total sales projected in 
dollars? 

5. What is the total gross margin in dollars? 

Here's a BASIC program that answers these 
questions: 

10 PRINT CHR$(147) "ENTKR UNIT COST";!lNP 

UT C 
20 PRINT "ENTER RETAIL PRICE": INPUTR 
30 PRINT "ENTER DISCOUNT %": INPUT D 
35 IF D>1 THEN D=D*.01 
40 W=(R-R*D) 

45 PRINT "ENTER TOTAL UNITS YOU EXPECT TO 

SELL DURING PERIOD" 

46 INPUTU 

50 PRINT CHR5(147) "1. RETAIL PRICE 

{5 spaces}?" R 
55 PRINT "2. WHOLESALE PRICE.. (5 SPACES i $ 

.1 w 

60 PRINT "3. COST PER UNIT . . . . { 5 SPACES }$ 

" C 
65 PRINT "4. GROSS MARGIN {5 SPACES}$ 

" (W-C) 
70 PRINT "5. GROSS MARGIN AS A" 



75 PRINT "[3 SPACES} PERCENT OF COST 

(7 SPACES} $" (W-C)/C 

80 PRINT "6. SALES (UNITS) {4 SPACES}" 

U 
85 PRINT "7. SALES {DOLLARS ).. {5 SPACES } $ 

" (U*W) 
90 PRINT "8. GROSS MARGIN ON" 
95 PRINT "{3 SPACES J TOTAL SALES 

{5 SPACES}$" {U*(W-C) ) 
105 PRINT "{DOWN} {3 RIGHT}PRESS ANY KEY 

(9 SPACES} TO START OVER" 
110 GET KS: IF KS="" THEN GOTO 110 
115 GOTO 10 

Line 10 uses PRINT CHR$(147) to clear the 
screen, then prints a message and asks for an IN- 
PUT. We used the variable C to stand for Cost, 
which in our example is $3. From now on the 
variable C is the same as the cost number that 
was typed in. 

Lines 20 and 30 print messages and ask for 
additional INPUTs. The retail price is $8 and the 
discount should be .40 (.40 is the same as 40 
percent.) 

Line 35 is helpful to the user. It corrects the 
answer (input) if the user makes a mistake typing 
the discount percent. The IF-THEN statement 
checks to see if D is greater than (>) 1. If the 
user's answer to the INPUT in line 30 includes 
the decimal point (.4 or .40), then D is less than 
1 and the computer moves on to line 40. If, how- 
ever, the user typed 40 in response to line 30, 
the computer sees that 40 is greater than 1 and 
automatically converts D to the proper form by 
multiplying D times .01. In other words, if D was 
40, the program redefines D as (40*.01) which is 
.40 — -the same as 40 percent. 

Line 40 calculates the wholesale price by 
taking 40 percent of the retail price and then 
subtracting it from the retail price. You could also 
find the wholesale price by using this formula: 
R*(l — D), which is the same as .60 times the re- 
tail price. From now on we'll use W for Whole- 
sale price. The answer, incidentally, is $4.80. 

Line 45 asks for the estimated number of 
units you expect to sell. Don't forget that com- 
mas are never used in computer math. So if you 
expect to sell 3,000 units, the INPUT should be 
typed in as 3000 without the comma. 

Line 50 clears the screen and prints the retail 
price (which you typed in earlier). 

Line 55 displays the wholesale price we cal- 
culated in line 40. 

Line 60 displays the unit cost. 

Line 65 calculates and displays the gross 
margin, which is obtained by subtracting the cost 
(C) from the wholesale price (W). 

Line 70 is the first part of a PRINT message 
which we want to appear on two lines so it 
aligns properly on the screen. 

Line 75 completes the PRINT message and 

COMPUTErs Gazette April 1985 99 



calculates the gross margin percent, which is ob- 
tained by subtracting cost from wholesale price 
and dividing it by cost. 

Line 80 displays sales in units (actually a 
sales forecast). 

Line 85 calculates and displays sales in dol- 
lars, which is obtained by multiplying the total 
units times the wholesale price. Remember, if 
you're a manufacturer, your sales are based on 
the wholesale price you receive from dealers. The 
computer store dealers' sales are calculated from 
the retail price, but the manufacturer uses the 
wholesale price. 

Lines 90-95 calculate and display the gross 
margin on total unit sales, which is obtained by 
multiplying the total projected units times the 
gross margin. 

Lines 105-115 set up the PRESS ANY KEY 
option. The PRESS ANY KEY message is printed 
in line 105. Line 110 is a standard GET K$ line 
which is used to scan the keyboard. It makes the 
computer wait until a key is pressed before going 
on. Line 115 goes back to line 10, clears the 
screen, and starts the program over from scratch. 

Using Parentheses 

You may be wondering why we used the paren- 
theses () the way we did in our business ex- 
ample, so here's a quick explanation. The answer 
to the following calculation is 7, but how does 
the computer get the answer? 
PRINT 3+2*6/3 

The computer always scans the calculation 
from left to right and first does the iniiUiplication 
and division. Then it goes back and performs 
addition and subtraction. The following chart 
shows how the computer solves the calculation 
step-by-step. 

What The Computer Does Result After Each Step 

Computer scans calculation. PRINT 3 + 2*6/3 

Multiply 2*6, which is 12. PRINT 3+12/3 

Divide 12 by 3, which is 4. PRINT 3 + 4 

Add 3 to 4, which is 7, PRINT 7 

Remember, the computer muUipUes and di- 
vides first, starting from left to right — then it adds 
and subtracts. You can control the order of 
calculation by using parentheses (). 

Parentheses tell the computer exactly which 
parts of the calculation to perform first. Type the 
following program: 

10 PRINT 3+2*6/3 

20 PRINT (3+2)* (6/3) 

30 PRINT (3+(2*6))/3 

When you run this program, you get three dif- 
ferent answers because the parentheses told the 
computer an order in which to perform the 
calculations. Here's how: 

100 COMPUTSrs Gazette April 1985 



Line 10 is the example we looked at first. 

In line 20, the computer first performs the 
calculations inside the parentheses by adding 
3-1-2 to get 5 — and dividing 6 by 3 to get 2. After 
this, the formula looks like this to the computer: 
(5)*(2), so now the computer multiplies 5 times 2 
and prints the answer, which is 10. 

Line 30 looks complicated, but it really isn't 
if you understand how the parentheses work. We 
start by finding the left and right parentheses 
which are closest together. This is where the 
computer starts calculating. The parentheses 
which are closest together are (2*6), so first the 
computer multiplies 2*6 to get 12. Now the 
calculation looks like this to the computer: 
{3 + (12))/3. 

Next we plug the 12 into the formula and 
work our way out to the next set of parentheses, 
which looks like this: (3 + (12)), The computer 
adds 3 to 12, which is 15, so now this part of the 
formula looks like this: ((15))/3 — and 15 divided 
by 3 is 5 so the computer prints the answer, 
which is 5, 

The two right parentheses may look a httle 
strange but we need them because in computer 
calculations you always need the same number 
of left and right parentheses. This is essential. If 
you don't balance parentheses, the computer will 
give you a SYNTAX ERROR. 

Fractions And Computer Math 

You can also use parentheses in computer math 
to convert fractions. For example, the fraction 
1/4 is really .25. Here's a quick way to see the 
decimal equivalents to the fractions from 1/1 to 
1/16: 



FOR F = l TO 16: PRINT 
NEXT 



'!/" F " EQUALS" 1/F: 



The computer gives you the answer in decimals, 
which is another way of expressing fractions. But 
how do you express a number like 4-1/2? Easy. 
The number 4-1/2 is the same as adding the 
number 4 and the fraction 1/2, so if you need to 
insert a number like 4-1/2 in a computer math 
formula, you can add the four and the 1/2 inside 
parentheses, like this: 

PRINT (4+1/2) 
FRINT(4 + l/2)*(3+l/3) 

There are many other ways to use parentheses, 
particularly in long business or scientific for- 
mulas. We'll be exploring some of these tech- 
niques as we go along, but for now we'll give 
"computer math" a rest and spend the next few 
months exploring other aspects of BASIC 
programming. Next month, we'll take a look at a 
group of commands which are seldom discussed 
in detail — the string ($) functions. 



MACHINE LANGUAGE FOR BEGINNERS 



Richard Mansfield, Senior Editor 



Customizing BASIC 



"Wedge," our example program this month, has 
several uses. It will show you the number of 
bytes free in your memory, but unlike typing 
?FRE(1), it's always on the screen while you pro- 
gram. Thus, you can see the effect of adding a 
single line, of a DIM statement, or any other 
changes you might make to a program. 

While people with an unexpanded VIC are 
likely to find this constant memory report of the 
most value, others will also benefit from the way 
that it reveals how memory is used in a BASIC 
program. What's more, Wedge illustrates how 
you can wedge a machine language program into 
your BASIC language. This is a way that the 
DOS Wedge and other BASIC expansion utilites 
can make themselves part of BASIC itself, 

(If you don't have an assembler, you can just 
type in Program 2 and run it like a normal 
BASIC program. It will build the ML wedge rou- 
tine for you automatically. Then just SYS 828 to 
activate Wedge. And, if you're using a 
Datassette, be sure to disable Wedge by pressing 
RUN/STOP-RESTORE before tape saves or 
loads.) 

Using Words Instead Of 
Numdbers 

Let's go through Program 1 to see how a wedge 
works. First, you'll see a series of definitions be- 
tween lines 40-110. Here we tell the assembler 
the meaning of the various words {called labels) 
that we'll be using in the program. These labels 
refer to routines or locations within BASIC itself 
which we will need to access to make our wedge 
program work. 

You can find the addresses of such routines 
in memory maps for your VIC or 64. Perhaps the 
most complete and understandable maps are 
found in Mapping the 64 and Mapping the VIC 
(COMPUTE! Books). When you need to do 
something like print a character to the screen, 
you'll need a map to tell you that address $FFD2 



(65490 decimal) will print the character in the 
Accumulator. This, and hundreds of other sub- 
routines, are waiting inside your computer. All 
you need to know is their address (and what 
information they want from you before you call 
on them with a JSR). 

Because of a kink in the way ?FRE{1) works, 
because it doesn't really print the actual number 
of bytes free, we'll avoid using the ?FRE() routine 
in ROM. Let's create our own routine which dis- 
plays the actual number. However, to do this, it's 
worth looking at the way BASIC calculates bytes 
free. 1 used a disassembler to study what BASIC 
does when you type ?FRE. Again, I got the ad- 
dress from a map. 

How BASIC stores Programs 

It turns out that the computer simply subtracts 
the address of the arrays from the address of the 
strings. What's left over is "free" for you to use. 
To understand what this means, we need to 
briefly outline how BASIC stores its programs in 
RAM. First (lowest in available RAM memory) it 
puts the program itself with the line numbers, 
commands, and embedded strings (strings Uke 
A$ = "BETTY"). All this is held together in one 
mass, and it builds upward as you add new lines 
to a program. 

Above that, there is a storage area for simple 
numeric variables. Next, any arrays. Then there 
is a section of free RAM which is the total num- 
ber of bytes not yet used by either the program 
proper, the variables, the arrays, or the strings. 
Finally, building down from the top of available 
RAM, dynamic strings are stored— dynamic 
means they change during a program RUN, like 
A$ = A$ + B$. So the space between the top of 
the arrays and the bottom of the strings is the 
free RAM. 

Addresses 51,52 in your computer always 
contain a two-byte number which tells you ex- 
actly where the bottom of your string storage is 

COMPUTErs Gazsm April 1985 101 



m. 



Program 1: wedge 



*= 828 



W^ 



"WEDGE' 



.S 

.0 



DEFINITIONS 



10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

40 

50 ; 

60 STRINGMEMORY = 51; POINTER TO BOTTOM OF STRINGS 

70 ARRAYMEMORY = 49,- POINTER TO TOP OF ARRAYS 

80 CHARS = 48589; CHANGE INTEGER INTO PRINTABLE CHARACTERS 

81 ; (USE 56781 FOR VIC CHARS ADDRESS) 

90 PLOT = 65520; SET LOCATION OF CURSOR 

100 MAINLOOP = 770; ADDRESS OF BASIC'S ENTRANCE TO ITS MAIN LOOP 

105 PRINT = $FFD2r PRINT CHARACTER IN THE ACCUMULATOR 

110 r 

120 ; RESET POINTER 

130 ; 4 

140 LDA #<ROUTINE:STA MAINLOOP :LDA #>ROUTINE:STA MAINLOOP+1 : RTS 



THIS POINTS BASIC TO OUR SPECIAL WEDGE. 



THE WEDGE 



150 ; 
160 ; 

170 ; 

180 ; 

190 ROUTINE STA A: STY Y:STX X:PHP; 

200 SECiJSR PLOT; 

210 STX PXsSTY PY; 

2 20 LDY #0:LDX #30!GLC:JSR PLOT; 

230 LDA #58sJSR PRINT; 

240 ; 

2 50 SEC:LDA STRINGMEMORY: SBC ARRAYMEMORY ; TAX 

2 60 LDA STRINGMEM0RY+1:SBC ARRAYMEMORY+l 

270 JSR CHARS; 

280 ; 

290 ; 

300 ; 

310 ; 



SAVE STATUS OF THE REGISTERS 
FIND CURRENT CURSOR POSITION 
SAVE CURRENT CURSOR POSITION 
SET UP A NEW CURSOR POSITION 
PRINT A COLON ON SCREEN 



CHANGE TO PRINTABLE CHARS, 
AND PRINT THEM ON SCREEN 



RESTORE CURSOR POSITION AND REGISTERS 



320 LDX PX:LDY PYrCLCiJSR PLOT; 
330 PLP;LDX X:LDY Y:LDA A; 
340 JMP 42115; 



RESTORE CURSOR POSITION 

RESTORE REGISTERS 

GO BACK INTO BASIC'S MAIN LOOP 



341 
350 
360 
370 
380 A 
390 Y 
400 X 
410 PY 
420 PX 
430 



(USE 50307 FOR VIC TO GO BACK INTO BASIC'S MAIN LOOP) 



VARIABLES 



BYTE 
BYTE 
BYTE 
.BYTE 
.BYTE 
END WEDGE 



9 



located. Likewise, addresses 49,50 tell you where 
the top of your arrays is. 

Important Addresses 

Another interesting definition can be found in 
line 80 of Program 1, This routine is normally 
used by BASIC to print put line numbers. It's a 
convenient way to transform the computer's ML- 
style integer number storage format into human- 
readable decimal numbers on screen. This is 
handy for printing game scores on screen, etc. 
The computer stores most numbers (includ- 

102 COMPUTE rs Gazeflo Apnl 19^ 



ing the addresses of string storage, etc, men- 
tioned above) in a two-byte format. The higher 
byte (address 52, for string storage) is multiplied 
by 256 and then added to the lower byte (ad- 
dress 51). 

To display such a number on screen at the 
current cursor position, you would LDX with the 
lower byte, LDA with the higher byte, and JSR 
48589 (56781 for VIC). Play around with this a 
bit. LDA #0; LDX #45; JSR 48589 will print 45 
on screen. What would happen if you LDA #1 in 
this example? Also, try printing out the string 



Program 2: Free 64 


10 REM 64 V?EDGE LOADER 


800 


FOR ADRES=828TO907:READ DATTA 


810 


POKE 


AD RES, DATTA: NEXT ADRES 


828 


DATA 


169, 71, 141, 2, 3, 169 


834 


DATA 


3, 141, 3, 3. 96, 141 


840 


DATA 


140, 3, 140, 141, 3, 142 


846 


DATA 


142, 3, 8, 56, 32, 240 


852 


DATA 


255, 142, 144, 3, 140, 143 


858 


DATA 


3, 160, 0, 162, 30, 24 


864 


DATA 


32, 240, 255, 169, 58, 32 


870 


DATA 


210, 255, 56, 165, 51, 229 


876 


DATA 


49, 170, 165, 52, 229, 50 


882 


DATA 


32, 205, 189, 174, 144, 3 


888 


DATA 


172, 143, 3, 24, 32, 240 


894 


DATA 


255, 40, 174, 142, 3, 172 


900 


DATA 


141, 3, 173, 140, 3, 76 


906 


DATA 


131, 164 



Progrom 3: Fzee vie (substitute 
these lines in Program 2) 

882 DATA 32, 205, 221, 174, 144, 3 
906 DATA 131, 196 



Storage address. You do it the same way, but 
LDX 51:LDA 52 {not using the number sign 
means Load from the address indicated, instead 
of loading the actual mwtber itself). If you don't 
own an assembler, you can see how this routine 
works from BASIC. POKE the high byte into 
780, the low byte into 781, and SYS 48589 
(56781 on a VIC). 

We'll define the meaning of PLOT and 
MAINLOOP when we describe how the Wedge 
program works. First, however, let's see how to 
initialize a wedge. 

Inserting The Wedge 

Sure, BASIC is built into the computer. It's huge. 
It's entirely ML, It allows you to write programs. 
But BASIC IS, itself, a program. Like any other 
program, it uses data (whatever program you 
type in is the data); it has subroutines (like the 
CHARS subroutine we discussed above); and it 
has a main loop. There is a delicate place in 
BASIC, a soft spot. It spends most of its time just 
looping through this main loop, waiting for you 
to type something in. It's here we can attach our- 
selves to the main loop. We can make BASIC 
think that our Wedge is one of its normal, re- 
quired jobs. 

One thing that makes our task easier is that 
BASIC vectors (jumps) through address 770 as 
part of its main loop. Normally (when you turn 
on power to the computer) that address will send 
BASIC right back where it came from in ROM. 
However, if we change the two-byte number at 
770,771 to point to our own ML routine, then 



our routine, our wedge, will effectively become 
part of BASIC'S main loop and will be active un- 
til power is turned off. We must, however, end 
our new ML routine with a jump back to the 
normal BASIC loop in ROM (see line 340). 

So, the first thing that happens when we 
SYS 828 and activate the wedge is that we re- 
place the address of the normal BASIC main loop 
with the address of our ML routine in that soft 
spot, addresses 770,771. We've already given 770 
the label MAINLOOP (line 100), so in line 140 
we can LDA #<ROUTINE:STA MAINLOOP That 
puts the low byte of the address of our routine 
into the low byte of the soft spot. (We labeled 
the start of our wedge with the name ROUTINE 
by simply calling it ROUTINE in line 190— that's 
all you need to do to give some subroutine a 
name, just type in the name at the start of the 
subroutine. From then on, you don't need to 
specify any particular address, just use the name 
itself.) 

Anyway, the special assembler instruction 
#< will extract the low byte of a number. In this 
case, we're using the label ROUTINE which is 
the true start of our wedge. Whatever its low 
byte is will be put into address 770. Then, we do 
the same thing for the high byte with the #> 
command and put it into MAINLOOP + 1 (which 
is address 771). You can see that we don't need 
to bother knowing where in memory ROUTINE 
will be. We can extract and store its address 
using the #< and #> pseudo-ops. (A pseudo-op 
is an instruction which tells an assembler how to 
do something. It's not one of the 6502 computer- 
understandable commands. It doesn't become 
part of the final ML program. It just assists you 
by communicating some special information to 
your assembler.) 

Now that we've linked ourselves into 
BASIC'S main loop by stuffing our ROUTINE ad- 
dress into that special MAINLOOP vector, what- 
ever follows will be continually executed by the 
computer. 

Keeping BASIC Sane 

We don't want to muck things up for BASIC, 
though. So our first responsibility is to save the 
current values held in the Accumulator, the X 
and Y registers, and the Status Flag. All this is 
accomplished in line 190. For example, we save 
the Accumulator value in a variable we've 
named "A" (see line 380). You could call it 
whatever you wanted: SAVEACC might be your 
name for the place where the Accumulator is 
stored during the active hfe of the wedge. If you 
chose that name, line 380 would simply read: 

380 SAVEACC .BYTE 
and line 190 would say STA SAVEACC. 

COMPUTBls Gazone April 1985 103 



The assembler doesn't care what names you 
give things, just so you're consistent. The .BYTE 
pseudo-op simply reserves space in memory for 
you to store things. For every number following 
.BYTE, one byte will be set aside. If you wanted 
to reserve five bytes for some kind of storage, 
you would type: 

STOREFIVE .BYTE 

or if you wanted to store particular numbers 
there ahead of time you could type: 

FIRSTFIVE .BYTE 12 3 4 

Whatever. It's pretty much up to you. You 
can use these storage places the way you'd use 
variables in BASIC. You can put things in and 
get them out by just giving the location label, as 
in LDA FIRSTFIVE (getting you the 0} or LDA 
FIRSTFIVE + 3 (loading in the 3). 

You can store alphabetic characters, too: 

NAME .BYTE "STEVE {just use the quotes to show 
that it's alphabetic) 

Manipulating Cursor Position 

But back to the wedge. After we save the reg- 
isters, we JSR (Jump to SubRoutine) to the PLOT 
subroutine within BASIC. PLOT is a valuable 
routine. If you first set the carry flag (in the 
Status Register, by invoking the SEC command 
as we're doing here), the PLOT routine does 
something useful. When the computer returns 
from JSR, you'll find the X Register holding the 
current line number and the Y Register the cur- 
rent column where the cursor is. Again, we're 
going to save the current cursor position (using 
SEC:JSR PLOT:STX PX:STY FY). PX and PY are 
BYTE defined variable storage locations (like the 
A, X, and Y storage). 

Next, however, we can make PLOT perform 
the reverse function by simplv using CLC (CLear 
the Carry flag) instead" of SEC . Now (line 220), 
we've loaded the Y Register with the line num- 
ber and the X Register with the column number. 
This JSR to PLOT installs this as the new current 
position of the cursor on screen. That's where 
we'll want to position our bytes free report. 

We then print a colon to the screen to pre- 
vent accidental RETURNS over the bytes free 
number (thereby possibly affecting the BASIC 
program). 

Now (lines 250-260) we subtract the top-of- 
arrays memory location from the bottom-of- 
strings and leave the low byte of the result in the 
X Register and the high byte of the result in the 
Accumulator. The high byte is already in the 
Accumulator following the second subtraction 
(SBC) command. 



Tidying Things Up 

JSR CHARS prints the number of bytes free on 
the screen and we're pretty much finished with 
our wedge. All that's left is a bit of houseclean- 
ing: restoring the saved registers and the cursor 
position to their status before we entered our 
wedge. So, we LDX from the PX variable, LDY 
and make PLOT restore the line and column of 
the cursor. Then, we pull the processor status 
byte (the flags) off the stack with PLP, restore 
the values of A, X, and Y, which have been held 
for us in the variable spaces we created and 
unimaginatively called A, X, and Y, and then 
jump into the normal BASIC main loop address. 

It's instructive to activate Wedge and then 
type in BASIC lines and see their impact on 
memory usage. For one thing, try DIMming dif- 
ferent kinds of arrays (integer, floating point, or 
string) to see how much space each kind reserves 
for itself. You'll have to run the program to force 
the DIM into action — -just typing in a new BASIC 
line with DIM in it won't allocate space. 

Also try building a sample array from DATA 
statements. Try CLR, NEW, etc. What would 
happen if you defined a variable in immediate 
mode? (A$ + "NEW WORD")? If you want a 
challenge, see if you can modify Wedge to work 
while a BASIC program is running, so you can 
SYS 828 from within the program itself. m 




A/itl' 



l.ai^ e^yr^ f ^f<sH &y7:B f^^^^at 



COMPUTErs Gazette 

TOLL FREE 
Subscription Order Line 

800-334-0868 

In NC 919-275-9808 



104 COMPUTErs GbzoUO April 1985 



Charles Brannon 
Program Editor 



ssssss^sss^^^HORIZONSi 



This month, let's take a detailed look at a small 
game program written in BASIC. We frequently 
get questions about how to write computer game 
software, questions like: "How do you move an 
object around the sa-een with a joystick?" "How 
do you tell when one object has hit another?" 
"How do you get the computer to keep score?" 
It's worth remembering that, inside a com- 
puter, there are no "objects," just strings of num- 
bers moving around in memory. And it can help 
a programmer to think of a game as a series of 
actions, but these actions are expressed in great 
detail. You cannot just type in MOVE PLAYER 1 
WITH JOYSTICK. Even a prewritten subroutine 
cannot be flexible enough to adapt to all possible 
variations of moving a player with a joystick. 
You have to read the joystick, interpret the direc- 
tion, then use statements to move the object (a 
character or a sprite, say) in the desired direction. 
While you move the object, you have to move 
any other objects, check for collisions between 
objects, update the score, decrease game time 
remaining, update sound effects, etc. You have to 
give all the details, 

"Pudding Mountain Miner" 

This 17-hne program is a complete, though tiny 
game. I originally wrote this program to run with 
a COMPUTE! subscription promotion in several 
major newspapers when the GAZETTE first started 
up. Readers of the ad could enter the small pro- 
gram and get a taste of typing in their own pro- 
grams. The game is pretty much fun to play, 
considering its size. Pudding Mountain Miner 
runs on either the VIC or 64, thanks to some 
programming that checks to see which machine 
it's running on. It's tightly packed, written to use 
as little space as possible.. This can make a pro- 
gram hard to read, since long variable names, 
single statement lines, and REMarks all take their 
share of space and memory. 



100 V=(PEEK(0}=76) tW=40+18*V;T=1024-6656* 

VtC=55296+16896*V:S=53281+L6402*V 

:rem 20 
110 C5=CHR$ ( 147 ) : PRINTC$ ; POKES , 1 -26*V : FOR 

I=0TOW-1:Q=22*W+I : rem 208 

115 POKET+Q,160:POKEC+Q,7:NEXT ; rem 93 
1 20 S$=CHR$ ( 32 ) +CHR$ ( 158 ) +CHR$ ( 18 ) +CHR$ ( 1 

88)+CHR$ ( 146 )+CHR$ ( 156)+CHR? {185 ) 

:rem 105 
130 S$=S$+CHR$(31)+CHR$(175) !Q=RND(1)*(W- 

7 ) +3+2 2 *W! POKET+Q , 164 : POKEC+Q , 5 

:rem 21 
140 FORI=0TOW-1 :FORJ=0TO7*RND( 1 )+3 :Q=( 21- 

J ) *W+I : POKET+Q , 160 : POKEC+Q , 2 :NEXT:KEX 

T :reiTi 134 

150 PRINTCHR$(142);CHR$(19) ; :Y%=4*RND( 1 }+ 

1 !FORI=lTOY%i PRINT: NEXT :X=0 : rem 139 
160 L$=CHR$C157) !PRlNTS$;L$;L$;L$r jX=X+1: 

GETA?:IFA$=""ANDX<W-4THEN160 ;rein 67 
170 IFX=W-4THENPRINTTAB (X) ; CHR$ { 32 } ; CHR$ ( 

32) ;CHR?{32) ? :GOTO150 :rein202 

180 FORI=Y%+2T022 :Q=I*W+X+1 :P=PEEK(T+Q) 

srera 102 
190 POKET+Q-W, 32: POKET+Q, 90: POKEC+Q, 8 *RND 

(1) IIFP=32THE^7NEXT t rem 193 

200 B=B+l:POKET+Q,32tlFI<22GOTO160 

srem 251 
210 IFPO 164THENFORI=0TO2 55 : POKEC+Q, I : POK 

ET+Q,I:NEXT:PRINTC$;"YOU LOST":GOT023 

: rem 74 

220 FORI=1TO50 : POKET+Q, 32+13 2*F:F=l-F:NEX 

T:PRINTC$;"Y0U WONl "jB? "BOMBS" 

jrem 61 
230 PRINT: PRINT "PRESS "CHR$ ( 18) ; "RETURN" ; 

CHR$(146);" TO PLAY {2 SPACES} AGAIN" 

:rem 180 
240 GETA$:IFA$<>CHR$C13)THEN240 :rem 254 
250 RUN :rein 140 



Game Description 

When writing a game or analyzing one, it's often 
best to start at the top and work your way down. 
You analyze the "big picture" first, then descend 
into the details. The goal of Pudding Mountain 
Miner is to get the gold, represented by a dollar 
sign, by clearing away the mountain of chocolate 

COMPUTEfs GBzette Aprti 19eS 105 



pudding. As the airplane flies across the screen, 
you press the space bar to drop a bomb. The 
bomb falls and takes out a piece of the mountain. 
You continue to chip away at the mountain until 
you expose the gold at the base. You can lose if 
you blast your way to the base without uncover- 
ing any gold. (By the way, originally the moun- 
tain was your ordinary kind, made of rock, but 
some here felt that blasting a mountain to bits 
was too violent. Hence, "Pudding Mountain.") 

Program Overview 

The airplane is made of character graphics from 
the built-in character set. 



32 156 

I3PACEI 



18 



rEL 




nv3 

ON 



1 86 1 46 

OFF 


156 185 
PUR ^ 


31 

01, u 


175 

u 


Explodad Air] 


plana 







The computer moves the plane by drawing the 
airplane, then erasing it, then redrawing it one 
space forward. This cycle continues, and the 
plane appears to move across the screen. The 
mountain is made of solid squares (reverse-video 
spaces), and is built up column-by-column, by 
POKEing to the screen. 

POKEing to the screen? You may think that 
you can POKE only to memory. How can you do 
a POKE that displays a character on the screen? 
The screen display is represented in the com- 
puter by a bank of memory locations. Each 
character has a numerical value that goes into 
screen memory. The number used is not in ASCII, 
which you may be familiar with if you've used 
CHR$ and ASC in BASIC. The numbers used to 
represent characters are in a special order, the 
screen code. A complete table of screen codes is 
given in an appendix in your user's manual. For 
example, the alphabet ranges from 1-26, instead 
of 65-90. 

The color of each character goes into a par- 
allel area of memory, color memory. There are 
eight colors on the VIC, 16 on the 64, numbered 
from 0-7 or 0-15. This is the number POKEd 
into a spot in color memory. 

The screen on the VIC is made up of 23 
lines of 22 characters. The 64 screen is 25 lines 
of 40 characters. Multiplying the two figures 
gives you the total number of characters on the 
screen, 506 on the VIC, and 1000 on the 64. To 
get a character on the screen, start with the start- 
ing location of screen memory (1024 on the 64, 
7680 on the unexpanded VIC), then add in a 



number from 0-505 (on the VIC) or 0-999 (on 
the 64) to get the location for where you want 
the character to go. 

If you want to put the letter A on the screen 
at row 12 and column 20, the POKE would be: 

POKE 7680 + 12* 22 -f- 20,1 (unexpanded VIC) 
POKE 1024 4- 12*40 + 20,1 (64) 

Note how the row (12) is multiplied by 
either 22 or 40, the width of the screen. You 
should also always set the color of the character 
you POKE onto the screen. Normally, you let 
PRINT take care of this for you, but when you 
are directly POKEing to the screen, you have to 
do all the work yourself. The starting location of 
color memory on the 64 is 55296, on the un- 
expanded VIC, 38400. It's ordered just like 
screen memory, from 0-999 on the 64 or 0-505 
on the VIC. When you POKE to screen memory, 
also POKE to color memory, We'll use red as the 
color (red is the third color, and since colors start 
with 0, we use a value of two): 

POKE 38400 4- 12*22-1-20,2 (VIC) 
POKE 55296 -M2*40-t- 20,2 (64) 

Naturally, you'll want to save the computer 
time, so you can solve the arithmetic to make the 
computer's job a little easier (and faster): 

POKE 7964,1 :POKE 38684,2 (VIC) 
POKE 1524,l:POKE 55796,2 (64) 

Why use POKE at all? Why won't PRINT 
serve? Well, POKE is more convenient than 
PRINT in that PRINT tends to be serial. It prints 
left to right. You can move the cursor to any po- 
sition with cursor controls, but it's a little 
cumbersome to program. POKE gives you direct 
access to any location on the screen. 

Also, PRINT can display to the screen, but 
there is no command in BASIC to read a charac- 
ter off the screen. In Pudding Mountain Miner, 
the bomb falls as long as there is a blank space 
underneath it. The program keeps dropping the 
bomb until it reads a solid character from the 
screen. The PEEK command is used to read 
memory, in this case, screen memory. It makes 
sense to use POKE when you must use PEEK, 
since the numbers are the same. For example, to 
see what character is at row 20 and column 3, 
use: 

A = PEEK(8123) VIC (7680-}- 20 •22-)- 3) 
A=PEEK(1827) 64 (1024+20*40 -h 3) 

The numeric value of the character is returned in 
the variable A, 

Une-By-Uiie Description 

A line-by-line description is a good way to show 
how a program works. It's also a valuable ref- 
erence tool when you come back to work on a 
big program months later. 



106 COMPUTErs Gazette April 1985 



100 V= (PEEK(0)=76):W= 40+18* V:T = 1024- 

6656« V:C = 55296 + 16896* V:S = 53281 + 1 6402* V 

This is a very busy line. First of all, we need 
to know which machine the game is running on, 
so that we can make adjustments as we go along. 
Location on the VIC normally holds a 76, and 
you wouldn't find a 76 in location on the 64. 
The expression in parentheses is asking for a 
comparison. Is PEEK(0) = 76? If so, the variable V 
is set to -" 1 for true, or for false. This kind of 
trick is valuable. It can save you time and mem- 
ory in your programming. For example, to add 1 
to a number, unless the number is greater than 5, 
we could use: N = N — (N<6), If N<6, the ex- 
pression in parentheses evaluates to a —1, and 
N — 1 is the same as N + 1. When N is greater 
than 5, {N<6) comes out to 0, and N + does no 
addition. 

So if the program is running on a VIC, 
V = (PEEK(0) = 76) is -1, otherwise V = on the 
64. We use this variable in the next statement. W 
stands for the width of the screen. W should be 
40 for the 64, and 22 for the VIC. If V=-l 
(VIC), then 18 will be subtracted from 40 
(W = 40+18*V), making W = 22, otherwise 
40-18*0 is still 40 for the 64. We use this same 
trick to resolve T to either 1024 (the start of 
screen memory on the 64) or 7680 
(1024- 6656* -1). And C is either 55296 for the 
64, or 38400 for the VIC. The location used to 
change the background color of the screen, S, is 
also calculated for the VIC or 64. So we've al- 
ready generalized the program. We can use the 
same program lines on the VIC or 64, since the 
values which are different are already out of the 
way. We can POKE to S and know that we are 
automatically POKEing to the right location for 
the right machine. 

1 10 C$ = CHR$(1 47):PRINTC$:POKES,l - 26* V: 

FORI = 0TOW-l:Q=22*W + I 
115 POKET-fQ,160:POKEC+Q,7:NEXT 

Here we define C$ as the character value of 
Clear Screen. When we PRINT C$, the screen 
clears. This is the same character as SHIFT- 
CLR/HOME. We couid put this clear screen 
character inside quotes, but it's a strange charac- 
ter that's hard for people to type in without 
instructions (remember this program ran in a 
newspaper ad). The use of CHR$ means that 
whoever types in the program won't have to 
worry about things like quote mode. This kind of 
programming is helpful when you intend to pub- 
lish a program in printed form. C$ is used when- 
ever we want to clear the screen. 

We next change the screen color to white. 
The statement POKE S,1-26*V resolves to 
POKE 53281,1 for the 64, or POKE 36879,27 on 
the VIC. We now draw the base of the mountain 



across the bottom of the screen. The FOR-NEXT 
loop ranges from 0-21 or 0-39, according to the 
value of W, the width of the screen. Q is used as 
the offset from screen memory. The row number, 
22, is multiplied by the column width, then we 
add in the column number, I (the index of the 
FOR-NEXT loop). We POKE T + Q (start of 
screen memory plus offset) with a solid square 
(screen-code value 160). The color is yellow (7). 

120 S$ = CHR$(32) + CHR$(1 58) + CHR$(18) + CHR$ 
(1 88) + CH R$(146) + CHR$(156) + CHR$(185) 

130 S$ = S$+ CHR$(31)+ CHR$(175):Q = RND(l)* 
(W-7)-i-3 + 22*W:POKET + ai64;POKE C + aS 

Lines 120 and 130 build up the airplane fig- 
ure one character at a time, using the graphics 
characters and reverse-field (again, refer to the 
figure). The string is built by concatenation, 
using the -f sign. We then pick a random hori- 
zontal position for the gold (a green dollar sign), 
and POKE a dollar sign into screen memory, and 
green into color memory. Randomness makes a 
game different every time you play it. 

140 FORI = 0TOW"l:FORJ=0TO7*RND(l): 

Q = (21 - J)*W +I:POKET+ Q,160: 
POKEC+Q,2:NEXT:NEXT 

We now build the mountain. The mountain 
is drawn left to right, one column at a time. Each 
column is from 1 to 8 characters high, with the 
height chosen randomly. We use two FOR-NEXT 
loops. The outer loop moves the index from left 
to right (0-21 or 0-39) and the inner loop in- 
dexes from top to bottom. We use the RND state- 
ment to change the limit of the inner FOR-NEXT 
loop each column. Inside the inner loop, we 
compute the character position using Q. The bot- 
tom of the mountain is row 21 (counting from 0). 
The index J is subtracted to get the current row 
within the loop. This is multiplied by the width 
of the screen, then the column (I) is added in. 
We then POKE this location with a solid red 
square (appears chocolate pudding brown if you 
adjust your TV and your imagination). The 
NEXTs close up the loops, drawing the entire 
mountain. 

150PRINTCHR$<142);CHR$n9);:Y%=4*RND 
(1) + l:FORI = 1T0Y%:PRINT:NEXT:X =0 

We print CHR$(142), which forces the dis- 
play to uppercase, then CHR$(19), the HOME 
key, which puts the cursor in the upper left 
corner of the screen. We now pick a random row 
for the airplane, so that it will choose a new 
height each time. We now execute some PRINTs 
within a loop to put the cursor from 1 to 4 lines 
down on the screen. Finally, we initiaUze X to 0. 
X will be used below for the horizontal position 
of the airplane. We want to start from left to 
right. 



COMPUTErs Gazette April! 9ftS 107 



160 L$= CHR$(157):PRINTS$;L$;L$;L$;:X= X + 1: 

GETA$:IFA$ = ""ANDX<W-4THEN160 

L$ is defined as cursor-left, which is shorter 
to type than CHR${157) over and over again. 
When printed, a cursor-left moves the cursor to 
the left one space. We print the airplane (the 
whole airplane is stored in the variable S$), then 
back the cursor onto the first character of the air- 
plane. We'll print spaces on top of the airplane to 
erase it, then redraw the plane to make it move. 
The. variable X, used to represent the horizontal 
position of the plane, is upped to the next po- 
sition of the plane, We also check here for a 
bomb being dropped. If any key is pressed, and 
if the plane hasn't reached the far right edge of 
the screen, we go to the part of the program that 
drops the bomb, Otherwise, we continue to the 
next line. 

170IFX-W-4THENPRlNTTAB(X);CHR$(52y;CHR$ 

(32);CHR$<32);:GOTO ISO 

If the plane has reached the right edge of 
the screen {IF X = W — 4), we use TAB to put the 
cursor on the plane, CHR$(32) (a blank space) to 
erase the plane, then we restart the plane at the 
the left side of the screen by jumping back to 
line 150. 

180 FORI = Y% + 2T022:Q = I*W-l-X + l: 

P = PEEK(T + Q> 
190 POKET+Q-W,32:POKET + a90;FOKEC + Q, 

8*RND(1):IFP = 32THENNEXT 

The plane is on row Y%, previously cal- 
culated on line 150. The bomb should drop from 
underneath the plane. We start a FOR-NEXT 
loop to represent the vertical position of the 
bomb, from 2 characters under the plane to 
where the bomb reaches the base of the moun- 
tain. Q is used again to calculate the screen po- 
sition of where we'll put the bomb. We PEEK the 
intended position of the bomb so we can see 
later if we've hit something, then erase the pre- 
vious bomb character (even if this is the first 
time through the loop, where there would be no 
bomb). Animation looks better if you erase the 
old shape, then draw the new one — instead of 
immediately drawing and erasing, which causes 
more flickering. We next POKE in a character for 
the bomb, and color it randomly. As long as the 
bomb falls onto spaces (IF P = 32), we continue 
to drop the bomb. The FOR-NEXT loop ends 
when something has been hit. 

200 B = B t l:POKET + a32:IFI<22GOTO160 

The bomb has hit something, so we add one 
to the variable B, which represents the total 
number of bombs used. We then erase the bomb 
left by the loop. As long as the loop never made 
it to the base, we've just chipped away at the 
mountain, and it's time to continue moving the 
airplane (IF 1<22 GOTO 160). By the way, it's 

108 COMPUWs Gazette April 19*5 



perfectly legal to use GOTO after an IF without 
THEN. 

210IFP<>164THENFORI=0TO235:POKEC+Q,I: 
FOKET+Q,I:NEXT:PRINTCS;"YOU 
LOST":GOTO230 

Since (IF I<22) failed, line 210 is executing, 
so the bomb hit a character at the base of the 
mountain. If what the bomb hit (P) is not equal 
to 164, the value of the dollar sign, then the 
player has chipped his way into the base, 
destroying the mountain. We create a mediocre 
explosion by POKEing the characters from 0-255 
into screen and color memory, then inform the 
player of his demise. We jump to line 230 to wait 
for the player to press any key to play again. 

220 FORI = lTO50:POKET+ 0,32+ 132*F:F = 1-F: 
NEXT:PRINTC$;"YOU WONl ";B;"BOMBS" 

The IF statement on line 210 had to fail in 
order to get here, so the player must have 
bombed the dollar sign. The goal is achieved; the 
game is over, W^e blink the position of the dollar 
sign by alternating between a space and a dollar 
sign. When F=l, 32-rl32*F resolves to 164, the 
value of the dollar sign, and we POKE in a 32 
(the space character) when F = 0. The statement 
F=1~F makes F alternate between and 1. We 
print the message informing the player how 
many bombs he used, then fall through to the 
next line. 

230 PRINT:PRINT"PRESS ";CHR$(1 8); "RETURN"; 

CHR$(146);" TO PLAY AGAIN" 
240 GETA$:IFA$<>CHR$(13)THEN240 
250 RUN 

We use CHR$(18) to make the word "RE- 
TURN" show up in reverse-video, to remind the 
player that we mean to press the RETURN key, 
not the individual letters R-E-T-U-R-N. In line 
240, we wait for the RETURN key, which has a 
value of 13, to be pressed. After RETURN is 
pressed, the game reruns. 

Program Evolution 

This is such a small program, there is plenty of 
room for enhancements. A great way to learn 
programming is to modify other people's pro- 
grams. You customize "canned" software to your 
taste, then use your knowledge to write pro- 
grams of your own. The game can be made more 
complex. It's crying out for sound effects. Try 
using custom characters for a really professional 
look. Add more rules, even more screens. It's up 
to you. I'd be interested in seeing what you come 
up with. Even if you're not interested in games, 
this program is actually drawing bar graphs (the 
mountain). You can use these tricks to master 
screen formatting and can also learn a lot about 
writing applications programs by studying 
games. Q 



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NoZap: 

Automatic Program Saver 



J. Blake Lambert, Assistant Editor 



This short, useful disk routine automati- 
cally saves updated versions of the BASIC 
program you re working on. Ft also works 
with some ML assemblers, and is es- 
pecially useful for those who live in areas 
where power dropouts frequently occur. 
For the Commodore 64 and VIC-20 with or 
without expansion. 



If you've ever been zapped by a power dropout 
or a loose power plug and seen the ominous re- 
set message, you know how it feels. The cost is 
high: your time and your work. It's easy to say 
always make periodic backup copies as you type in 
or write programs. But when the ideas are flow- 
ing, it's also easy to forget or procrastinate. 
"NoZap" does more than remind you — it does 
the save for you, periodically and automatically. 

NoZap is not a surge protector (it won't pro- 
tect your computer from hardware damage 
resulting from a power spike). But it will protect 
you from momentary electric dropouts and loose 
connections that can cost you time and effort. 
Once you've run NoZap and entered a filename, 
it will save the current version of the program 
every ten minutes with an updated filename. You 
don't have to do anything you don't normally 
do — the operation is totally transparent. Every 
ten minutes, NoZap waits until you finish the 
line you're working on, and when you press RE- 
TURN to enter the line, it automatically saves. 

NoZap even works with some programming 
utilities and typing aids. For example, it works 

110 COMPUTEVs Gazotto April 1985 



with the Automatic Proofreader, but not 
SpeedScript or MLX. (Since MLX is a BASIC pro- 
gram, NoZap will back up the MLX program 
rather than the ML program you're entering.) It 
works with the DOS 5.1 and VIC Wedges, as 
well as with some assemblers, such as PAL and 
LADS. 

NoZap keeps track of the size of the pro- 
gram you're working on, as well as automatically 
stamping a version number onto the beginning of 
the filename. NoZap can accommodate as many 
as 100 versions, numbered 01-99 (after 99, the 
version number rolls over to 00). 

There are a couple of limits which NoZap 
cannot work around: disk space and directory 
space. If there are not enough blocks free, the 
program won't be saved. And the directory can 
hold no more than 144 filenames. 

Using NoZap 

To use NoZap, load and run Program 1 (for the 
VIC) or Program 2 (for the 64); these are BASIC 
loaders. The program POKEs a machine language 
program into the current top of BASIC memory 
and protects it from BASIC variables. Program 1 
works with all VIC configurations (with or with- 
out memory expansion). NoZap also uses memory 
from 739-767, so be careful to avoid putting any 
ML routines there. 

After you've run NoZap, the title line appears, 
and on the next line you see the prompt: 
FILENAME? 

Enter a filename (without quotes) from zero to 
fourteen characters long and press RETURN. 



(Don't try to use a filename longer than fourteen 
characters, as this can cause your computer to 
lock up.) You don't need to include the version 
number, since NoZap adds that for you. Next, 
type NEW and press RETURN. From this point 
on, simply program as you normally would, 
NoZap is in charge of your saves, although you 
may continue to use the normal SAVE command. 
The first time NoZap saves, it uses a version 
number of 01. For example, if you enter THOR 
as the filename, the first version will be 
OITHOR, the second, 02THOR, and so on. 
NoZap reports the disk status, but will not retry 
if there is an error. 

Forced Saves And Toggling 

Occasionally you may want to save a new ver- 
sion before the next NoZap save. Or you may 
want to turn NoZap off for a while. To do so, 
use these commands: 

SYS 739 (forced save) 
SYS 745 (toggle off and on) 

Typing SYS 739 increments the version number 
and saves the program. NoZap resets its timer so 
the next save will occur ten minutes later. 

If you want to turn NoZap off, type SYS 
745. This SYS acts as a toggle, so if you SYS 745 
again, NoZap will restart as if it had been run for 
the first time. 

Zapping NoZap 

NoZap has been written to prevent it from inter- 
fering with your programming — RUN/STOP- 
RESTORE does not deactivate it. Turn the com- 
puter off then on again, or SYS 64738 on the 64, 
or 64802 on the VIC. 

There are also ways to trick NoZap to your 
advantage. For example, if you stop at 04THOR 
one evening, the next time you program, run 
NoZap, entering the filename THOR again. To 
defeat saves, open the gate on the disk drive 
(and remove the disk if you like). To bump the 
version number up, SYS 739 repeatedly until you 
reach the desired number. Leaving the gate open 
will also help you avoid saving something in 
memory that you don't wish to save (like the 
disk directory), You may have to initialize the 
drive (or turn it off and on) to get it to respond 
after this, since the drive protects itself by not 
repeatedly trying to operate with the gate open. 

Wild Cards And Pattern 
Matches 

Since the version numbers are at the beginning 
of the filename, you can list all the versions of 
THOR with 



LOAD"$0:7?THOR",8 
LIST 

or, using the wedge command, 
@$0:7?THOR 

If the program name is long, you may want to 
use pattern matching as well. For example, ver- 
sions of THORSREVENGE could be viewed with 
the wedge command, 

@$0:??THORS* 

This is subject to the normal rules of pattern 
matching. 

When you have a final version, you may 
want to do a normal save of the program, using 
a unique name, like FINALTHOR. You can then 
scratch all of the NoZap-saved versions of THOR 
v^^ith the following wedge command: 

@S0:77THOR 

Note that it's usually best not to use pattern 
matching when scratching files to avoid erasing 
files accidentally. 

How NoZap Works 

NoZap takes advantage of the fact that many 
BASIC and Kernal routines are vectored. A vector 
is like a roadsign that tells the computer the loca- 
tion of a routine. Since the vector is in RAM, it 
can be changed to point to your own routine, the 
same way a detour sign guides you when traffic 
is rerouted. A program that uses such a detour is 
called a wedge. 

NoZap sets up a detour in the Main BASIC 
Loop, the part of BASIC that takes in program 
lines as they are entered (in direct mode), As a 
result, BASIC will take the NoZap detour each 
time you press RETURN. When you run NoZap 
and enter a filename, the name is placed in a 
filename buffer, just after the current version 
number. The vector at locations $302-303, which 
points to the Main BASIC Loop, is altered, and 
one of the computer's internal timers is set to 
zero. It is this timer that NoZap checks as you 
enter each program line. The 64 version uses one 
of the 64's TOD (time of day) clocks at locations 
$DC08-DC0A, and the VIC version checks the 
jiffy clock at locations $A0-$A2. (Tape opera- 
tions will affect the timer in the VIC version.) If 
the timer has not counted to ten minutes, NoZap 
sends the computer back to the Main BASIC 
Loop (at $A483 in the 64, $C483 in the VIC). 
This completes the NoZap detour. 

Since NoZap wedges into the Main vector at 
$302-303, it is not compatible with programming 
utilities which use the same technique. You may 
have to experiment to find out which utilities 
will work with NoZap in place. Another source 
of conflict is programs that want to use the same 
section of memory. 

COMPUTBS Gazette Aprt1 1985 111 



Clock Strikes Ten 

If the timer has counted up far enough, NoZap 
continues, adding one to the version number in 
the filename buffer, then using the Kernal 
SETNAM, SETLFS, and SAVE routines. NoZap 
determines what area of memory to save by 
looking at the pointers to the start and end of 
BASIC program text ($2B-2C and $2D-2E, 
respectively). Then it checks the error channel 
and finishes the SAVE routine, returning to the 
Main Loop again. 

The above description is brief, so use a ma- 
chine language monitor to disassemble NoZap if 
you wish to look at all of the details. In addition, 
the BASIC loader POKEs in two short routines. 
The first, which starts at 739 decimal, sets the 
timer to trick NoZap into thinking the time is up. 
This forces an earlier save. 

The second routine is a NoZap pointer. Lo- 
cated at 745, the routine consists of a JuMP to 
the starting address of the NoZap initialization 
routine. When you run the BASIC loader, this 
address is placed in its correct form in addresses 
746-747. This means that no matter where 
NoZap locates, you can toggle it on and off with 
SYS 745. 

Customizing NoZap 

After you've typed in, saved, and tested the 
BASIC loader for your computer, you may want 
to customize it to suit your preferences. One easy 
modification is to change the interval between 
saves. While the normal value is ten minutes, 
NoZap maintains a counter which allows you to 
use an interval of 20 minutes or more. To change 
the time between saves to 20 minutes, for ex- 
ample, change the 1 in line 42 to a 2. Change it 
to 3 for 30 minutes, and so on. You must also in- 
fr*?ase the checksum number in line 102 by the 
same amount as you increase the counter value. 

One side effect of changing the interval is 
that you must SYS 739 repeatedly to do a forced 
save. For example, if you change the counter 
value to 2, you must SYS 739 twice to do a 
forced save, and three times if the counter is set 
to 3. To avoid this problem, a simpler way to 
force a save when the counter is set to 2 or 
higher is 

POKE 750,1: SYS 739 

NoZap can be a lifesaver. It can take the 
worry out of losing files unexpectedly and let 
you concentrate on programming. 

See program listings on page 123. ® 



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112 COMPUTEts GazBttB April 19B5 



1526 Hi-Res Screen Dump 



Michael Frantz 



Load this program into your 64, type one 
command, and get a high-resolution screen 
dump on your Commodore 1526 printer. 

The October 1984 GAZETTE contained a program 
for printing hi-res screens to the Commodore 
1525 and MPS-801 printers. Unfortunately, own- 
ers of the Commodore 1526 still had no way of 
printing their hi-res pictures. This program solves 
that problem. 

"1526 Hi-Res Screen Dump" is written in 
machine language (ML). A BASIC program reads 
in the ML program from DATA statements and 
POKES it into memory above BASIC at 49152. 
An internal checksum (in addition to the one 
used with "Automatic Proofreader") tells you if 
you've made any typing errors. 

Program operation is simple. Load 1526 Hi- 
Res Screen Dump first, and type RUN. Next, 
load the hi-res screen or the program that gen- 
erates it. With the hi-res picture displayed, type 
SYS 49152 "blindly" (that is, you won't see the 
characters you're typing — they're not on the hi- 
res screen) and the picture will begin printing on 
the 1526. Because the program automatically 
finds the starting location of the hi-res screen, 
you must be able to see the screen when you 
SYS or the program won't know where to find 
the location of the hi-res screen. 

There are two ways to execute the program. 
The first is described above; the other is to issue 
the command from within a program. For ex- 
ample, you can append a line with the SYS com- 
mand to the end of a program that draws a 
hi-res screen. If the last line in your hi-res pro- 
gram is 940, you can add 950 SYS49152 to exe- 
cute the dump. 

If you wish to print a hi-res screen without 
the hi-res screen displayed, these POKEs must be 
made: 

POKE 49198,169 



POKE 49199, (with high byte of screen starting 

address) 
POKE 49200,76 
POKE 49201,60 
POKE 49202,192 

Note that these POKEs will disable the rou- 
tine that calculates the address of the hi-res 
screen, so you'll have to do the calculations. 
Also, these POKEs can be appended to your hi-res 
program by giving them line numbers. The SYS 
command will again be the last program line. 

See program listing on page 140. 9 



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COMPUTEI's Gazette April 1985 113 



MetaBASIC: 

Programmer's Problem Solver 

Kevin Mykytyn, Editorial Programmer 



Here's a utility that 
will change the way 
you program. It adds 
32 new debugging and 
testing commands to 
Commodore 64 BASIC, 
working by itself or in 
conjunction with a 
machine language 
monitor/assembler. 




You've bought your first car and it runs well. But 
when you take it out on the highway, you're dis- 
mayed to find that it won't go faster than 45 
miles per hour. What do you do? 

Take it to your favorite mechanic and he 
might give you three options: Remove the engine 
and replace it with a brand new one. Or add 
some fancy turbo-charging fuel-injected 
doohickeys to the engine you already have. Or, 
without adding anything, you could tune it up, 
using a special machine that measures the en- 
gine's performance. 

A BASIC Tune-Up 

You can add new programming commands to 
your 64 in three similar ways. The first is to toss 
out BASIC and create a whole new language (a 
more powerful engine) based on your ideas of 
what a programming language should do. 

The second method, a language extension, 
keeps BASIC but adds some new programming 
commands (for sound, high-res graphics, or other 
specialized funcdons). You keep the BASIC en- 
gine, but add some additional parts which make 
it work faster or more efficiently. Simons' BASIC 
and the Super Expander 64 are examples of an 
extension. 

The third way is like a tune-up which 
doesn't change the engine. You add direct mode 
commands for debugging. This is not a new lan- 
guage or even an extension of BASIC, it's more 

114 COMPUTErs Gazette April 1985 



properly called a develop- 
ment system or writing/ 
debugging tool. The new 
commands you add cannot 
be used inside a program, 
they work only in im- 
mediate mode. 

New languages and 
extensions have several 
advantages. But they also 
have a major drawback: 
You have to load the lan- 
guage or extension before you load the main pro- 
gram, or the program just won't work. 

The nice thing about a development system 
like "MetaBASIC" is that it's there when you 
need it, during the time you're writing and tun- 
ing up a program. But once you've finished the 
program, you don't need MetaBASIC to run it — 
you can disconnect the tune-up machine. 

An Introduction To MetaBASIC 

MetaBASIC uses English mnemonics, so you 

don't have to memorize a lot of SYS numbers. 
And if you forget the new words, you can either 
refer back to this article or type HELP. 

BASIC programmers have 12 new com- 
mands at their fingertips. For writing programs, 
AUTO, KEY, and UNNEW, For examining and 
altering programs, CHANGE, DELETE, FIND, 
RENUM, and VCHANGE. And DUMP, SPEED, 
TRACE, and TROFF help during debugging 
sessions. 

If you're writing in machine language, you 
can use some of the BASIC problem solvers, as 
well as MEMORY, MONITOR, NUMBER, and @. 

To control MetaBASIC, you have DEFAULT, 
HELP, INT, and QUIT. 

Disk commands include BSAVE, CAT, 
DLIST, ERR, MERGE, READ, RESAVE, 
SCRATCH, SEND, and START. 

Finally, there's LLIST if you have a printer, 
and TERMINAL if you have a modem. 



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COMPUTEfs Gaiatte ApcU 1985 115 



MetoBASIC Commands 

Here's an alphabetical list of the new commands and how to use them, with examples. 
MetaBASIC commands and strings appear in boldface and numbers appear in italics. Anything 
enclosed in parentheses is optional. 

If something is described as a disk command, it won't work unless you have a disk drive. 
However, some of the ML programming aids can be useful in BASIC and vice versa. 



AUTO^BASIC Programming 
Syntax: AUTO startmun, increment 
AUTO can take some of the drudgery out of 
writing a program. It automatically numbers a 
program, starting at the first number, in- 
crementing by the second. Separate the num- 
bers with a comma. After you press RETURN 
over a line, the next number is automatically 
printed. The current line number can be 
changed by using the INST/DEL (delete) key 
and replacing it with another number. 

Press RUN/STOP to escape from AUTO. 

Example: AUTO100,10 starts at 100 and 
numbers by 10. 

BSAVE— Disk Command (see also RESAVE) 
Syntax: BSAVE "filename", start address, end 

address + 1 
BSAVE (Binary SAVE) saves a chunk of mem- 
ory to disk, from the starting address to the 
ending address. Put the program name inside 
quotation marks, and use commas to separate 
the name, starting address, and ending ad- 
dress, It's important that you add one to the 
actual ending address. You can use this com- 
mand to make backups of machine language 
programs, as long as you know the starting 
and ending addresses. BSAVE can also func- 
tion to save sections of screen memory, custom 
character sets, or high-res screens. 

The numbers should be in decimal. If you 
need to translate from hexadecimal to decimal, 
see NUMBER (below). 

After you BSAVE to disk, you can load it 
back with LOAD "filename",^,!. 
Example: BSAVE "METABASIC" ,36864 ,40961 
to make a customized backup of MetaBASIC, 
By saving 100 bytes past the actual end of the 
program, you conveniently save all previously 
entered DEFAULT and KEY definitions. The 
next time you load the BSAVEd MetaBASIC, 
type INT and DEFAULT to regain them. 

CAT — Disk Command (see also DLIST, 

READ) 

Syntax: CAT 

Anytime you want to look at the entire disk 

directory, use CAT (for CATalog), The BASIC 

program currently in memory will remain un- 



disturbed. To see specific portions of the direc- 
tory, see DLIST, 

CHANGE — BASIC Programming (see also 

FIND, VCHANGE) 
Syntax: CHANGE @OLD@NEW@ 

{fStartnum, endnum) 
or CHANGE @"OLD"@"NEW"@ 

{,startnum, endnum) 
CHANGE searches through the program in 
memory, changing every occurrence of the old 
string to the new one. The strings can be up to 
30 characters long, and must be bracketed by 
the commercial at sign (@), All lines in which 
changes are made are Usted to the screen. 

The first format will change BASIC com- 
mands and variable names. The second format 
should be used to change strings. If you omit 
the line numbers, CHANGE affects the whole 
program. If you want to change only one sec- 
tion, add the starting and ending line numbers, 
marked off by commas. 

Example: CHANGE @X@QQ@,1,200 
changes the variable X to QQ in lines 1-200. 
To change the name Charles to John through- 
out the program, CHANGE 
@"CHARLES"@"JOHN"@. 

DEFAULT — MetaBASIC Command (see also 
INT, QUIT) 

Syntax: DEFAULT border, background, text, 

device# 
When you hit RUN/STOP-RESTORE, the 
screen reverts to the default colors of light blue 
characters on a dark blue screen, whether you 
like it or not. And several commands like 
LOAD and SAVE default to tape, DEFAULT 
lets you change these values to whatever you 
prefer. 

If you have a disk drive, you can change 
the device number to 8. If you want to use 
your second drive (device nine) for SAVEs, 
change the default to 9. If your 64 is hooked 
up to a black-and-white TV, change the 
character/background color to a more readable 
combination. 

Note: You cannot use any of the new disk 
commands once you change the default device 
number to 1 (tape). To disable DEFAULT (and 
go back to normal), use the MONITOR 



116 COMPUTE'S Gazetts April 1985 



command below. 

Example: DEFAULT1,1,0,8 changes border 
and background to white, characters to black, 
and device number to 8. If you press 
RUN/STOP-RESTORE, you'll see black 
characters on a white background. And you'll 
be able to type Sfi^E" filename" (without add- 
ing a ,8). 

DELETE— BASIC Programming 
Syntax: DELETE startnum-endmmi 
DELETE removes a range of lines from your 
program. Separate the starting Une number 
from the ending number with a dash (-), 

Example: DELETE200-250 erases lines 

200-250. 

DLIST— Disk Command (see also CAT, 

READ) 

Syntax: DLIST ''filename" 

This command lists a BASIC program from 
disk to the screen, without affecting what's 
currently in memory. The program name must 
be enclosed in quotation marks. DLIST enables 
you to look at a program before using MERGE 
or SCRATCH. 

It also allows you to read portions of the 
directory. DLIST "$:A*" displays all disk files 
beginning with the letter A. 

Example: DLIST "BASICPROGRAM" 
reads the file from disk and lists it to the 
screen. 

DUMP— BASIC Programming 

Syntax: DUMP 

Use DUMP to examine the current values of 

all non-array variables in a program. If the 

program is running, press RUN/STOP and 

type DUMP. To resume, type CONT. 

ERR — Disk Command 

Syntax: ERR 

ERR reads the disk error channel. Use it when 

the red light on the disk drive starts blinking. 

FIND— BASIC Programming (see also 
CHANGE, VCHANGE) 

Syntax: FIND @strmg@ {,startnuni, endnum) 
or FIND @"string"@ {,startnum, endnum) 

This allows you to find any word, variable, or 
other string within a program. Each line 
containing the search string is listed to the 
screen. If you wish to search just one section 
of the program, add the starting and ending 
line numbers, separated by commas. 

If you're trying to find BASIC keywords 



(like PRINT or REM), use the first format. It 
also works for variables and numbers. The sec- 
ond format should be used when you're look- 
ing for strings or items inside quotation marks. 

Example: FIND @A = @ searches for 
lines where variable A is defined. 

HELP— MetaBASIC Command 
Syntax: HELP 

Whenever you are unsure of the commands 
available in MetaBASIC, type HELP for a com- 
plete list. 

INT— MetaBASIC Command (see also 
DEFAULT, QUIT) 
Syntax: INT 

Some features of MetaBASIC are interrupt- 
driven. If you reset the interrupts (with the 
MONITOR command), the function keys and 
the SPEED function may no longer work. INT 
puts the interrupts back in place. 

KEY— BASIC Programming (see also INT) 
Syntax: KEY fu}iction#, "command or string" 
This command adds a lot of flexibility to 
MetaBASIC, allowing you to define each of the 
eight function keys as a different command or 
string. 

The command, up to ten letters in length, 
must be inside quotation marks. There are two 
special characters. The back arrow acts as a 
carriage return, so you don't have to press RE- 
TURN after BASIC commands. Also, the apos- 
trophe (SHIFT-7) counts as a double quotation 
mark. 

Using KEY, you can load other utilities 
you may own, and SYS to them with a tap of 
a function key. Or you can do a one-key RUN 
or LIST 

If you want to permanently define the 
function keys and screen/text colors, you can 
use KEY and DEFAULT and then BSAVE 
"MetaBASIC" using the starting and ending 
addresses above. The definitions will be saved 
along with the program. 

If the interrupts are accidentally reset, you 
may have to use the INT command to re- 
enable the KEY function. 

Examples: 

KEY1/'{CLR}LIST100— " clears the 
screen and lists from line 100 on whenever 
you press fl (the back arrow means RETURN 
will happen automatically). You could also 
abbreviate LIST with L SHIFT-I. 

KEY7/'DATA" could be useful with auto- 
matic line numbering (see AUTO) if you're 
writing a program with a lot of DATA state- 



COMPUTEIS Gazette April 1985 117 



merits. After entering a line, press RETURN 
and you'll see the next line number. Then 
press f7 and the word DATA automatically 
appears, 

KEY2,"VERIFY'*'-" defines f2 to print 
VERIFY"*" plus a RETURN (note the apos- 
trophes have been changed to quotation 
marks). If you've used DEFAULT to change 
the device number to 8, pressing f2 will auto- 
matically verify the program most recently 
saved to disk. 

LLIST — Printer Command 

Syntax: LLIST (startnum-endnum) 

This command lists a program, but the lisdng 

is sent to a printer rather than to the screen. 

Line numbers are optional. The syntax for 

LLIST is identical to the regular LIST. 

Example: LLISTlO-20 to list Unes 10-20 to 
the printer. 

MEMORY — ML Programming (see also @) 
Syntax: MEMORY start address (-end address) 
You can examine any section of memory with 
this command. Use decimal numbers (not hex) 
for the starting and ending addresses. The val- 
ues in memory are displayed, six bytes per 
line, in decimal. In addition, the equivalent 
ASCII characters are printed in reverse to the 
right (if there's no corresponding ASCII 
character, a period is printed). 

If you omit the ending address, MEMORY 
43 for example, you'll see the contents of two 
bytes (43 and 44). This makes it easier to look 
at two byte pointers — like 43 and 44 which 
point to the beginning of BASIC memory. 

To change memory, you can use the @ 
command, described below. 

Example: Enter MEMORY 41374-41474 
and you'll see the first few error messages 
(note that the ASCII value of the last character 
is always added to 128). Or, load a BASIC pro- 
gram, and type MEMORY 2048-2148 to see 
how programs are stored in memory. 

MERGE — Disk Command 
Syntax: MERGE "program name" 

MERGE reads a program from disk, lists each 
line to the screen, and adds the line to the pro- 
gram in memory. If the programs have com- 
mon line numbers, the program on disk takes 
precedence. Say they both contain a line 250. 
The line 250 from the disk program will re- 
place line 250 in memory. 

Before using this command, you may 
want to use DLIST to make sure you're merg- 
ing the right program. And if there are 



conflicting line numbers, you can use RENUM 
to renumber one of the two programs. If you 
want to merge just part of one program, use 
DELETE to eliminate the unwanted lines. 

MONITOR — ML Programming (see also INT) 
Syntax: MONITOR 

If you have a machine language monitor in 
memory, you can enter it with MONITOR 
(providing it is enabled with a BRK). To use 
MetaBASIC with a monitor, you must load 
MetaBASIC, type NEW, and SYS36864. Next, 
load the monitor, type NEW, and SYS to the 
starting address (which will set up the BRK 
vector to point to the monitor). 

MONITOR does several other things, as 
well. It changes border, background, and text 
colors back to their default values (light blue 
on dark blue). It also sets interrupts to normal, 
which disables the function key definitions 
(see KEY) and SPEED command. You can get 
them back with the INT command, 

NUMBER — ML Programming 
Syntax: NUMBER Vicxmnn 

or NUMBER dccmim 
NUMBER allows you to convert back and 
forth between decimal and hexadecimal. Put a 
dollar sign ($) in front of hex numbers. In 
addition, the number is converted to low- 
byte/high-byte format (in decimal) and the 
equivalent binary number (marked by a per- 
cent sign). 

Examples: 

NUMBER $100 

256 

1 

% 100000000 

NUMBER 34 

$22 

34 

% 100010 

QUIT— MetaBASIC Command 
Syntax: QUIT 

This resets all vectors and disables all 
MetaBASIC commands. The one thing it does 
not do is restore the top of memory pointer, 
MetaBASIC is still protected from BASIC, Re- 
enter the program with SYS36864 or 
SYS9M096. 

READ — Disk Command (see also CAT, 

DLIST) 

Syntax: READ "seq filename" 

READ allows you to examine sequential disk 

files. The information in the file is displayed to 



118 COMPUTEIS Qazetts April 19BS 



the screen, without altering whatever program 
is in memory. 

In the rare case that you want to use the 
BASIC READ command from direct mode (to 
see if all DATA statements have been read), 
you can precede it with a colon, 

RENUM— BASIC Programming 
Syntax: RENUM {startnu7n){fincremeni) 
This command renumbers the entire BASIC 
program in memory (you can't renumber just 
part of the program), starting at the specified 
line number. The increment size is optional; 
RENUM defaults to 10. If you omit the starting 
number, it will start at line 10. 

In addition to renumbering BASIC lines, 
all references in GOTOs, GOSUBs, ON- 
GOTOs, ON-GOSUBs, IF-THENs, etc. are 
taken care of. One word of caution: GOTO is 
covered, but GO TO (with a space in the mid- 
dle) is not. Use FIND before renumbering to 
look for occurrences of GO TO. 

Example: RENUM 100,20 renumbers a 
program, starting at line 100, counting up by 
20s. 

RESAVE— Disk Command (see also BSAVE) 
Syntax: RESAVE "filename" 

The disk command save-with-replace (SAVE 
"@:filename") first saves the program and then 
scratches the older version, so there must al- 
ways be enough free space on the disk for the 
new version of the program. This can cause 
problems if you don't have enough available 
space. 

Save-with-replace is also sometimes un- 
reliable and should be avoided (although some 
experts dispute this). 

RESAVE reverses the order — first it 
scratches the old version of your program from 
disk, and then does a regular SAVE, solving 
both of the above problems. 

SCRATCH— Disk Command 
Syntax: SCRATCH "filename" 

SCRATCH does the same thing as OPEN 
15,8,15: PR!NT#15,"S0:/f7eMflme": CLOSE 15, 
but it's easier to type. It scratches a file from 
the disk. If you have just inserted the disk into 
the drive, it's a good idea to initialize it first 
(see SEND). You can use wildcards to scratch 
more than one program — SCRATCH "A*" will 
get rid of all files beginning with the letter A. 
Example: SCRATCH"SPACEGAME" re- 
moves the program named SPACEGAME from 
the disk. 



SEND— Disk Command 
Syntax: SEND "disk command" 

This is a convenient way to send disk com- 
mands to channel 15. SEND"IO" initializes the 
drive, SEND"VO" validates the disk, SEND 
"RQ-.newname^oldnajne" renames a disk file, 
and so on. For more information about disk 
commands, see the 1541 User's Manual. 

SPEED— BASIC Programming 
Syntax: SPEED number 
SPEED followed by a number from to 255 
changes the printing speed. The higher the 
number, the slower the speed. Try typing 
SPEED 255 (the slowest you can make it) and 
then list a program. You can get back to nor- 
mal with SPEED 0. If it doesn't work, try us- 
ing INT (see above) to correct the interrupts. 
SPEED is also useful when you're using 
the TRACE command. 

START— Disk Command 
Syntax: START "filename" 

If you forget where a machine language pro- 
gram begins, put the disk in the drive and use 
this command. This can help when you have 
forgotten the SYS that starts a program. 

Example: START "METABASIC" should 
display 36864 on the screen. 

TERMINAL— Modem Command 
Syntax: TERMINAL 

If you own a Commodore modem (and ifs 
plugged into your 64), TERMINAL transforms 
your computer into a 300 baud "dumb" termi- 
nal you can use to talk to standard-ASCII bul- 
letin boards or information services like 
CompuServe. You can't change any of the de- 
fault parameters (like full-duplex), nor can you 
upload or download text or programs. 

To return to BASIC, press the E (English 
pound) key; do not press RUN/STOP- 
RESTORE. A note of caution: Memory loca- 
tions 52736-53247 are used for buffers, so any 
program in this area will be overwritten. 

TRACE— BASIC Programming (see also 
TROFF) 

Syntax: TRACE followed by RUN. 
If you're debugging a BASIC program, TRACE 
helps you see what's happening. As each line 
is executed, its line number is printed on the 
screen. Use the SHIFT or CTRL key to tem- 
porarily halt the program. SPEED controls the 
speed of execution, and TROFF turns off 
TRACE. 



COMPUJEVs Gaialt$ April 1985 119 



TROFF — BASIC Programming (see also 

TRACE) 

Syntax: TROFF 

This command turns off the TRACE function. 

UNNEW— BASIC Programming 
Syntax: UNNEW 

You may never need this command, but it's 
nice to have it available. If you accidentally 
type NEW and you want to retrieve the pro- 
gram, use UNNEW to get it back. 

VCHANGE — BASIC Programming {see also 
CHANGE, FIND) 

Syntax: VCHANGE @OLD@NEW@ 
{fStartnum, endnum) 
or VCHANGE @"OLD"@"NEW"@ 
{,slarinum, endmm) 
VCHANGE (Verify CHANGE) works just like 
CHANCE (see above), except you get to 
choose whether or not the change is made. 
Each line containing the old string is dis- 



played, with each occurrence of the string 
marked with a filled-in circle. If you press Y, 
the change is made, Press N if you want to 
skip to the next one, 

@ — ML Programming (see also MEMORY) 
Syntax: @ start address, number, number.... 
This works like POKE, except it allows you to 
put a series of numbers into consecutive mem- 
ory locations. For example, if you want to 
change border and background color to white, 
you would use @53280,1,1. The first 1 goes 
into 53280, the second into 53281. If you add 
more numbers, separated by commas, they are 
POKEd into the next locations: 53282, 53283, 
and so on. 

You can also use this in conjunction with 
MEMORY. First, PEEK at a series of locations 
using MEMORY. Then change the information 
there by putting @ before each line you want 
to change. Cursor over to the number you 
want to change, change it, and press RETURN. 



Typing It In 

MetaBASlC is written entirely in machine lan- 
guage, and MLX is required to type it in. 

If you don't already have a copy of MLX for 
the 64, type it in and save it to tape or disk. 

The program resides at the top of memory, 
where BASIC programs (including MLX) store 
dynamic strings. To protect this section of mem- 
ory, you must enter POKE644,144:SYS58260 
before loading MLX. Otherwise, the variables 
will overwrite MetaBASlC. Then, load MLX and 
run it. Give it the following information: 

Starting Address: 36864 
Ending Address: 40805 

Next, following the MLX instructions, enter 
MetaBASlC and save it. 

To use MetaBASlC, follow these steps: 

1. L0AD"MetaBASIC",8,l (for disk) or 
LOAD"MetaBASlC",l,l (tape). 

2. Type NEW 

3. SYS36864 (or SYS9*4096) 

The program uses 4K at the top of BASIC 
memory (which leaves you with 35K for your 
programs). The first thing it does is move the top 
of BASIC pointer down, to protect itself from 
variables. After the SYS, it may seem that noth- 
ing is happening. But MetaBASlC is running in 
the background, and you now have 32 new com- 

120 COMPUTEIS GazellB April 19B5 



mands to help you write and debug programs. 

Special Notes 

Always type NEW after loading MetaBASlC. 

One feature that works automatically is LIST 
Pause. When you're listing a program, hold 
down CTRL, SHIFT, or the Commodore key to 
temporarily halt it. 

RUN/STOP-RESTORE is available in both 
program mode and direct mode. But if you want 
to interrupt any of the utilities like RENUM, use 
the RUN/STOP key by itself (not RUN/STOP- 
RESTORE). 

The commands work only in direct mode; 
you cannot add them to programs. Also, you're 
limited to one command per line (although you 
can still use multi-statement lines inside your 
programs). Unlike ordinary BASIC commands, 
there are no abbreviations. You must type out 
the entire MetaBASlC command. If it seems to be 
working incorrectly, make sure the syntax is 
correct. 

Machine language programmers should 
remember that MetaBASlC occupies memory 
locations $9000-9FFF. The 4K which begins at 
$C000 is available for programs like Micromon 
or for your own ML programs. Be sure to load 
and run MetaBASlC before loading any other 
programs. See program listing on page 141. 9 



NEWS8C 
PRODUCTS 



Tax Packoge For 64 

The 1985 version of Arrays, Inc./ 
Continental Software's The Tax Advan- 
tage is now available for the 1984 tax 
year. The program aids in preparing 
forms 1040, 6251, 2106, 2441, and 
4562, and schedules A, B, C, D, E, G, 
SE, and W. 

It performs operations such as in- 
come averaging; itemizing wages, de- 
ductions, and assets; and computing 
the new alternate "minimum tax." The 
program is available on disk at a sug- 
gested price of $69.95. 

Arrays, hic. /Continental Software, 
11223 $. H'mdry Ave., Los Angeles, CA 
90045 
Circle Reader Service Number Z23. 



Updated Typing Tutoxial 

Scarborough Systems, Inc. has released 
an updated version of its typing in- 
struction program, called Neu) Improved 
Maslertype. It's available on disk and 
cartridge for the Commodore 64 at a 
suggested retail price of $39.95. 

The program teaches basic and ad- 
vanced typing and keyboard skills by 
using a space-age game. Onscreen fin- 
ger positioning, sentence and typing 
rhythm lessons, and improved accuracy 
and skill measurements have been 
added to the new version. The tutorial 
has 18 successive difficulty levels and is 
suitable for ages six to adult, 

Scarborough Systems !nc., 25 N. 
Broadway, Tarrytown, NY 10591 

Circle Reader Service Number 224. 



Pzoductlvity Packages, 
Books For 64 

Abacus Software has announced 13 
new programs and books for the Com- 
modore 64. The books are priced from 
around $15 each, while the software 
starts at $39.95. 

New language and development 
software includes: Ada Training Course, 
BASlC-64 Compiler, C Language Com- 
piler, Fortran Compiler, and Video Basic 



Development. New productivity pack- 
ages are: Cadpak-64 (design package); 
Charipak-64 (charting program); 
Datamat-64 {data management pro- 
gram); and Power Plan-64, a spread- 
sheet with graphics. New book titles 
for the 64 are: Cassette Book for 
C-64; More Tricks & Tips for C-64; Peeks 
and Pokes for C-64; and Turbo Pascal 
Training Guide. 

Abacus Software, 2201 Kalamazoo 
S.E., P.O. Box 7211, Grand Rapids, MI 
49510 
Circle Reader Service Number 225. 



64 Pzoductlvity Software 

Batteries Included has introduced 
HomePak, a package of three integrated 
programs for homo use. included is 
HomeText, a word processor; HomeFind, 
a data managemenl system; and 
HomeTerm, a terminal communications 
program. 

The programs can be used sepa- 
rately or together. Data stored in 
HomeFind can be integrated with letters 
produced with HomeText, and 
HomeText can be used to write reports 
based on information called up via 
HomeTerm. Suggested retail price is 
$49.95. 

Batteries Included, 30 Mural St., 
Richmond Hill, Ontario, CANADA 14B 
IBS. 
Circle Reader Service Number 226. 



Graphics, Chart Generator 

Graph Now, a graphics and chart gen- 
erator for the Commodore 64, has been 
released by Cardco, Inc., at a suggested 
retail price of $39.95. 

The program can generate line and 
bar graphs as well as graphic art de- 
signs. Graphics are generated with 
Paint Now, which is included. Both pro- 
grams are compatible with Cardco's 
word processor. Write Now. 

Cardco, Inc., 300 S. Topeka, Wichita, 
KS 67202 
Circle Reader Service Number 227. 



Graphics Tablet For 64 

Animation Station, a new graphics tablet 
for the Commodore 64 which features a 
printer/ dump and built-in character set, 
has been introduced by Suncom. 

Besides its use for graphics. Anima- 
tion Station can also be utilized for writ- 
ing. Included with the package is 
DesignLab, a color software program 
which has a built-in cut-and-paste fea- 
ture which allows the user to electroni- 
cally reposition elements on the screen. 

Other software programs are avail- 
able. Suggested retail price is $79.95. 

Suncom, 260 Holbrook Dr., Wheeling, 
IL 60090 

Circle Reader Service Number 228. 



64 Construction Set 

Adventure Construction Set, a program 
that allows one to four players to de- 
sign graphics and text adventures, has 
been introduced by Electronic Arts. The 
suggested retail price for the Commo- 
dore 64 version is $50, 

Three programs are contained on 
the disk: Adventure Construction Set; 
Rivers of Light, an adventure set in 
Egypt and the Near East during the 
dawn of man; and Land of Adveniuria, 
an adventuring tutorial for novices 
which contains seven mini -adventures, 
each based on a theme or a different 
kind of game that can be created with 
the construction set. These adventures 
can be modified by the player to help 
learn how to build adventures with 
ACS. 

Electronic Arts, 2755 Campus Dr., 
San Mateo, CA 94403 

Circle Reader Service Number 229. 

Neil' Product releases arc selected from 
submissiotts for reasons of timeliness, 
uniqueness, available space, and general 
interest. Readers should be aware that 
News & Products often contains an edited 
version of material submitted by vendors. 
We are unable to vouch for its accuracy 
at time of publication. Q 

COMPUTEVs Gazette April 1985 12» 



The Automatic Proofreader 



"The Automatic Proofreader" will help you type in program 
listings from COMPUTER'S Gazette without typing mistakes. It 
is a short error-checking program that hides itself in memory. 
When activated, it lots you know immediately after typing a 
line from a program listing if you have made a mistake. 
Please read these instructions carefully before typing any 
programs in COMPUTEI's Gazette. 

Preparing The Proofreader 

1. Using the listing below, type in the Proofreader. Tlie 
same program works on both the VlC-20 and Commodore 
64. Be very careful when entering the DATA statements — 
don't type an i instead of a 1, an O instead of a 0, extra 
commas, etc. 

2. SAVE the Proofreader on tape or disk at least twice 
before ruiniing it for lite first time. This is ver)' important because 
the Proofreader erases this part of itself when you first type 
RUN, 

3. After the Proofreader is SAVEd, type RUN. It will 
check itself lor typing errors in the DATA statements and 
warn you if there's a mistake. Correct any errors and SAVE 
the corrected version. Keep a copy in a safe place — you'll 
need it again and again, every time you enter a program 
from COMPUTErs CaxcitQ. 

4. When a correct version of (he Proiifreader is RUN, it 
activates itself. You are now ready to enter a program listing. 
If you press RUN/STOP-RESTORE, the Proofreader is dis- 
abled. To reactivate it, just type the command SYS 886 and 
press RETURN. 

Using The Proofreader 

All ViC and 64 listings in COMPUTEi's Gazette now have a 
checksum ni/mkY appended to the end of each line, for exam pie 
":rem 123",. Don't enter this statement xvhcit tifptng in a prognim. 
It is just for your information. The rem makes the number 
harmless if someone does type it in. It will, however, use up 
memory if you enter it, and it will confuse the Proofreader, 
even if you entered the rest of the line correctly. 

When you type in a line from a program listing and 
press RETURN, the Proofreader displays a number at the 
top of your screen. Thi!^ checiisiim uumlvr must match the 
checksiiw number iu lliv printed listing. If it doesn't, it means 
you typed the line differently than the way it is listed. Im- 
mediateSy rccheck your typing. Remember, don't type the 
rem statement with the checksum number; it is published 
only so you can check it against the number which appears 
on your screen. 

The Proofreader is not picky with spaces. It will not 
notice extra spaces or missing ones. This is for your conven- 
ience, since spacing is generally not important. But occasion- 
ally proper spacing is important, so be extra careful with 
spaces, since the Proofreader will catch practically everj' thing 
else that can go wrong. 

There's another thing to watch out for: if you enter the 
line by using abbreviations for commands, the checksum 
will not match up, But there is a way to make die Proofreader 
check it. After entering the line, LIST it. This eliminates the 
abbreviations. Then move the cursor up to the line and press 
RETURN, It should now match the checksum. You can check 
whole groups of lines this way. 

Special Tape SAVE Instructions 

When you're done typing a listing, you most disable the 
Proofreader before SAVEing the program on tape. Disable 
the Proofreader by pressing RUN/STOP- RESTORE (hold 
down the RUN/STOP key and sharply hit the RESTORE 
key). This procedure is not necessary' for disk SAVEs, but i/ou 
must disable the Proof reader titis wni/ before <t taitv SAVE. 

122 COMPUWs Gajrana Apiii 1985 



SAVE to tape erases the Proofreader from memory, so 
you'll have to LOAD and RUN it again if you want to type 
another listing, SAVE to disk docs not erase the Proofreader. 
Since the Proofreader is a machine language program 
stored in the cassette buffer, it will be erased during a tape 
SAVE or LOAD. If you intend to type in a program in more 
than one sitting or wish to make a safety SAVE, follow this 
procedure: 

1. LOAD and RUN the Proofreader. 

2. Disable it by pressing RUN /STOP-RESTORE. 

3. Type the following three lines in direct mode 
(without line numbers): 

A?»" PROOFREADER . T " : B5 = " f 1 SPACES J " s FO 

RX"1T04!A§=A$+B5 s NEXTX 

FORX=t886 TO 101S : A$=A5+CHR? (PEEK(X) ) :N 

EXTX 

OPESl , 1 , 1 , A? : CLOSE! 

After you type the last line, you will be asked to press 
RECORD and PLAY. We recommend you start at the begin- 
ning of a new tape. 

You now have a new version of the Proofreader 
{ PROOFREADER. T, as renamed in the above code). Turn 
your computer off and on, then LOAD the program you 
were working on. Put the cassette containing 
PROOFREADER,T into the tape unit and type: 
OPENlrCLOSEl 

You can now got into the Proofreader by typing SYS 
886. To test this, PRINT PEEK (886) should return the num- 
ber 173. If it does not, repeat the steps above, making sure 
that A$ (PROOFREADER.T) contains 13 characters and that 
B$ contains W spaces. 

The new version of Automatic Proofreader will load 
itself into the cassette buffer whenever you type 
OPENl:CLOSEl and PROOFREADER.T is the next program 
on your tape. It will not disturb the contents of BASIC 
memory. 

Automatic Proofreader For VIC And 64 

100 PRINT" [CLR] PLEASE WAIT- . . " :FORI=S86TO 
1018 : READA : CK=CK+A : POKEI , A : NEXT 

110 IF CK<> 17539 THEtJ PRINT" { [JOWN) YOU I^IAD 
E AN ERROR" ! PRINT" IN DATA STATEMENTS. 
":END 

120 SYS886:PRINT"(CLR] {2 DOWN J PROOFREADER 
ACTIVATED. " : NEW 

886 DATA 173,036,003,201,150,208 

892 DATA 001,096,141,151,003,173 

898 DATA 037,003,141,152,003,169 

904 DATA 150,141,036,003,169,003 

910 DATA 141,037,003,169,000,133 

916 DATA 254,096,032,087,241,133 

922 DATA 251,134,252,132,253,008 

928 DATA 201,013,240,017,201,032 

934 DATA 240,005,024,101,254,133 

940 DATA 254,165,251,166,252,164 

946 DATA 253,040,096,169,013,032 

952 DATA 210,255,165,214,141,251 

958 DATA 003,206,251,003,169,000 

964 DATA 133,216,169,019,032,210 

970 DATA 255,169,018,032,210,255 

976 DATA 169,058,032,210,255,166 

982 DATA 254,169,000,133,254,172 

988 DATA 151,003,192,087,208,006 

994 DATA 032,205,189,076,235,003 

1000 DATA 032,205,221,169,032,032 

1006 DATA 210,255,032,210,255,173 

1012 DATA 251,003,133,214,076,173 

1018 DATA 003 



NoZap 

(Article on page 110.) 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 

Before typing in programs, please refer to 
"How To Type In COMPUTEI's GAZETTE 
Programs," which appears before the Program 
Listings. 



Program 1 : NoZap— vie version 

2 POKE56,PEEK{56)-l:CLR:I=256*PEEK(56)+PE 
EK(55):S=I ! rem 216 

4 DEFFNH(X)=INT(x/256) : rem 37 

6 DEFFNL{X)=X-FNH(X)*256 ! rem 156 

8 DATA169, 141, 141,161,0,96,76 :rem 202 
10 FORJ=739T0745!READK:POKEJ,K:NEXT 

:rem 249 
12 POKE746,PEEK(55) SPOKE747 , PEEK( 56} 

trem 87 
14 PRINT "SYS 739=PORCED SAVE. {2 SPACESJs 
YS 745=TOGCLE." :rem 241 

16 READ A!B=B+A:IF A=256 THEN 102: rem 209 
18 POKE I,A:I=I+1;G0T0 16 : rem 141 
20 DATA 173,236,2,73,1,141 s rem 241 
22 DATA 236,2,208,13,169,131 :rem 90 
24 DATA 141,2,3,169,196,141 : rem 45 
26 DATA 3,3,76,131,196,169 :rem 6 

28 DATA 48,141,239,2,141,240 trem 94 
30 DATA 2,169,7,160,7,32 trem 149 
32 DATA 30,203,32,249,203,160 : rem 131 
34 DATA 2,185,254,1,153,239 :rem 48 
36 DATA 2,240,3,200,208,245 srem 33 
38 DATA 140,237,2,162,7,160 s rem 43 
40 DATA 7,142,2,3,140,3 : rem 85 

42 DATA 3, 169, 1,141, 238, 2: REM CHANGE THE 

[space] 1 FOR A LONGER INTERVAL: rem 239 
44 DATA 169,0,133,160,133.161 : rem 139 
46 DATA 133,162,165,161,56,201 : rem 194 
48 DATA 141,144,116,206,238,2 : rem 144 
50 DATA 208,236,238,240,2,173 i rem 144 
52 DATA 240,2,201,58,208,20 : rem 33 
54 DATA 169,48,141,240,2,238 : rem 102 
56 DATA 239,2,173,239,2,201 : rem 47 
58 DATA 58,208,5,169,48,141 :rem 65 
60 DATA 239,2,173,237,2,162 : rem 46 
62 DATA 239,160,2,32,189,255 ;rem 104 
64 DATA 169,1,162,8,160,0 trem 201 
66 DATA 32,186,255,169,43,166 :rem 166 
68 DATA 45,164,46,32,216,255 trem 108 
70 DATA 169,141,32,210,255,169 : rem 199 
72 DATA 0,32,189,255,169,15 :rem 56 
74 DATA 162,8,168,32,186,255 srem 113 
76 DATA 32,192,255,162,15,32 trem 100 
78 DATA 198,255,32,207,255,201 trem 208 
80 DATA 13,240,6,32,210,255 trem 34 
82 DATA 56,176,243,32,210,255 trem 150 
84 DATA 169,15,32,195,255,32 trem 109 
86 DATA 204,255,76,7.7,76 trem 222 
88 DATA 131,196,18.78,79,90 : rem 76 
90 DATA 65,80,146,32,66,89 trem 15 
92 DATA 32,66,76,65,75,69 : rem 229 
94 DATA 32,76,65,77,66,69 trem 233 
96 DATA 82,84,13,70,73,76 trem 221 
98 DATA 69,78.65,77,69,0,256 trem 134 
102 IF B<>28586THENPRINT"ERROR IN DATA ST 

ATEMENTS . " t END t rem 109 

104 POKE S+32 ,FNL(S+206) :POKES+34,FNH(S+2 

06) trem 215 



106 POKE S+58,FNL(S+80) :POKES+60,FNH(S+80 
) ;rem 128 

108 POKE S+201,FNL(S+67) tPOKES+202,FNHtS+ 
67) trem 224 

110 SYS745 trem 49 



Program 2: NoZap— 64 version 

2 POKE56,PEEK(56)-l :CLR t I = 256*PEI:K( 56 )+PE 
EK(55) tS=I trem 216 

4 DEPPNH(x)=INT(X/256) trem 37 

6 DEFPNL(X)=X-FNH(X)*256 trem 156 

8 DATA169,16,141,10,220,96,76 : rem 200 
10 FORJ=739T0745 tREADK:POKEJ,K:NEXT 

: rem 249 
12 POKE746,PEEK{55) : POKE747, PEEK{ 56 ) 

:rem 87 
14 PRINT "SYS 739=F0RCED SAVE. SYS 745=TO 
GGLE. " :rem 241 

16 READ A!B=B+AtIF A=256 THEN 102 trem 209 
18 POKE I,AtI=I+l tGOTG 16 : rem 141 
20 DATA 173,236,2,73,1,141 trem 241 
22 DATA 236,2,208,13,169,131 srem 90 
24 DATA 141,2,3,169,164,141 trem 40 
26 DATA 3,3,76,131,164,169 trem 1 

28 DATA 48,141.239,2,141,240 : rem 94 
30 DATA 2,169,7,160.7,32 : rem 149 

32 DATA 30,171,32,249,171,160 trem 139 
34 DATA 2.185,254,1,153,239 trem 48 
36 DATA 2,240,3,200,208,245 srem 3 3 
38 DATA 140.237,2,162,7,160 srem 43 
40 DATA 7,142,,2,3,140,3 trem 85 

42 DATA 3, 169, 1,141, 238, 2: REM CHANGE THE 

{SPACE 5 1 FOR A LONGER INTERVAL trem 239 

44 DATA 169,0,141,8,220,141 trem 38 

46 DATA 9,220,141,10,220,173 trem 83 

48 DATA 10,220,41,240,240,117 srem 129 

50 DATA 206,238.2,208,233,238 srem 145 

52 DATA 240,2,173,240,2,201 trem 27 

54 DATA 58,208,20,1,69,48.141 trem 106 

56 DATA 240,2.238,239,2.173 trem 49 

58 DATA 239,2,201.58,208,5 srem 2 

60 DATA 169,48.141,239,2.173 trem 105 

52 DATA 237,2.162,239,160,2 trem 44 

64 DATA 32,189,255,169,1,162 trem 109 

66 DATA 8,160,0,32,186.2 55 trem 1 

68 DATA 169,43,166,45.164,46 : rem 118 

70 DATA 32,216,255,169,141,32 : rem 146 

72 DATA 210,255,169,0,32,189 srem 101 

74 DATA 255.169.15,162,8,160 srem 107 

76 DATA 15,32,186.255,32,192 trem 106 

78 DATA 255.162,15.32,198,255 srem 163 

80 DATA 32,207,255,201,13,240 : rem 133 

82 DATA 6.32,210,255.56,176 :rem 51 

84 DATA 243.32,210.255,169,15 srem 149 

86 DATA 32,195.255,32,204,255 trem 155 

88 DATA 76,7.7.76,131,164 trem 222 

90 DATA 18,78,79,90,65.80 trem 227 

92 DATA 146,32,66,89.32,66 trem 15 

94 DATA 76,65,75,69,32.76 trem 232 

96 DATA 65,77,66,69,82.84 trem 239 

98 DATA 13,70,73.76,69,78 trem 231 

100 DATA 65,77.69,0,256 trem 112 

102 IF B<>28715THENPRINT"ERROR IN DATA SA 

TEMENTS. " tEND srem 19 

104 POKE S+32,PNL(S+210) iPOKES+34,FNH(S+2 

10) trem 205 

106 POKE S+58,PNL(S+83):POKES+60,FNH(S+83 

) ;rem 134 

108 POKE S+205,FNL(S+67)sPOKES+206,FNH(S+ 

67 ) trem 232 

110 SYS745 I rem 49 

COMPUWs Gazene April 1965 123 



Pool 



(Article on page 50.) 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 

Before typing in programs, please refer to 
"How To Type In COMPUTEl's GAZETTE 
Programs," which appears before the Program 
Listings. 



Program 1 : vie version 

14 POKE36879, 10! PRINT" {CLR} (YELl": rem 110 
16 PRINT"FIRST PLftYER NAME." : rem 220 
la PRINT: INPUTN$ J rem 50 

20 A$=LEFT$(N$,7) : rem 121 

22 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT "SECOND PLAYER NAME. 
" :reni 15 5 

24 PRINT! INPUTN? : rem 47 

26 B$=LEFT$(N$,7) s rem 128 

28 PRINT" (CLR)" : rem 206 

30 D=l !Q0=7981 iB0=B7 !B1=81 :B=B0:C=1 

:rem 167 
40 POKE37154,127:POKE36878,15 : 
70 FORP=3a511T03aB63STEP22 
80 FORZ=0TO19 

90 P0KEP+Z,7 ! 

100 NEXTZiNEXTP : 

110 B=B0:Q=Q0 ! 

120 POKEQ,B ! 

130 GOSUB3030 
500 REM PLAY 
510 IFD=1THENOOSUB1000 
520 GOSUB2S00 

530 IFPEEK(Q+I)<>32THENGOSUB2000 
540 IFPEEK(Q+I)<>32THENGOSUB2500 
545 IFPEEK(Q+I)<>32THENGOSUB2000 
550 POKEQ,32 
560 Q=Q+I 

565 IFB=B0THENQC=Q 
570 POKEQ,B 
580 IFI=0THEN510 
590 FORT=0TOD:NEXTT 
D=D*1 .2 



600 



! rem 104 
:rem 44 
:rem 35 
trem 208 
: rem 243 
! rem 204 
:rem 129 
:rem 218 
srem 175 
:rem 71 
: rem 222 
;rem 178 
trem 184 
! rem 194 
:rem 171 
: rem 238 
rrem 113 
:rem 138 
srem 167 
;rem 250 
:rem 22 



610 IFD>200THENI=0:D=1:H=0:IFB=B1THENB=B0 



:Q=QCjPOKEQ,B 
620 IFD=1THENGOSUB3007 
630 GOTO510 
1000 REM CUE CONTROL 
1005 REM AIM 
1010 IFS=1THENGOSUB6000 
1020 F0RV=1T08 
1030 IPV=1THENI=-1:Z=67 
1040 IFV=2THENI=-23!Z=77 
1050 IFV=3THENI=-22!Z=93 
1060 IFV=4THENI=-21:Z=78 
1070 IFV=5THENI=1:Z=67 
1080 IFV=6THENI=23:Z=77 
1090 IFV=7THENI=22;Z=93 
1100 lFV=8THENI=2l!Z=78 
1110 A=PEEK(Q-I) 
1120 POKEQ-I,Z 
1130 FORT=0TO100!NEXTT 
1140 POKEQ-I,A 
1150 GOSUB7000 
1160 IFJ=0ANDK=64THEN1110 
1170 IFJ=32ORK=39THEN1200 
1180 NEXTV 
1190 GOTO1000 

124 COMPUTErs Gatetle April 19B5 



! rem 89 

: rem 82 
trem 104 
sretn 163 
:rem 129 
srem 135 

: rem 73 
srem 104 
srem 159 
srem 158 
srem 162 

srem 67 
srem 122 
: rem 121 
srem 116 
srem 126 

5 rem 64 
srem 110 

srem 41 

srem 14 
srem 197 
srem 203 

srem 95 
srem 197 



1200 
1210 
1220 
1240 

1260 
1280 
1300 
1310 
1320 
2000 
2010 

2020 

2030 

2040 

2050 

2060 

2070 

2080 
2500 
2510 
2520 

2530 

2540 

2550 

2560 

2570 

2580 
3000 
3005 

3007 
3010 
3020 

3030 

3040 

3045 

3050 
3060 
3070 
3080 
3090 
3500 



REM BALL SPEED srem 51 

FORD=1TO100STEP10 srem 46 

V$=STR$(100-CD-1)) :rem 155 

PRINT" {HOME} (2 DOWN ) SPEED " ?V$+" " 

srem 98 
PORT=0TO300sNEXTT srem 116 

GQSUB7000 trem 18 

IFJ=0ANDK=64THEN5000 srem 195 
NEXTD srem 72 

GOTO1200 srem 194 

REM BOUNDARIES srem 146 

IFPEEK{Q+I)=102THENH=1:GOTO3000 

srem 120 
IFPEEK(Q+22)=102THENH=lsGOTO3000 

srem 148 
IFPEEK(Q-22)=102THENH=ltGOTO3000 

srem 151 
IFPEEK(Q+I)=100THENI=I+44sGOTO5000 

srera 39 
IFPEEK{Q+I )=99THENI=I-44 SGOTO5000 

: rem 1 1 
IFPEEK(Q+I)=103THENI=I+2sGOTO5000 

: rem 246 
IFPEEK{Q+l)=101THENI=I-2iGOTO5000 

srem 247 
RETURN srem 170 

REM BALL COLLISION srem 114 

IFI=0THENRETURN srem 28 

IFPEEKCQ+I)=B0THENPOKEQ,B:B=B0sQ=Q+I 
SGOTO5000 srem 79 

IFPEEK(Q+I)=B1THENPOKEQ,BsB=B1 sQ=Q+I 
:GOTO5000 srem 82 

IFPEEK ( Q+l ) = B1THENP0KEQ , B s B=Bl : Q=Q-(-l 
:GOTO5000 srem 3 5 

IFPEEK(Q-1 }=BlTHENPOKEQ,B:B=BlsQ=Q-l 
SGOTO5000 srem 40 

IFPEEK {Q-2 2 )=B1THENP0KEQ,B!B=B1 sQ=Q- 
22sGOTO5000 srem 143 

IFPEEK {Q-t-22) = BlTHENPaKEQ,B!B = Bl:Q=Q+ 



22sGOTO5000 

RETURN 

REM SCORING 

IFB=B0THENI=0: 

S=l 

IFH=0THENC=-C: 

IFC<0THEN3500 



srem 140 
srem 175 
: rem 188 

D = l sPOKEQ , 32 ;Q=Q0 sH=0 s 
srem 151 

GOSUB5400 srem 176 
srem 249 



IFH=1THENSA=SA+1 sPOKEQ, 3 2 :GOSUB5200 

srem 198 
PRINT" { HOME 1 { RVS } "A$ ; SA" { OFF J " ; TAB ( 1 
1)B$?SB srem 193 

I FB=81 THENH=0 s 1=0 : D=l s Q=QC s B=B0 

srem 143 
PRINT" {home} {2 down} SPEED 100" 

srem 212 
F0RP=7768T08183 srem 143 

IFPEEK(P)=B1THENRETURN srem 221 
NEXTP srem 89 

GOSUB4000 srem 15 

RETURN srem 172 

IFH=1THENSB=SB+1 sPOKEQ, 32 sGOSUB5200 



3510 PRINT" {home} 



srem 
'A$;SA;TAB(H)"{rVS} 



203 



3535 
3540 
4000 
4100 

4106 

4120 



{CYN]"B5;SB"{0FF}{yELj' 

IFSA+SB=15THEN9000 

GOTO3040 

REM SET TABLE 

FDRP=7770TO7777sPOKBP,100i 



srem 69 

s rem 78 

srem 204 

srem 252 

sNEXT 

srem 124 
FORP=7780TO7787 s POKEP, 100 s NEXT 

srem 132 
FORP=8166TOB173 t POKEP , 99 s NEXT i rem 86 



4126 

4160 

4190 

4220 

4230 

4240 

4250 

4260 
4270 
4300 
4310 
4320 
4330 
4340 
4350 
4360 
4370 
4380 
4390 
4400 
4410 
4420 
4430 
5000 
5005 
5010 
5020 
5030 
5040 
5200 
5210 
5220 
5230 
5240 
5245 
5247 
5250 
5260 
5400 
5410 
5420 
5430 
5440 

5450 
5460 
6000 
6005 
6010 
6020 
6030 
6035 
6040 
6500 
6505 
6510 
6520 
6530 
6535 
6540 
6550 
6570 
6580 
6590 
6595 
6600 



FORP=8176T08183 t POKEP , 99 :NEXT! rem 94 
FORP=7B12TO8120STEP22 ; POKEP, 103 :NEXT 

:rera 17 
FORP=7833T08141STEP22 : POKEP, 101 :NEXT 

:rem 24 
POKE7768,102iPOKE7769,102:POKE7790,l 
02 srem 150 

POKE8164,102!POKE8165,102!POKE8142,1 
02 srem 125 

POKE7789,102:POKE7788,102:POKE7811,1 
02 ;rem 150 

POKE8185,102:POKE8184,102!POKE8163,1 



02 srem 134 

POKE7778,102jPOKE7779,102 :rem 157 

POKE8174,102:POKE8175,102 srem 140 

P0RN=1T015 jrem 115 

P=7768+INT(396*RND(0)) jrem 201 

IFPEEK{P}<>32THEN4310 srem 244 

IFPEEK(P+1)<>32THEN4310 : rem 81 

IFPEEK(P-1)<>32THEN4310 :rem 84 

IFPEEK(P+22)<>32THEN4310 :rem 134 

IFPEEK(P-22)<>32THEN4310 irem 137 

IFPEEK(P+21)<>32THEN4310 :rem 135 

IFPEEK(P-21)<>32THEN4310 irem 138 

IFPEEK{P+23)<>32THEN4310 : rem 139 

IFPEEK(P-23)<>32THEN4310 srem 133 

POKEP, Bl :rem 231 

NEXTN srem 87 

RETURN :rem 171 

REM BUMP SOUND srem 102 

D=D*1.2 irem 74 

POKE36875,180 iretn 199 

FORT=0TO10tNEXTT srem 64 

POKE36875,0 trem 96 

RETURN :rem 169 

REM SCORE SOUND : rem 176 

FORS=0TO2 srem 68 

POKE36876,220 srem 198 

PORT=0TO20sNEXTT srem 68 

POKE36a76,0 srem 100 

FORT=0TO20sNEXTT srem 74 

IFSA+SB=15THEN9000 srem 80 

NEXTS srem 94 

RETURN srem 173 

REM TURNOVER SOUND srem 187 

POKE36875,135 srem 203 

POKE36874,201 srem 197 

FORT=0TO500!NEXTT : rem 121 

POKE36875,0 j rem 101 

POKE36874,0 srem 101 

RETURN srem 175 

REM SCRATCH srem 178 

REM DRAW LINE srem 5 

PORP=7782T08156STEP22 srem 42 

IFPEEK(P)=32THENPOKEP,103 srem 45 

NEXTP srem 88 

REM MOVE CUEBALL srem 22 5 

V=l srem 142 

GOSUB7000 srem 18 

IFJ=0ANDK=64THEN6500 srem 213 

IFJ=40RJ=80RK=47THENI=V*22 srem 163 

IFJ=10RJ=160RK=55THENI=V*1 srem 156 
IFPEEK(Q+I}<>32THENV=-V: I=-I;rem 242 



6605 
6610 
6620 
6630 
6640 
7000 
7010 

7020 
7030 
9000 



9010 
9020 



FORP=7782TOB156STEP22 irem 52 

IFPEEK(P)=103THENPOKEP,32 trem 50 

NEXTP srem 93 

S=0 srem 143 

RETURN srem 176 

REM READ JOYSTICK srem 55 
J=(NOTPEEK{37151 ) )AND60-( {PEEK(37152 



)AKD128)=0) 

K=PEEK(197) 

RETURN 

PRINT"{CLR1 (5 down} {5 

AIN? " s POKE198 , s PRINT' 

{8 SPACES }{y/n)" 

GETA$ i IFA$ = "y"THENRUN 

IFA?<>"N"THEN9010 



trem 99 

srem 104 

srem 170 

SPACES} PLAY AG 

{2 DOWN} 

srem 18 

srem 59 

srem 196 



Program 2: 64 vexsion 



IFJ=32ORK=39THEN6580 

POKEQ, 32 sQ=Q+I !QC=Q 

POKEQ.B 

GOTO 6 5 00 

GOSUB7000 

IFJ=0ANDK=64THEN6600 

GOTO6580 

REM ERASE LINE 



:rem 229 
rrem 201 
;rem 190 
:rem 214 

; rem 26 
[rem 218 
:rem 229 

srem 72 



49152 


sl69. 


49158 


s255. 


49164 


S099, 


49170 


sl69, 


49176 


S024, 


49182 


s255. 


491B8 


sl9S, 


49194 


sl97. 


49200 


sl41, 


49206 


sl73, 


49212 


S000, 


49218 


s208. 


49224 


:235, 


49230 


S062, 


49236 


5063, 


49242 


:208, 


49248 


S024, 


49254 


:099, 


49260 


S027, 


49266 


S063, 


49272 


sl69. 


49278 


:171, 


49284 


S030, 


49290 


s227. 


49296 


sl69. 


49302 


sl71, 


49308 


sl60. 


49314 


J060, 


49320 


sl61, 


49326 


:173, 


49332 


S010, 


49338 


S088, 


49344 


= 192, 


49350 


sl41. 


49356 


S032, 


49362 


sll2. 


49368 


sllS, 


49374 


s226, 


49380 


s208. 


49386 


sl44, 


49392 


:024, 


49398 


sl73. 


49404 


sl41. 


49410 


sl41. 


49416 


:004, 


49422 


sl05. 


49428 


S057, 


49434 


:208, 


49440 


S050, 


49446 


:141, 


494S2 


s208. 


49458 


:220, 



,012,141 
, 141,059 
,169,001 
,000,141 
,197,032 
,141,021 
,032,093 
,032,248 
,062,099 
,001,088 
,142,057 
,201,070 
, 240,008 
,099,076 
,099,232 
,228,162 
,032,240 
,201,001 
,206,173 
,099,240 
,238,160 
,169,184 
,171,076 
,160,204 
,184,160 
,076,161 
,205,032 
,133, 162 
,240,252 
,001,088 
,195, 169 
, 141,061 
, 169,000 
,032,096 
,042,193 
,193,202 
, 193,173 
,076,043 
,141 ,000 
,004, 169 
,105,080 
,000,208 
,054,099 
,001 , 208 
, 169,245 
,080,141 
,099,208 
,201,130 
,208,003 
,055,099 
,172,051 
,172,001 



,021 


208 


169, 


,099 


141 


060, 


,141 


001 


088, 


,051 


099 


032, 


,206 


203 


169, 


,208 


,032 


,209, 


,197 


032 


163, 


,204 


169 


000, 


,141, 


063, 


099, 


,208, 


US, 


162, 


,099 


189 


004, 


,240 


006 


201, 


,208 


097 


238, 


,086 


192 


238, 


,232 


224 


012, 


,022 


160 


012, 


,255 


,173 


,050, 


,208 


,003 


,076, 


,062 


,099 


,205, 


,036 


,176 


,017, 


,204 


032 


030, 


,160 


205 


032, 


,161 


192 


169, 


,032 


030 


171, 


,205 


032 


030, 


,192 


169 


171, 


,030 


171 


169, 


,165 


161 


197, 


,076 


000 


102, 


,240 


003 


032, 


,000 


141 


001 , 


,099 


032 


226, 


,141 


,164 


09G, 


,141 


,000 


,088, 


,162 


009 


032, 


,208 


,250 


032, 


,000 


088 


240, 


,192 


173 


,002, 


,208 


201 


175, 


,254 


208 


003, 


,141 


053 


099, 


,056 


233 


080, 


,173 


,003 


20R, 


,201 


,165 


,144, 


,208 


,003 


,024, 


,056 


,099 


,173, 


,017 


,173 


,001, 


,176 


,004 


,169, 


,056 


,233 


,080, 


,096 


,174 


,000, 


,099 


,105 


,000, 


,208 


,074 


rl76, 



,208 
,249 
,255 
,254 
,087 
,128 
,236 
,124 
,141 
,033 
,039 
,224 
,074 
,063 
,178 
,114 
,110 
,178 
,112 
,233 
,135 
,023 
, 163 
, 194 
,156 
,066 
, 155 
,016 
,065 
, L99 
,184 
,065 
,186 
,184 
, 162 
,183 
,004 
,166 
,137 
,248 
,230 
,228 
, 162 
,094 
, 149 
,156 
,063 
,146 
, 150 
,091 
,247 
,133 



COMPUTEfs Gazette April 1985 125 



49464 
49470 
49476 
49482 
49488 
49494 
49500 
49506 
49512 
49513 
49524 
49530 
49536 
49542 
49548 
49554 
49560 
49566 
49572 
4957R 
49584 
49590 

49596 
49602 
49608 
49614 
49620 
49626 
4963 2 
49638 
49644 
49650 
49656 
49662 
49668 
49674 
49600 
49686 
49692 
49698 
49704 
49710 
49716 
49722 
49728 
49734 
49740 
49746 
49752 
49758 
49764 
49770 
49776 
49782 
49788 
49794 
49800 
49806 
49812 
49818 
49824 
49830 
49836 
49842 
49848 
49854 
49860 
49866 
49872 



:007 


136 


204 


055 


099 


176, 


!001 


200 


074 


176 


007, 


200, 


;204 


056 


099 


144, 


001, 


136, 


:fl74 


176 


007 


202 


236, 


054, 


:099 


176 


001 


232 


074, 


176, 


:007 


232 


236 


053 


099, 


144, 


:001 


202 


074 


176 


008 


169, 


J001 


141 


032 


096 


141 


000, 


1088 


142 


000 


208 


140 


001 , 


J208 


096 


160 


000 


136 


208, 


:253 


096 


173 


032 


096 


208, 


:003 


076 


143 


194 


169 


000, 


:141 


112 


096 


141 


096 


096, 


:173 


000 


208 


056 


237 


002, 


J208 


046 


112 


096 


141 


000, 


:096 


173 


001 


208 


056 


237, 


:003 


208 


046 


096 


096, 


141, 


:016 


096 


173 


112 


096, 


208, 


t011 


173 


000 


096 


073 


255, 


:141 


000 


096 


238 


000 


096, 


:169 


004 


141 


128 


096 


173, 


:096 


096 


208 


011, 


173, 


016, 


:096, 


073 


355, 


141 , 


016, 


096 , 


:238 


016 


096 


160, 


000, 


185, 


ai2 


096 


240 


028, 


185, 


000, 


:101, 


024 


121 


000, 


096, 


153, 


:000, 


101, 


185 


,002 


,208 


105, 


:000 


201 


198 


144, 


003, 


032, 


:144 


194 


153 


002, 


208, 


076, 


;001 


194 


185 


000, 


101 , 


056, 


:249 


000 


096 


153, 


000, 


101 , 


:185, 


002 


208 


233, 


000, 


201 , 


:106, 


176 


003 


032, 


144, 


194, 


:153, 


002, 


208, 


185, 


096, 


096, 


:240, 


028, 


185, 


032, 


10} , 


0?4, 


:I21, 


016 


096, 


153, 


032, 


101, 


: 185, 


003 


208 


105, 


000, 


201 , 


:194 


144 


003 


032, 


18! , 


194, 


:153 


003 


208 


076, 


059, 


194, 


: 185 


03 2 


101 


056, 


249, 


016, 


:096 


153 


032 


101 


185, 


003, 


:208 


233 


000 


201, 


090, 


176. 


:003 


032 


181 


194, 


153, 


003, 


!208 


032 


199 


197 


172 


152, 


;096 


200 


200 


192, 


014, 


240, 


:003 


076 


199 


193, 


202, 


240, 


:003 


076 


197 


193 


206, 


128, 


:096 


208 


248 


032, 


065, 


205, 


:169 


004 


141 


128, 


096, 


162, 


:012, 


189 


000 


096, 


029, 


016, 


!096, 


201 


006 


176, 


220, 


169, 


:000 


157 


000 


096, 


157, 


016, 


:096 


202 


202 


016, 


234, 


169, 


:000 


141 


032 


096 


162 


014, 


:157 


000 


096 


157 


016 


096, 


:202 


016 


247 


173, 


061 


099, 


:2n8 


005 


169 


001, 


141 


001, 


:08S 


096 


072 


032 


190, 


205, 


:162 


,001 


,185 


,112 


,096 


,073, 


:001 


,153 


,112 


,096 


,185 


003, 


:208 


201 


,192 


,176 


,043 


201, 


:093 


144" 


\03< 


>,20] 


L,13E 


3,176 


:002 


104 


096 


201 


146 


144, 


J 029 


104 


096 


072, 


032, 


190, 


:205 


162 


000 


185, 


096, 


096, 


:073 


001 


153 


096, 


096, 


185, 


:002, 


208 


201 


195, 


176, 


006, 


:201, 


107 


144 


002, 


104, 


096, 


J032, 


208, 


205 


104, 


192, 


000, 



221 


49878 


: 208, 007, 


208 


49884 


; 088, 208, 


196 


49890 


: 169,000, 


055 


49896 


:016,096, 


070 


49902 


:004,169, 


089 


49900 


:235,153, 


210 


49914 


:010,010, 


253 


49920 


1003,208, 


171 


49926 


:185,002, 


150 


49932 


:141,021, 


206 


49938 


: 201, 001, 


195 


49944 


:099,073, 


042 


49950 


J070,208, 


042 


49956 


:000,221, 


231 


49962 


:232,232, 


149 


49968 


:076,096, 


230 


49974 


: 004, 208, 


091 


49980 


: 004, 208, 


004 


49986 


:162,197, 


229 


49992 


: 162,197, 


119 


49998 


!030,208, 


014 


50004 


:20a, 16 5, 


097 


50010 


:252, 173, 


121 


50016 


:169, 153, 


093 


50022 


:169,100, 


189 


50028 


:057,099, 


045 


50034 


:240,252, 


028 


50040 


:000,220, 


233 


50046 


:176,017, 


255 


50052 


:173,003, 


067 


S0058 


:005, 169, 


047 


50064 


:104,074, 


135 


50070 


:224,105, 


226 


50076 


:176,006, 


102 


50082 


;001,202, 


017 


500B8 


:162,197, 


306 


50094 


:030,208,( 


002 


50100 


: 185,000, 


209 


50106 


:249,169,( 


161 


50112 


:025,197, 


098 


50I1S 


:255,141, 


186 


50124 


:208,141, 


106 


50130 


:147,032, 


004 


50136 


:160,016, 


23Q 


50142 


:170,004, 


215 


5014R 


:007, 153, 


111 


50154 


:239,032, 


168 


50160 


:133,251, 


020 


50166 


!l69,210. 


180 


50172 


:133,254, 


208 


50178 


!l69,160. 


020 


50184 


il60,145. 


007 


50190 


!251,200, 


051 


50196 


;165,251, 


134 


50202 


: 251, 165, 


160 


50208 


:252,165, 


149 


50214 


:133,253, 


057 


50220 


:133,254, 


009 


50226 


:000,141, 


192 


50232 


:141,i71. 


157 


50238 


:141,195, 


,189 


50244 


=169,034, 


097 


50250 


:185,004, 


189 


50256 


!233,006, 


160 


50262 


:004,141, 


026 


50268 


: 007, 141, 


216 


50274 


:141,211, 


088 


50280 


:141,003, 


181 


50286 


:169,174, 



169,001 

003,238 

153,000 

173,051 

070,208 

002,208 

024,105 

224,000 

208,096 

208, 173 

240,007 

001 , 240 

002, 169 

004,208 

224,014 

195, 169 

232,169 

254,004 

162,240 

162,240 

208,236 

162,197 

030,208 

141,002 

141,003 

165,162 

172,051 

142,002 

206,003 

208,201 

100,141 

074, 176 

176,001 

232,224 

074,176 

162,240 

041,002 

220,041 

000,133 

162,176 
021,208 
055,099 
210,255 
153,130 
169, 160 
042,007 
076,204 
169,004 
133,253 
162,014 
145,251 
251 ,160 
169,160 
024, 105 
252,105 
253,024 
165,254 
202,208 
051,099 
004,141 
005, 141 
141, 172 
141,209 
169,036 
249,005 
004,007 
004, 141 
007,141 
141, 175 



,141 


,001. 


,164 


,096, 


!,096 


,153, 


,099 


,240, 


!,002 


,169, 


,152 


,010, 


,070 


,153, 


,240 


,003, 


,169 


,254, 


,058 


,099, 


,173 


,051. 


,004 


169. 


,235 


162, 


,240 


009. 


,208 


245. 


,155 


157. 


,148 


157, 


,200 


165, 


,252 


165, 


,252 


173, 


,254 


004, 


,162 


240, 


,208 


222, 


,208 


170, 


,208 


141, 


,197, 


162, 


,099, 


185, 


,208, 


074. 


,208, 


072. 


,090, 


176. 


,003, 


208. 


,006, 


202, 


,232, 


074, 


,199, 


144, 


,199, 


165, 


,252, 


173. 


,208, 


186, ( 


,016, 


240. 


,162. 


105, 


,252, 


169. 


,173, 


003. 


,096, 


169, 


.169. 


160. 


,004 


153. 


,153 


002, 


,136 


016. 


,169 


210, 


,133 


252. 


,169 


216. 


,160 


000, 


,200 


169, 


.015, 


145. 


,145, 


251. 


,040, 


133. 


,.100, 


133. 


,105, 


040, 


,105, 


000. 


.207 


169, 


.169 


033, 


,184 


004, 


,219 


006, 


,004 


141, 


,005 


141. 


,141 


22 5, 


,141 


017, 


,169 


035, 


,235 


005, 


,016 


007, 


, 004 , 


141, 



229 

249 

029 

139 

092 

236 

110 

166 

152 

200 

179 

098 

108 

206 

173 

128 

204 

135 

220 

234 

250 

194 

159 

17L 

096 

182 

089 

254 

040 

215 

252 

012 

194 

113 

311 

074 

081 

114 

236 

149 
231 
204 
159 
054 
112 
077 
140 
158 
116 
207 
072 
115 
166 
225 
154 
103 
180 
193 
031 
189 
001 
217 
247 
122 
131 
199 
067 
163 
146 



126 COMPUTEI's Gazette April 1985 



S0292 ;181, 0(14,141 

50290 :049,005,14.l 

50304 :129,005,141 

50310 :073, 006,141 

50316 :153,006,141 

50322 :013,007,1G9 

50328 :255, 169,003 

50334 :169,077,160 

50340 :171,206,255 

50346 : 169,0ia,141 

50352 ;120,160,205 

50353 =206,255,097 
50364 :003,141,255 
50370 : 160,205,032 
50376 :255,097,30fl 
503R2 ! 169, 160, 153 
50388 :001,153,192 
50394 ;243, 173,058 
50400 :208,018,162 
50406 =024,032,240 
50412 =160,205,032 
50418 :018,197, 162 
50424 =024,032,240 
50430 =160,204,032 
50436 :001, 160,029 
50442 =255,169,238 
50448 =030,171,169 
50454 =208,096,169 
50460 =153,064,003 
50466 =160,007,169 
50472 =096,153,096 
50478 =245,169,001 
50484 =141,037,208 
50490 =023,185,096 
50496 1003,185,104 
50502 :003,136,202 
50508 =238,169,014 
50514 =169,013,160 
50520 =007,136,016 
50526 =165,001,041 
50532 1169,000,133 
50538 1133,252,169 
50544 =169,208,133 
50550 =160,000,177 
50556 =136,208,249 
50562 :254,202,208 
50568 =185,118,204 
50574 :136,016,247 
50580 1004,133,001 

50586 =208,041,240 

50592 =024,208,096 

50598 :150,204,153 

50604 =016,247,160 

50610 =204,153,039 

50616 =247,169,000 

50622 =000,096,153 

50628 =016,247,096 

50634 =185,000,101 

50640 =185,002,208 

50646 =160,000,140 

50652 =160,096,173 

50658 =200,192,014 

50664 =162,096,096 

50670 j101,173,161 

50676 =208,201,008 

50682 =248,144,225 

50688 =240,220,141 

50694 =160,096,172 

50700 =032,101,056 



,035,005, 141, 111 

,115,005,141,066 

,059,006, 141,097 

, 139,006, 141,128 

,007,007, 141,083 

,019,032,210,084 

, 141,255,097,048 

,205,032,030,063 

,097,200,244,065 

,255,097, 169,251 

,032,030, 171, 126 

,208,244, 169,081 

,097, 169,077, 162 

,030, 171 ,206, 230 

,244, 160,030, 179 

,192,007, 169,032 

,219, 136,016,161 

,099,201,001 ,225 

,001 ,160,014,019 

,255, 169, 163,089 

,030,171,076,142 

,001, 160,001,013 

,255, 169,227, 171 

,030, 171 ,162,245 

,024,032,240,234 

,160,204,032,044 

,013,141,033,061 

,000, 160,127,014 

, 136,016,250,138 

,000, 153, 112, 123 

,096, 136,016, 121 

,141,028,208,070 

, 160,007,162,255 

,204,157,064,019 

,204, 157,128,077 

,202,202,016,063 

,141,248,007,125 

,006,153,249,064 

,250,096,120,201 

,251,133,001,174 

,251,169,056,110 

,000,133,253,022 

,254,162,008,022 

,253,145,251,080 

,230,252,230,149 

,240,160,032,202 

,153,008,057,093 

,165,001,009,204 

,088,173,024,059 

,009,014,141,039 

,160,015,185,080 

,000,208,136,249 

,007,185,166,185 

,208,136,016,166 

,160,015,153,160 

,016,096,136,175 

,140,162,096,185 

,141,016,064,197 

,141,161,096,233 

, 160,096,172,174 

,016,064 ,200,161 

,208,004,172,248 

,056,249,000, 123 

,096,249,002,252 

,144,004,201,242 

,204,162,096,049 

,165,096,140,234 

,162,096,185,109 

,172,160,096,117 



S0706 
50712 
50718 
50724 
50730 
50736 
50742 
50748 
50754 
50760 
50766 
50772 
50778 
50784 

50790 
50796 
50802 
50808 
50814 
50820 
50826 
50832 
50838 
50844 
50850 
50856 
50862 
50868 
50874 
50880 
50886 
50892 
50898 
50904 
50910 
50916 
50922 
50928 
50934 
50940 
50946 
50952 
50958 
50964 
50970 
50976 
50982 
50988 
50994 
51000 
51006 
51012 
51018 
51024 
51030 
51036 
51042 
51048 
51054 
51060 
51066 
51072 
51078 
51084 
51090 
51096 
51102 
51108 
51114 



= 249, 


032, 


101, 


172, 


162, 


096, 


= 185, 


003, 


208, 


172, 


160, 


096, 


= 249, 


003, 


208, 


201, 


008, 


144, 


= 004, 


201, 


248, 


144, 


178, 


141, 


= 166, 


096, 


238, 


061, 


099, 


169, 


= 016, 


141, 


005, 


212, 


169, 


000, 


= 141, 


006, 


212, 


169, 


015, 


141, 


= 024, 


212, 


169, 


120, 


169, 


008, 


:141, 


024, 


212, 


141, 


001, 


212, 


= 169, 


128, 


141, 


004, 


212, 


169, 


= 129, 


141, 


004, 


212, 


172, 


162, 


:096, 


174, 


160, 


096, 


185, 


000, 


5096, 


072, 


185, 


112, 


096, 


208, 


t005, 


104, 


032, 


018, 


201 , 


072, 


= 104 


,141 


,167 


,096 


,185 


,016, 


= 096 


,072 


,185 


,096 


,096 


,208, 


:005 


,104 


,032 


,018 


,201 


,072, 


= 104 


-141 


,168 


,096 


,189 


,000, 


= 096 


,072 


,189 


,112 


,096 


,208, 


:005 


,104 


,032 


,018 


,201 


,072, 


= 104 


,141 


,169 


,096 


,189 


,016, 


= 096 


072 


,189 


,096 


,096 


,208, 


:005 


,104 


,032 


,018 


,201 


,072, 


= 104 


141 


,170 


096 


,169 


,000, 


:141 


032 


,064 


,141 


,033 


,064, 


= 173 


165 


,096 


,016 


,009 


,032, 


:018 


201 


,141 


,165 


,096 


,238, 


= 032 


,064 


,173 


,166 


,096 


,016, 


= 009 


032 


,018 


,201 


,141 


,166, 


= 096 


238 


,033 


,064 


,174 


,165, 


= 096 


172 


,166 


096 


,189 


,199, 


= 205 


141 


176 


096 


169 


,000, 


= 141, 


165 


096, 


141 


166 


096, 


= 185, 


199, 


205, 


141 


177, 


096, 


:173, 


032, 


064, 


240 


021, 


173, 


:176, 


096, 


141, 


171, 


002, 


141, 


:167, 


002, 


173, 


165, 


096, 


141, 


= 168, 


002, 


141, 


172, 


002, 


076, 


:017, 


199, 


173, 


176, 


096, 


032, 


= 018, 


201, 


141, 


171, 


002, 


141, 


= 167, 


002, 


173, 


165, 


096, 


073, 


= 255, 


105, 


000, 


141, 


172, 


002, 


= 141, 


168, 


002, 


173, 


033, 


064, 


= 240 


,028 


,173 


,177 


,096 


,141, 


= 173 


,002 


,032 


,018 


,201 


,141, 


= 169 


,002 


,173 


,166 


,096 


,141, 


= 174 


,002 


,073 


,255 


,105 


,000, 


= 141 


,170 


,002 


,076 


,076 


,199, 


= 173 


,177 


,096 


,141 


,169 


,002, 


= 032 


,018 


,201 


,141 


,173 


,002, 


= 173 


,166 


,096 


,141 


,170 


,002, 


:073 


,255 


,105 


,000 


,141 


,174, 


:002 


-174 


,169 


,002 


,172 


,170, 


:002 


,173 


,168 


,096 


,141 


,086, 


= 064 


,032 


,254 


,200 


,032 


,185, 


= 201 


,032 


,004 


,201 


,174 


,167, 


= 002 


,172 


,168 


,002 


,173 


,167, 


;096 


,141 


,086 


,064 


,032 


,254, 


= 200 


,032 


,185 


,201 


,056 


,229, 


= 251 


,141 


,183 


,096 


,152 


,229, 


= 252 


,141 


,182 


,096 


,174 


,169, 


= 002 


,172 


,170 


,002 


,173 


,167, 


= 096 


,141 


,086 


,064 


,032 


,254, 


= 200 


,032 


,185 


,201 


,032 


,004, 


= 201 


,174 


,167 


,002 


,172 


,168, 


= 002 


,173 


,168 


,096 


,141 


,086, 


= 064 


,032 


,254 


,200 


,032 


,185, 


= 201 


,024 


,101 


,251 


,141 


,185, 


= 096 


,152 


,101 


,252 


,141 


,184, 



,062 
,080 
,075 
,184 
,103 
,079 
,226 
,250 
,029 
,127 
,130 
,027 
,091 
,016 
,043 
,093 
,034 
,050 
,131 
,052 
,085 
,133 
,070 
,068 
,125 
,147 
,009 
,215 
,241 
,194 
,092 
,223 
,247 
,195 
,157 
,187 
,210 
,033 
,171 
,158 
,166 
,171 
,083 
,107 
,081 
,011 
,135 
,195 
,040 
,111 
,042 
,048 
,251 
,234 
,085 
,103 
,014 
,009 
,245 
,144 
,112 
,046 
,039 
,026 
,006 
,050 
,157 
,043 
,072 



COMPUTERS Gazette April 1965 ^Z7 



51120 

51126 
51132 
5113S 
51144 
51150 
51156 
51162 
51168 
51174 
51180 
51186 
51192 
51198 
51204 
512L0 
51216 
51222 
51228 
512J4 
51240 
51246 
51252 
51258 
51264 
51270 
51276 
51282 
51288 
51294 
51300 
51306 
51312 
51318 
51324 
51330 
51336 
51342 
51348 
51354 
51360 
51366 
51372 
51378 
51384 
51390 
51396 
S1402 
51408 
51414 
51420 
51426 
51432 
51438 
51444 
51450 
51456 
51462 
51468 
51474 
51480 
51486 
51492 
51498 
51504 
51510 
51516 
51522 
51528 



096 


174 


169 


002 


,172 


rl70, 


002, 


173 


170 


096, 


141, 


086, 


064, 


032 


254, 


200, 


032, 


185, 


201, 


032 


004 


201, 


174, 


167, 


002, 


172 


168 


002, 


173, 


169, 


096, 


141 


086 


064, 


032, 


254, 


200, 


032 


185 


201, 


056, 


229, 


251, 


141, 


187, 


096, 


152, 


229, 


252, 


141, 


186, 


096, 


174, 


169, 


002, 


172, 


170, 


002, 


173, 


169, 


096, 


141, 


086, 


064, 


032, 


254, 


200, 


032, 


185, 


201, 


032, 


004, 


201, 


174, 


167, 


002, 


172, 


168, 


002, 


173, 


170, 


096, 


141, 


086, 


064, 


032, 


254, 


200, 


032, 


185, 


201, 


024 


101 


251, 


141, 


189, 


096, 


152 


101 


252, 


141, 


188, 


096, 


174 


173 


002, 


172, 


174, 


002, 


173 


184 


096 


141 


086, 


064, 


173 


185 


096, 


141, 


084, 


064, 


032 


185 


201, 


032 


004, 


201, 


174 


171 


002 


172, 


172, 


002, 


173 


186 


096, 


141, 


086, 


064, 


173 


187 


096, 


141, 


084, 


064, 


032, 


185 


201, 


056, 


229, 


251, 


141 


080 


064, 


152, 


229, 


252, 


141 


178 


096, 


174, 


173, 


002, 


172 


174 


002, 


173, 


186, 


016, 


141 


086 


064, 


173, 


187, 


096, 


141 


084 


064, 


032, 


185, 


201, 


032 


004 


201 


174, 


171, 


002, 


172 


172 


002, 


173, 


184, 


096, 


141 


086 


064 


173 


185, 


096, 


141 


084 


064 


032 


185, 


201, 


024 


101 


251 


141 


082, 


064, 


152 


101 


252 


141 


179, 


096, 


174 


173 


002 


172 


174, 


002, 


173 


188 


096 


141 


086, 


064, 


173 


189 


096 


141 


084, 


064, 


032 


185 


201 


032 


004, 


201, 


174 


171 


002 


172 


172, 


002, 


173 


182 


096, 


141 


086, 


064, 


173 


183 


096, 


141 


084, 


064, 


032 


185 


201 


056, 


229, 


251, 


141 


081 


064, 


152 


229, 


252, 


141 


180 


096 


174 


173, 


002, 


172 


174 


002 


173 


182, 


096 


141 


086 


064 


,173 


,183, 


096 


141 


084 


,064 


,032 


,185, 


201 


032 


,004 


,201 


,174 


,171, 


002 


,172 


,172 


,002 


,173 


,188, 


096 


,141 


,086 


,064 


,173 


,189, 


096 


,141 


,084 


,064 


,032 


,185, 


201 


,024 


,101 


,251 


,141 


,083, 


064 


,152 


,101 


,252 


,141 


,181, 


096 


,076 


,024 


,201 


,169 


,000. 


141 


,084 


,064 


,096 


,133 


,251, 


132 


,252 


,096 


,173 


,190 


,096, 


073 


,001 


,141 


,190 


,096 


.096, 


073 


,255 


,024 


,105 


,001 


.096, 


174 


,162 


,096 


,172 


,160 


.096, 


169 


,001 


,153 


,112 


,096 


,157, 


112 


096 


,157 


096 


,096 


,153, 


096 


,096 


,172 


,162 


,096 


,173, 


178 


,096 


,016 


,010 


,032 


,018, 


201 


,072 


,169 


,000 


,153 


,112, 


096 


,104 


,153 


,000 


,096 


,173, 


179 


,096 


,016 


,010 


,032 


,018, 


201 


072 


,169 


000 


,153 


,096, 



191 


51534 


082 


51540 


187 


51546 


205 


51552 


118 


51558 


111 


51564 


091 


51570 


250 


51576 


218 


51582 


150 


51588 


141 


51594 


128 


51600 


108 


51606 


154 


51612 


003 


51618 


149 


51624 


178 


51630 


045 


51636 


198 


51642 


009 


51648 


046 


51654 


170 


51660 


224 


51666 


035 


51672 


063 


51678 


219 


51684 


066 


51690 


023 


51696 


067 


51702 


184 


51708 


115 


51714 


043 


51720 


089 


51726 


208 


51732 


156 


51738 


251 


51744 


159 


51750 


060 


51756 


127 


51762 


160 


51768 


028 


51774 


078 


51780 


145 


51786 


177 


51792 


078 


51798 


182 


51804 


133 


51810 


177 


51816 


042 


51S22 


229 


51828 


161 


51834 


207 


51840 


066 


51846 


015 


51852 


111 


51858 


04B 


51864 


001 


51870 


177 


51876 


097 


51882 


060 


51888 


116 


51894 


206 


51900 


234 


51906 


069 


51912 


142 


51918 


249 


51924 


170 


51930 


161 


51936 


251 


51942 



096,104 


,153 


,016 


,096 


,172, 


160,096 


,173 


,180 


,096 


,016, 


010,032 


,018 


,201 


,072 


,169, 


000,153 


112 


096 


,104 


,153, 


000,096 


173 


,181 


,096 


,016, 


010,032 


018 


201 


,072 


,169, 


000,153 


,096 


,096 


,104 


,153, 


016,096 


,173 


,032 


064 


,240, 


015.174 


,162 


,096 


,222 


,002, 


208,174 


,160 


,096 


,254 


,002, 


208,076 


,154 


,201 


,174 


,162, 


096,254 


,002 


,208 


,174 


,160, 


096,222 


,002 


,208 


,173 


,033, 


064,240 


,013 


,174 


,162 


,096, 


222,003 


,208 


,174 


,160 


,096, 


234,003 


,208 


,096 


,174 


,162, 


096,254 


,003 


,208 


,174 


,160, 


096,222 


,003 


,208 


,096 


,142, 


085,064 


140, 


087 


064, 


169, 


000,141 


190, 


096, 


173, 


086, 


064,016 


022, 


173, 


084, 


064, 


032.018 


201, 


141, 


084 


064, 


173.086 


064, 


073 


255 


105, 


000.141 


086 


064 


032 


009, 


201,152 


016, 


018 


138 


032, 


018,201 


141 


085 


064 


152, 


073.255 


105, 


000 


141 


087, 


064,032 


009, 


201 


169 


000, 


141,194 


096, 


141, 


195 


096, 


162,016, 


078, 


086, 


064, 


110, 


084,064, 


144, 


016, 


173, 


194, 


096,024, 


109, 


085, 


064, 


141. 


194,096, 


173, 


195, 


096, 


109, 


087,064, 


074, 


141, 


195, 


096. 


110,194, 


096, 


110, 


088, 


064, 


110,089, 


064, 


202, 


208, 


216. 


173,190 


096, 


240, 


019, 


173. 


088,064, 


032, 


018, 


201 


141, 


088.064 


173, 


194 


096 


073. 


255.105, 


000, 


141, 


194 


096, 


172,194 


096 


173 


088 


064, 


096,032 


195 


203 


169, 


000, 


141.005 


212 


169 


161 


141, 


006,212, 


169, 


001 


141, 


024, 


212,169 


000, 


141, 


012, 


212. 


169.161, 


141, 


013, 


212, 


160, 


000.162, 


015, 


185, 


190, 


202, 


141.000, 


212, 


010, 


141, 


014, 


212.185, 


189, 


202, 


141, 


001, 


212.042, 


141, 


015, 


212, 


185, 


064,203, 


010, 


141, 


007, 


212, 


185,063, 


203, 


042, 


141, 


008, 


212,169, 


019, 


141, 


004, 


212, 


169,033, 


141, 


011, 


212, 


165, 


162,105 


010, 


197 


162 


208. 


252,169 


017, 


141 


004, 


212. 


169,032 


141 


011 


212, 


166. 


203,189 


129, 


235, 


201 


049, 


144.008 


201, 


052 


176 


004, 


141,163, 


096, 


096, 


200, 


200. 


192,128, 


208, 


171. 


076, 


069. 


202,026 


156, 


026 


156, 


022. 


096,022, 


096, 


026, 


156, 


026. 


156,022, 


096, 


026, 


156, 


026. 


156,022, 


096, 


026, 


156, 


029, 


223,033, 


135, 


029, 


223, 


026, 


156,022, 


096, 


019, 


239, 


022, 


096,022, 


096, 


016, 


195, 


016. 


195,016, 


195, 


016, 


195, 


016, 



203 
037 
080 
202 
152 
098 
204 
229 
029 
002 
089 
014 
116 
137 
001 
041 
045 
179 

027 
110 
109 
232 
198 
036 
011 
121 
127 
203 
085 
000 
165 
015 
109 
165 
176 
153 
161 
076 
226 
079 
081 
251 
135 
121 
064 
180 

084 
110 
016 
155 
247 
002 
123 
103 
222 
179 
121 
146 
243 
048 
002 
008 
104 
170 
179 
113 
004 
153 
095 



128 COMPUTE! s Gazette April 1985 



51948 
51954 
51960 
51966 
51972 
51978 
51984 
51990 
5L996 
52002 
52008 
52014 
52020 
52026 
52032 
52038 
52044 
52050 
52056 
52062 
52068 
52074 
52080 
52086 
52092 
52098 
52104 
52110 
S2116 
52122 
5212B 
52134 
52140 
52146 
52152 
52158 
52164 
52170 
52176 
52182 
52188 
52194 
52200 
52206 
52212 
52218 
52224 
52230 
52236 
52242 
52248 
52254 
52260 
52266 
52272 
52278 
52284 
52290 
52296 
52302 
52 308 
52314 
52320 
52326 
52332 
52338 
52344 
52350 
52356 



195 


016 


195, 


019, 


239, 


022, 


096 


016 


195, 


019, 


239, 


022, 


096, 


022 


096 


016, 


195, 


019, 


239 


019 


239 


022, 


096, 


014, 


239 


014 


239, 


014, 


239, 


014, 


239 


014, 


239, 


014, 


239, 


01.9, 


239, 


022 


096, 


016, 


195, 


019, 


239, 


022 


096 


022, 


096, 


016, 


195, 


019 


239 


019, 


239, 


022, 


096 


013 


078, 


013, 


078, 


013, 


078 


013 


078, 


013, 


078, 


013, 


078 


000 


000 


026, 


156, 


000, 


000 


026 


156 


000, 


000, 


026, 


156 


000 


000 


026, 


156, 


004, 


112 


004 


112 


005, 


152, 


005, 


152 


005 


152 


005, 


152, 


003, 


082 


003 


082 


004, 


112, 


004, 


112 


005 


152 


005 


152 


003, 


186 


003 


186 


003 


244 


003, 


244 


004 


048 


004 


048 


004, 


250 


004 


250 


004 


250 


004, 


250 


,002 


,124 


,002 


,124 


,003, 


082 


,003 


,082 


,004 


048 


,004, 


048 


,003 


,082 


,003 


,082 


,003, 


134 


,003 


,134 


,003 


186 


,003, 


186 


,004 


, 112 


,004 


,112 


,004, 


112 


,004 


,112 


,002 


,124 


,002, 


124 


,003 


,186 


,003 


,186 


,004, 


112 


,004 


,112 


,003 


,186 


,003, 


186 


,003 


,244 


,003 


,244 


,004, 


048 


,004 


,048 


,004 


,250 


,004, 


250 


,004 


,250 


,004 


,250 


,002, 


124 


,002 


,124 


,003 


082 


003, 


082 


,003 


,083 


,003 


083 


,003, 


187 


,003 


,187 


,004 


048 


004, 


048 


,004 


,112 


,004 


112 


160, 


023 


169 


,000 


153 


000 


212, 


136 


,016 


,250 


096 


169 


147, 


032 


210 


255 


169 


001 


141, 


033 


208 


032 


,076 


204 


169, 


016 


141 


,162 


,005 


169 


012, 


141 


,165 


,005 


,169 


160 


141, 


004 


,208 


,169 


,168 


141 


006, 


208 


,162 


,045 


,160 


215 


142, 


005 


208 


,140 


,007 


208 


136, 


232 


,165 


,162 


,197 


162 


240, 


252 


,224 


,131 


,208 


238 


162, 


013 


,160 


,013 


,024 


032 


240, 


255 


,169 


,174 


,160 


204 


032, 


030 


,171 


,162 


,015 


160 


013, 


024 


,032 


,240 


255 


169 


192, 


160 


,204 


,032 


030 


171 


162, 


017 


,160 


,013 


024 


032 


240, 


255 


,169 


,209 


160 


204 


032, 


030 


171 


032 


069 


202 


032. 


195 


,203 


,173 


163 


096 


201, 


051 


208 


001 


000, 


073, 


048, 


240 


244 


201 


003 


176 


240, 


141 


058 


099 


096 


169 


009, 


160 


,000 


,153 


000 


216 


153, 


000 


217 


,153 


000 


218 


153, 


000 


,219 


,136 


208 


241 


096, 


060 


126 


255 


255 


255 


255, 


126 


060 


150 


150 


085 


085, 


150 


150 


000 


000 


128 


000, 


038 


000 


000 


038 


255, 


255, 


25 5 


248 


240 


224, 


224, 


224, 


255 


255 


255 


031 


015, 


007, 


007, 


007 


224 


224, 


224, 


240, 



154 


52362 


061 


52368 


180 


52374 


115 


52380 


251 


52386 


006 


52392 


091 


52398 


001 


52404 


249 


52410 


069 


52416 


057 


52422 


050 


52428 


004 


52434 


144 


52440 


198 


52446 


027 


52452 


107 


52458 


255 


52464 


201 


52470 


190 


52476 


094 


52482 


099 


52488 


079 


52494 


083 


52500 


075 


52506 


040 


52512 


236 


52518 


136 


52524 


056 


52530 


070 


52536 


006 


52542 


158 


52548 


254 


52554 


179 


52560 


105 


52566 


118 


52572 


241 


52578 


248 


52584 


248 


52590 


168 


52596 


213 


52602 


239 


52608 


160 


52614 


146 


52620 


18a 


52626 


128 


52632 


191 


52638 


232 


52644 


238 


52650 


057 


52656 


168 


52662 


021 


52668 


010 


52674 


047 


52680 


072 


52686 


061 


52692 


185 


52698 


146 


52704 


132 


52710 


248 


52716 


057 


52722 


222 


52728 


022 


52734 


246 


52740 


024 


52746 


188 


52752 


255 


52758 


176 


52764 


034 


52770 



248, 


255, 


255, 


255, 


007, 


007, 


007, 


015, 


031, 


255, 


255, 


255, 


153, 


155, 


153, 


100, 


153, 


165, 


148, 


174, 


158, 


174, 


143, 


183, 


153 


103, 


L6 3 


183, 


000, 


001 , 


002 


004, 


005 


006, 


012, 


014, 


146 


144 


049 


046 


032 


031, 


032 


079 


078 


069 


032 


080, 


076 


065 


089 


069 


082 


000, 


144 


050 


046 


032 


031 


032, 


084 


087 


079 


032 


080 


076, 


065 


089 


069 


082 


000 


144, 


051 


046 


032 


028 


083 


084, 


079 


080, 


032 


080 


076, 


065, 


089 


073 


078 


071 


000 


018, 


031 


080, 


076 


065, 


089, 


069, 


082 


032 


049 


000 


080 


076, 


065 


089 


069 


082 


032 


146, 


050 


000 


173 


058 


099 


201, 


001 


208 


031 


162 


001 


142, 


051 


099 


160 


020 


024 


032, 


240 


255 


238 


059 


099 


208, 


003 


238 


,060 


099 


173 


060, 


099 


174 


059 


099 


032 


205, 


189 


076 


,064 


,205 


,173 


r001. 


088 


208 


005 


173 


164 


096, 


208 


,024 


173 


048 


,004 


073, 


128 


141 


048 


004 


173 


076, 


004 


073 


128 


141 


076 


004, 


173 


,051 


,099 


,073 


,001 


,141, 


051 


,099 


,096 


, 162 


,014 


,094, 


000 


,096 


,094 


,016 


,096 


,202, 


016 


,247 


,096 


,005 


,018 


,032, 


032 


,032 


,03 2 


,032 


,032 


,032, 


032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032, 


032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032, 


032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032, 


032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032, 


032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,03 2 


,032, 


032 


,032 


,032 


,000 


,005 


,018, 


032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,032, 


032 


,032 


,032 


,032 


,029 


,029, 


029 


,029 


,029 


,029 


,029 


,029, 


029 


,029 


,029 


,029 


,029 


,029, 


029 


029 


,029 


,032 


,032 


,032, 


032 


032 


032 


03 2 


32 


,032, 


032 


032 


032 


032 


,000 


,01B. 


031 


083 


072 


079 


084 


083, 


000 


029 


,029 


073 


,084 


r039. 


083 


032 


06 5 


,032 


,084 


,073, 


069 


000 


,032 


,087 


,07 3 


,078, 


083 


000 


,152 


,170 


,094 


,000, 


096 


094 


,016 


,095 


,096 


,000, 


028 


057 


085 


114 


142 


170, 


199 


,228 


142 


,161 


,096 


,162, 


000 


189 


002 


206 


157 


,000, 


212 


232 


224 


025 


208 


245, 


169 


016 


141 


004 


212 


169, 


128 


141 


011 


212 


169 


016, 


141 


018, 


212 


169, 


017 


L4L, 


004 


212, 


169 


129 


141 


011, 


212, 


169, 


017 


141, 


018 


212, 


174 


161, 


096 


096, 


100, 


007, 


000 


000, 


016 


036, 


000, 


100, 


003, 


000, 


000 


129, 


016, 


000, 


100, 


004, 


000, 


000, 


017, 


016, 


000, 


000, 


000 


000, 


015, 


162, 


022, 


160, 


009, 


024, 


032, 


240, 


255, 


173, 


060, 


099, 


208, 


045, 



141 
194 
005 
112 
077 
211 
110 
038 
055 
015 
124 
141 
022 
116 
039 
126 
041 
211 
059 
029 
132 
083 
135 
176 
222 
254 
056 
102 
220 
082 
066 
060 
232 
016 
022 
028 
034 
040 
046 
235 
058 
058 
052 
058 
073 
088 
040 
084 
168 
033 
009 
175 
080 
028 
170 
254 
084 
167 
139 
166 
140 
249 
120 
156 
158 
153 
199 
003 
106 



COMPUTEI's Oazotto April198S 129 



52776 
52782 
52788 
52794 
52800 
52806 
52812 
52818 
52824 
52830 
52836 
52842 
52848 
52854 
52860 
52866 
52872 
52878 
52884 
52890 
52896 
52902 



!l73,059, 
!010,169, 
!030,171, 
!012,176, 
! 206,032, 
:192,201, 
!ll3,160, 
!076,161, 
(206,032, 
:192,029, 
r039,082, 
:078,079, 
! 000, 029, 
:082,069, 
: 065, 077, 
:082,000, 
:082,069, 
:079,079, 
:065,082, 
: 029, 089, 
: 069, 032, 
:079,000, 



099,201 
152,160 
076,161 
010,169 
030, 171 
021,176 
206,032 
192, 169 
030,171 
029,089 
069,032 
086,073 
089,079 
032,065 
065,084 
089,079 
032,065 
076,032 
075,000 
079,085 
065,032 
013,013 



,009 , 
,206, 
,192, 
,132, 
,076, 
,010, 
,030, 
,095, 
,076, 
,079, 
,065, 
,067, 
,085, 
,078, 
,069, 
,085, 
,032, 
,083, 
,029, 
,039, 
,080, 
.013, 



176,245 
032,007 
201,115 
160,205 
161,228 
169,071 
171,020 
160, 167 
161 ,?.52 
085,085 
032, 163 
069,046 
039,177 
032,220 
085,057 
039,240 
080,240 
072,051 
029,172 
082,045 
082,008 
013,041 



Astro-PANIC! 
For The VIC 

(Article on page 58.) 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 

Before typing in programs, please refer to 
"How To Type In COMPUTEI's GAZETTE 
Programs," which appears before the Program 
Listings. 



V/C MIX is required to enter this program. 

4608 1 162, 000, 189,074, 003, 201, 117 

4614 : 094, 144,003,076, 106,019,192 

4620 : 234, 234, 234, 234, 189, 070, 183 

4626 :003,016,021,010,133,174,119 

4632 : 056, 189, 068, 003, 229, 174,231 

4638 :157,068,003, 176,020, 222, 164 

4644 :066,003,076,055,018,234,232 

4650 : 010, 024, 125, 068, 003, 157, 17 3 

4656 =068,003,144,003,254,066,074 

4662 :003, 134, 174,234,189,066,086 

4668 :003 , 201 , 001 , 144,007 , 201 , 105 

4674 sl66, 176,059,076, 192,018, 241 

4680 !032, 148, 224, 166, 174, 165, 213 

4686 :141, 157,070,003, 169, 127,2 33 

4692 1 157, 071, 003, 165, 143, 048, 159 

4698 !024, 234, 234,234, 165, 142,099 

4704 : 041, 128, 029, 07 1,003, 157, 01 3 

4710 : 071, 003, 094, 070, 003, 169,000 

4716 1001,157,066,003,076,192,091 

4722 1018,094,070,003,094, 071, 208 

4728 :003 , 076 , 091 ,018, 234 , 234 ,008 

4734 : 234, 234,032, 148, 224, 166, 140 

4740 : 174, 165, 141, 157, 070, 003, 074 

4746 !l69, 127, 157, 071,003, 165,062 

4752 : 143, 048, 029, 169,128,094,243 

47 58 : 070, 003, 029, 070, 003, 157,226 

4764 1070,003,165,142,041, 128,193 

4770 : 029, 071, 003, 157,071,003,240 

4776 : 169, 166, 157, 066, 003, 076, 037 

4782 ! 192, 018, 094, 070,003,094, 133 

4788 ! 071, 003, 076, 147, 018, 234, 21 7 

4794 :2 34,234,234,2 34, 234,2 34,054 

130 COMPUTErs Gflzeffe April 1985 



4800 
4806 
4812 
4818 
4824 
4830 
4836 
4842 
4848 
4854 
4860 
4866 
4872 
4878 
4884 
4890 
4896 
4902 

4908 
4914 
4920 
4926 
4932 
4938 
4944 
4950 
4956 
4962 
4968 
4974 
4980 
4986 
4992 
4998 
5004 
5010 
5016 
5022 
5028 
5034 
5040 
5046 
5052 
5058 
5064 
5070 
5076 
5082 
5088 
5094 
5100 
5106 
5112 
5118 
5124 
5130 
5136 
5142 
5148 
5154 
5160 
5166 
5172 
5178 
5184 
5190 
5196 
5202 
5208 
5214 
5220 



189 


071 


003 


,016 


,021 


010, 


133 


rl74 


056 


, 189 


,069 


003, 


229 


rl74 


157 


,069 


,003 


176, 


020 


,222 


067 


,003 


,076 


231, 


018 


,234 


,010 


,024 


,125 


069, 


003 


,157 


069 


,003 


,144 


003, 


254 


067 


,003 


,134 


,174 


234, 


189 


067 


003 


,201 


,003 


144, 


007 


201 


150 


, 176 


,059 


076, 


106 


019 


032 


,148 


,224 


166, 


174 


165 


141 


,157 


,071 


003, 


169 


127 


157 


,070 


,003 


165, 


143 


048 


024 


,234 


,234 


234, 


165 


142 


041 


,128 


029 


070, 


003 


157 


070 


,003 


094 


071, 


003 


169, 


003 


157 


067 


003, 


076 


106 


019 


,094 


,071 


003, 


094 


070 


003 


076 


,014 


019, 


234, 


234, 


234 


234 


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246 
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136 
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124 
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197 
104 
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251 
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184 
052 
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237 
006 
061 
058 
168 
004 
179 
125 
138 
186 
009 
025 
043 
036 
247 
151 
082 
067 
023 
049 
051 



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5232 

5238 
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5250 
5256 
5262 
5268 
5274 
5280 
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5316 
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5328 
5334 
5340 
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5358 
5364 
5370 
5376 
5382 
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5 394 
5400 
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5412 
5418 
5424 
5430 
5436 
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5448 
5454 
5460 
5466 
5472 
5478 
5484 
5490 
5496 
5502 
5508 
5514 
5520 
5526 
5532 
5538 
5544 
5550 
5556 
5562 
5568 
5574 
5580 
5586 
5592 
5598 
5604 
5610 
5616 
5622 
5628 
5634 
5640 
5646 



:169 


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141 


169 


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224 


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234 


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176 


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102 


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218 


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213 


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109 


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192 


5784 


097 


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118 


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110 


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5820 


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5826 


092 


5832 


139 


5838 


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5850 


178 


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5862 


242 


5868 


098 


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5880 


046 


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113 


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132 


5904 


131 


5910 


251 


5916 


153 


5922 


128 


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097 


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133 


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179 


5988 


149 


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073 


6000 


107 


6006 


192 


6012 


153 


6018 


201 


6024 


251 


6030 


102 


6036 


226 


6042 


114 


6048 


120 


6054 


126 


6060 


132 


6066 


251 


6072 



.-001,208,105, 172 
il73, 164,003, 133 
:165,003,133,252 
!l45, 251,056, 173 
:233, 022, 176,003 
:003,141, 164,003 
!l63,003,233,008 
:003,201,160, 144 
:000,141,160,003 
:144,076,191, 234 
:003,133,251,173 
:133,252,172, 166 
!l61,003,133,254 
=021,165,254,145 
:160,003,201,001 
!l73,012,144,233 
:012,144,234,234 
:234,234,234,234 
:173, 005, 144,201 
:005,169,255,141 
:169,014,173,160 
=001,240,005, 169 
=012,144, 076, 191 
=234,234, 162,004 
=027,024,125,074 
=010, 144,008, 254 
=233,010,076,169 
=074,027,169,000 
=027,189,074,027 
=176,157,234,031 
=255,208,215,162 
=128,136,192,255 
=202,224,255,208 
=195,003,024, 105 
=249,031,173,193 
=010, 160, 176, 144 
=056,233,010,140 
=024,105, 176, 141 
=076,128,026,234 
=234,234,254,074 
=074,003,234,234 
=074,003,041,240 
:144,005,076,058 
=234,134, 178,032 

=010,010,010,010 

-.179,189,067,003 
=076,069,023,234 
=032, 133,253, 234 
= 173,063,003,096 
=169,096,157,074 
=169,003,076,023 
Jl01,179,133,179 
=133,177,169,000 
:003,166,253,076 
=234,234,234,234 
=234,234,162,000 
=157,082,027,169 
=250,027,232,224 
=241,238,096,026 
=141,015,144,162 
=000,157,000,003 
=248,144,248,056 
=025,234,234,234 
=234,234,173,194 
=001,240,003,076 
=141,012,144,076 
=169,032,133,254 
=157,074,003,169 
=160,003,141,012 
:070,003,157,071 
=144,141,013,144 



!,166 


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068 


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105 


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224 


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251 


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173 


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141 


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027 


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204 


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096 


153 


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234 


044 


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023 


155 


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007 


008 


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105 


059 


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234 


142 


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234 


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007 


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212 


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000, 


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028 


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128 


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051 


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024, 


236 


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234, 


184 


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016, 


165 


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141, 


198 


,144, 


157, 


021 


,003, 


169, 


139 


,238, 


170, 


010 



COMPUTEI's Gazette April 1985 131 



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6210 
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6240 
6246 
6252 
6258 
6264 
6270 
6276 
6282 
6288 
6294 
6300 
6306 
6312 
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6324 
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6336 
6342 
6348 
6354 
6360 
6366 
6372 
6378 
6384 
6390 
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6402 
6408 
6414 
6420 
6426 
6432 
6438 
6444 
6450 
6456 
6462 
6468 
6474 
6480 
6486 
6492 
6498 



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189, 


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144, 


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071, 


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ties 


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6864 


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,208 


,251 


,214 


6870 


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,064 


,208 


,238 


,169 


,197 


6876 


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,194 


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,122 


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,169 


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,006 


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,003 


,141 


,076 


6894 


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,003 


,238 


,194 


,003 


,032 


,132 


6900 


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,025 


,165 


,203 


,201 


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,204 


6906 


r240 


,250 


,076 


,160 


,025 


,234 


,211 


6912 


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,234 


,234 


,234 


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,124 


6918 


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,234 


,234 


,234 


,130 


6924 


t234 


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,234 


,234 


,234 


,234 


,136 



132 COMPUTEIs Gazette April 1965 



6930 
6936 
6942 
6948 
6954 
6960 
6966 
6972 
6978 
6984 
6990 
6996 
7002 
7008 
7014 
7020 
7026 
7032 
7038 
7044 
7050 
7056 
7062 
7068 
7074 
7080 
7086 
7092 
7098 
7104 
7110 
7116 
7122 
7128 
7134 
7140 
7146 
7152 
7158 
7164 
7170 
7176 
7182 
7188 
7194 
7200 
7206 
7212 
7218 
7224 
7230 
7236 
7242 
7248 
7254 
7260 
7266 
7272 
7278 
7284 
7290 
7296 
7 302 
7308 
7314 
7320 
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7332 
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7344 
7350 



!234, 


234, 


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7356 
7362 
7368 
7374 
7380 
7386 
7392 
7398 
7404 
7410 
7416 
7422 
7428 
7434 
7440 
7446 
7452 
7458 
7464 
7470 
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7482 
7488 
7494 
7500 
7506 
7512 
7518 
7524 
7530 
7536 
7542 
7548 
7534 
7560 
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7572 
7578 
7584 
7590 
7596 
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7608 
7614 
7620 
7626 
7632 
7638 
7644 
7650 
7656 
7662 
7668 
7674 



: 000, 064 
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1000,000 

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1000,000 
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1000,000 

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:000,213 
i255,255 



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,000,000,252 
,000,000,212 
,068,255,138 
,168,255,218 
,132,255,086 
,220,040,236 
,000,084,051 
,000,020,130 
,000,000,099 
,213,064,219 
,213,000,211 
,000,000,252 
,000,008,012 
,000,000, 204 
,251,217,122 
,000,000,183 
,012,063,103 
,063,012,039 
,128,064,168 
,021,034,119 
,000,192,061 
,192,000,218 
,008,005,093 
,084,136,213 
,000,000,216 
,000,000,088 
,034,085,114 
,043,175,046 
,160,168,184 
,168,032,238 
,043,010,034 
,160,170,252 
,032,002,250 
,128,034,135 
,130,032,236 
,000,003,226 
,032,000,142 
,128,004,218 
,000,000,160 
,000,000, 166 
,000,000,172 
,000,000,198 
,000,064,252 
,245,255,178 
,129,000,073 
,174,239,168 
,253,000,208 
,000,255,120 
,002,001,163 
,002,001,235 
,192,128,168 
,000,255,045 
,000,000,222 
,255,255,139 



Apple Hunt 

(Article on page 54.) 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 
Before typing in programs, please refer to 
"How To Type In COMPUTEI's GAZETTE 
Programs," which appears before Ihe Program 
Listings. 



Program 1 : Apple Hunt— Redefined 
Characters (VIC Version) 

10 POKE55,152!POKE56,28:CLR :rem 67 

COMPUTErs Gazette April 19BS 133 



20 FORI=lT095 :READA!X=X+A! NEXT ilFXO 12828 



THENPRINT" ERROR IN DATA 

TOP 

RESTORE :FORI=828T0866 

XT 



30 

40 
50 
60 
70 



80 DATA 



STATEMENTS . 

:rem 

READA;POKEI,A 

;rem 



:S 

69 

NE 

70 

:rem 73 

rem 197 

:reni 78 



90 

100 

110 



120 



130 



140 



150 



160 



170 
180 



190 



200 



210 

220 
230 



240 



250 



260 



270 
280 

290 

300 
310 



DATA 173,5,144,41,3,10,10 
DATA 105,16,133,254,169,128 i 
DATA 133,252,169,0,133,251,133 
DATA 253,168,162,2,177,251,145,253 

I rem 36 
200,208,249,230,252,230,254 

:rem 179 
DATA 202,208,242,96 : rem 60 

POKE36878, 15 :DIMN( 16 ) :F0RI=1T016 :READ 
N(I) :NEXT ;rem 21 

DATAl 35, 163, 175, 195, 207, 209, 215, 225, 2 
31,232,235,240,237,23 5,237,240 

:rem 217 
POKE36a79,25 SPRINT" JcLR}"CHR${142)CHR 
${8)SPC(6)"{6 DOWN) [BLK} WELCOME TO" 

! rem 205 
PRINTSPC(5)"{2 D0WN}{BLK}*{RED}A{CYN} 

p{pur)p(grn}l{blu}e {yel1h{blk}u{red1 

N{CYNlTtPUR)*":GOSUB600 : rem 241 
PRINT"{BLUl{4 DOWN] {5 SPACES} (RVS) DO 
{space} YOU NEED"SPC( 10) "INSTRUCTIONS? 
"SPC(11)"{0FF} (Y OR N)" :rem 95 
GETY? : IFY5=" "OR(Y?<> "y"ANDY$ <> "N" )THE 
N150 irem 97 

Y=(Y$="Y") ! PRINT" (CLR}"!P0KE36869, 255 
:SYS828:GOSUB500:IFNOT Y THEN440 

:rem 184 
PRINT" fCLR}":POKE36879, 251 : rem 58 
PRINTSPC(S)"[RVS} {pur} YOU ARE: {OFF} 
{BLK1s":PRINTSPC(5)"{D0WN} [RVSS (PUR}M 
ONSTBRs {off} {BLU} I " :PRINTSPC( 5 } " 
{down} {RVS}{ pur} APPLE: {off} {RED}V" 

: rem 88 
PRINTSPC{ 5 ) " {down) t RVS} { PUR } TREE: 

{grn} {off3u":printspc(5}"£down3 {rvs} 

{PUR}RUBY:Z" irem 145 

PRINT" {2 down} (rvs 3 {BLK}SC0RING! " :PRI 
NT" {DOWN) {RED}V{RVS} :50-500 POINTS" :P 
RINT"E down} { BLU ) 1 (RVS) !l000 POINTS" 

srem 154 
PRINT" {down) (pur) {rvs 3^: 3000 POINTS" 

srem 215 
GOSUB640 srem 174 

PRINT" {CLR} {DOWN) {BLK)S ( RVS ) {blu3MUS 
T GRAB 5 {RED3 {OFF}v{RVS} {BLUJ 
{7 SPACES } BEFORE THE TIME IS UP" 

:rem 241 
PRINT" {BLK}{ rvs} THE {BLU} {0FF}1 {BLK} 
{RVS} EATS THE (RED) {0FF)v{RVS} {BLK} 

{space}and{2 spaces}the{grn} {off} U 

{BLK 3" :rem 91 

print"{down){rvs) {blk3every wave THER 

E ARE{2 SPACES}M0RE f OFF) {GRN}U{BLK} 

:rem 207 
PRINT'' (down 3 J kVS 3 {BLU 3 USE THE JOYSTIC 
K T0{3 SPACES}M0VE -{OFF) {bLK}s{RVS} 
{BLU} in 4 DIRECTIONS" ; rem 40 
GOSUB640 :rem 179 

PRINT"{CLR){2 down} {3 RIGHT} { BLK )S 
{RVS} fBLU)wiLL LOSE IF HE" :rem 18 

printspc(4)"(down] {rvs}hits A (grn} 

{0FF}u{RVS) {BLU) OR IS" :rem 230 

printspc(2) "{down} {rvs} {BLU)T0UCHED B 

Y THE {OFF} 1{BLK3" :rem 218 

PRINT"{2 D0WN3 {RVS}{RED}yQUR GAME IS 

{SPACE} OVER IF {BLK) {QFF3s{RVS} " :PRIN 



320 
330 



340 



350 



360 
370 



380 
390 

400 
410 

420 

430 
440 

450 

460 

470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 

570 
580 

590 
600 

610 



TSPC(4)"{RVS3 [RED3TAKES too LONG" 

: rem 74 
GOSUB640 irem 175 

PRINT " { CLR 3 { 2 DOWN 3 { BLU ) { RVS ) EXTRA 
(OFF}{BLK3s{RVS3 {BLU3 & ZAP AFTER 
(3 SPACES 3 WAVES 5,10,15,20 & 25" 

:rem 239 
PRINT" {2 DOWN) (BLU 3 {RVS } WHEN (OFF) 
{BLK3S{RVS} (BLU) is RUNNING OUT OF TI 
ME, THE SCREEN{3 SPACES) WILL TURN 
{REd3RED" :rem 81 

PRINT" {2 DOWN 3 {BLU} (RVS) THE FASTER 
(0FF3 (BLK3s(RVS) {BLU3 FINISHES A WAVE 
THE MORE BONUS POINTS ARE AWARDED 

:rem 39 
GOSUB640 :rem 179 

PRINT" E CLR 3 {2 DOWN 3 {RVS3 { BLU } PRESSING 
THE JOYSTICK BUTTON RELEASES A ZAP" 

: rem 105 
PRINT" { DOWN} { BLK }S { RVS } MAY ONLY FIRE 
A ZAP WHEN STATIONARY" : rem 45 
PRINT" {DOWN} (rvs) (red) A ZAP DESTROYS 
{SPACE} (OFF) {GRN)U{RED3 { RVS } 
{6 SPACES} SURROUNDING IT IN 8 
{3 SPACES) DIRECTIONS AND RESETS TIME 

srem 254 
PRINT" (DOWN) {rvs 3 {BLK3 USING A ZAP CHA 
SES THE"; : rem 157 

PRINT" (off) {BLU] 1 (BLK) (rvs) TO ANQTHE 
R PLACE IN THE FOREST OR MAKES 
{3 SPACES 3 THE (0FF3{BLU)I {BLK){RVS)D 
ISAPPEAR" srem 62 

PRINT" E 2 DOWN) (RIGHT) (RVS 3 HIT ANY KEY 
TO START" srem 159 

GETA$:IFA$=""THEN430 srem 81 

PRINT" ECLR) " :POKE36879 , 25 ;POKE36869 , 2 
40 s rem 68 

PRINT"EBLK) {3 D0WN)F0R tape, PRESS PL 
AY" srem 45 

PRINT" £2 DOWN) JUST A FEW MOMENTS 
{4 SPACES) WHILE I LOAD THE ( 6 SPACES 3 S 
ECOND PART" :rem 207 

S$= "LO"+CHR? ( 34 )+"P2"+CHR${ 34 )+",!:"+ 
CHR$(131) :rem 127 

REM CHANGE 1 TO 8 IN PRIOR LINE IF YD 
U ARE USING A DISK DRIVE srem 77 
F0RI=1T0LEN(S5) : POKB630+I , ASC ( MID$ (S$ 
,1)) :NEXTsPOKE198, IsEND srem 148 
FORC=73 20.TO732 7:READA!POKEC,AtNEXT 

srem 103 
DATA60 , 66 , 165 , 1 29 , 165 , 153 , 66 , 60 

srem 245 
FORC=7432T07439:READA:POKEC,A:NEXT 

srem 113 
DATA195,34,20,156,126,29,8,119 

srem 193 
FORC=7 328T07335:READA:POKEC,AsNEXT 

srem 114 
DATA60, 66, 165, 129, 153, 165, 66, 60 

srem 249 
FORC=7336T07343tREADA!POKEC,A: 



:NEXT 
;rem 114 
;rem 24B 
E NEXT! RE 
; rem 140 
srem 87 



DATA0,28,62, 127, 127,62,8,8 

FORC=7 344T07351 sREADA s POKEC, As 

TURN 

DATA6 ,8,60,126,126, 126 , 60 , 24 

POKE36878 , 1 5 :FORO=0TO8 : F0RL=l + 0T08+0 s 

N=N(L) srem 121 

POKE36876,NsFORT=lTO50!NEXT:NEXT:NEXT 

sFORV=15TO0STEP-l!POKE36878,V:FORT=lT 

O300!NEXT srem 184 



134 COMPurers Gazette Apnl 1985 



620 POKE36878,0:POKE36876,0 : rem 6 

630 RETURN : rem 121 

640 PRINT" J 2 DOWN} {BLK){RVS 3(5 RIGHT} HIT 

{SPACE) ANY KEY" -rem 118 

650 GETA$:IFA$=""THEN650 ;rem 89 

660 RETURN : rem 124 

Program 2: Apple Hunt — Main Game 
(VIC Vexslon> 

2 51=36874 !S2=S1+1:S3=S2+1:V=S3+2!TP=3687 

9 :rem 149 

4 GOSUB110!B%=0;SO=0:TX=0:X=RND(0) !reni 36 

6 PRINT" {CLR3 " ! P0KE36869, 255 s SC=7680 :Q=30 

720:ZZ=25rW=l:ME=2!POKEV,15:ZA=2:POKE37 

154,127 :rem 21 

8 POKETP,251:NO=127:FORL=lTOZZ!X=INT(RNDt 

1)*506) :rem 229 

10 N0=N0+1 :P0KES2 , NO: IFNO=>254THENNO=127 

srem 10 
12 POKESC+Q+X, 5 : POKESC+X, 21 : P0KES2 , : NEXT 

sZZ=ZZ+15 :TR=INT(RND{1 )*4)+6 :rem 74 
14 F0RP=1T0TR! P0KES3 , 240 :TA=INT( RND( 1 ) *50 

6)+SC:POKETA,22!POKETA+Q,2 : rem 158 
16 IFINT{RND(1)*100)+1<=3THENPOKETA,218:P 

0KETA+Q,4 :rem 239 

18 POKES3,0:NEXT!SX=INT{RND(1)*506)+SC:PO 

KESX,33:POKESX+Q,6 : rem 213 

20 PO=INT ( RND ( 1 ) * 506 ) + SC : IFPO=SXTHEN20 

: rem 71 
22 POKEPO,19:POKEPO+Q,0 :F0RL=1T03 : POKEPO, 

19:FORP=1TO100 tP0KES2, 200 ;NEXT :irem 47 
24 POKEPO, 32 :FORP=1TO100!POKES2,0: NEXT iNE 

XT: POKEPO, 19 : rem 178 

26 TI$="000000" srem 202 

28 IFTI=>786THENPOKETP , 154 :IFTI=>966THEN6 

2 :rem 155 

30 POKES3,0:J=(PEEK(37137)AND28)OR(PEEK{3 

7152)AND12a) srem 22 

32 ONABS{(j-100)/4)-7GOTO50, 50,34, ,36,38, 

124, , , ,40,50,50 :rem 92 

34 DR=-l:NO=165:GOT042 : rem 33 

36 DR=22 :N0=189:G0T042 srem 47 

38 DR=-22;NO=210:GOTO42 jrem 79 

40 DR=l:NO=225 :rem 21 

42 P0KES2,N0: PO=PO+DR: IFP0>8187THENP0=P0- 

506;POKEPO-DR+506,32 : rem 107 

44 1PPO<7680THENPO=PO+506:POKEPO-DR-S06,3 

2 trem 59 

46 IFPEEK(PO)<>32THEN64 :rem 134 

48 POKEPO-DR,32tPOKEPO,19:POKEPO+Q,0:POKE 

S2,0 :rem 86 

50 POKESl , 128 sPOKESX, 32 :X=INT( RND( 1 )*8)+l 

:rem 179 
52 JJ=(X=2)*22-{X=l)*22-tX=3)+(X=4)+{X=5) 

*23-(X=6)*23+(X=7)*21-(X=8)*21:rem 149 
54 SX=SX+JJ ! IFSX<7680THENSX=SX+506 : POKESX 

-JJ,32 ;rem 46 

56 IFSX>8187THENSX=SX-506:POKESX-JJ,32 

: rem 171 
58 IFPEEK(SX)=19THENPOKESX-JJ,33:POKESX+Q 

-JJ , 6 : POKEPO , 20 : POKEPO +Q , :GOT078 

:rem 43 
60 POKESX, 33 :POKESX+Q, 6 : POKESl ,0:GOTO28 

:rem 234 
62 PRINT" [2 DOWN) {RVS} [BLKJ TOOK TOO LONG" 

: POKEPO, 20 :POKEPO+O,0:GOTO82 : rem 175 
64 IFPEEK{PO)=21QRPEEK(PO)=33THENPOKEPO-D 

R, 20:POKEPO+Q-DR,0:GOTO78 irem 218 
66 IFPEEK{PO)<>22THEN72 ; rem 134 

68 POKEPO-DR,32:POKEPO,19:POKEPO+Q,0:SO=S 

O+INT(RND(l)*10+l)*50sPOKES3,230+B%;TX 



=TX+1 :rem 121 

70 IFTX>4THEN94 : rem 176 

72 IF PEEK{PO)<>218THENB%=B%-l-2!GOT048 

;rem 152 
74 POKEPO-DR, 32 s POKEPO, 19: POKEPO+Q, 

I rem 11 

76 PRINT" {home} (rvs! {2 RIGHT) {BLK} 3000 PO 

INTSl" sSO=SO+3000 !A1%=:1 SP0KES3, 250:GOT 

094 :rem 104 

78 POKESl, 0: POKES 3, 0:FORP=0TO 53 s POKES 2, 18 

0-P:FORL=lTO20: NEXT: NEXT : rem 180 

80 ME=ME-1 : IFME=> 1THENZZ=ZZ-1 5 : PRINT " 

{CLR)":GQT08 :rem 222 

82 PRINT"(HOME} [rvs} (4 DOITO} { BLK} " :F0RP=1 
TO10 SPRINT" {rvs} {BLK}GAME OVER": POKESl 
,128:FORL=1TO100:NEXT : rem 86 

84 PRINT"{UP} tUP}"sPOKESl,0:FOR 

L=1TO100 : NEXT; NEXT: IPSO >HSTHENHS=SO 

srem 150 
86 POKE36869 , 240: PQKE19a ,0 : PRINT" {CLR} 

{BLK) {2 DOWN )SCORE=" SO: PRINT "{down} WAV 
E"W: PRINT" {DOWN} [ BLK )AGAIN(Y OR N) " 

:rem 204 

88 GETC$:IFC$="N"THENPOKE37139,128:POKE37 

154,255:END : rem 40 

90 IFC$="Y"THEN4 :rem 156 

92 GOT088 : rem 20 

94 BO=INT(966-Tl)*3:IFPEEK(TP)=154THENBO= 

:rem 42 

96 PRINT" [home) {3 DOWN} { RVS }( BLK} WAVE" rW; 

"OVER"!TX=0:IFW=5ORW=10ORW=15ORW=20ORW 

=25THEN118 : rem 186 

98 W=W+1 :PRINT"{RVS){DOWN}BONUS="BO:SO=SO 

+B0:PRINT"{RVS}{D0WN}SC0RE="S0 srem 59 

100 PRINT" {rvs] { down ] MEN= "; ME: pokes 1,0:PO 

KES2 , : PQKES3 , s P0KES3+1 , : PRINT" 

{ RVS H DOWN }ZAPS="ZA:B%=0 : rem 70 

102 READN, D: IPN=-1THENP0KES2+A1% , : A1%=0: 

GOTO108 srem 106 

104 POKES2+Al%,N!FORP=lTODsNEXT:GOTO102 

trem 202 

106 DATA200, 180,0,5, 210, 180,0,5, 220, 200,0 

,5,230,300,0,5,220,120,0,5,230,450,-1 

,-1 srem 84 

108 FORP=lTO2500sNEXT: PRINT" f CLR) ":RESTOR 

E:G0T08 :rem 200 

110 POKETP,30:PRINT"{CLR}{3 DOWN} (RED} "SP 

C{ 6) "APPLE HUNT (3 DOWN) ": PRINT" 

{3 DOWN} {3 RIGHT} [BLK} HIGH SCORE="HS 

:rem 15 

112 PRINT" {4 DOWN} { right) { PUR] [RVS) HIT AN 

Y KEY TO START" srem 91 

114 GETA$:IFA$=""THEN114 irem 79 

116 RETURN srem 120 

118 POKES 2, 0:FORP=1TO10: PRINT "{HOME} {RVS) 

EXTRA MAN & ZAP" ; P0KES3 , 240 :F0RL=1T01 

00:NEXT : rem 103 

120 PRINT"{UP} "sPOKES3,0:F 

ORL=1TO100:NEXT:NEXT SPRINT" {2 DOWN)" 

srem 110 
122 ME=ME+1 sZA=ZA+l:GQT098 srem 63 
124 B=PEEK( 37137 )AND32 :IFB<>0THENS0 

srem 18 
126 IFZA=<0THEN50 :rem 

128 2A=ZA-1 sPOKETP,203 : rem 58 

130 POKEPO+1 , 192 :P0KEP0-1 ,192 : POKEPO-22, 2 

21sPOKEPO+22,221 :rem 102 

132 POKEPO+21 ,206 :P0KEP0-21 , 206 : POKEPO-23 

, 205 :POKEPO+2 3, 205 :rem 202 

1 34 POKEPO+1+Q, : POKEPO-1+Q , 1 : POKEPO-22+Q 

,2:POKEPO+22+Q,3 :rem 190 



COMPUTEfs Gazeno April 1985 135 



136 P0KEP0+21+Q, 4: P0KEP0-21+Q, 5 : POKEPO-23 
+Q,6!POKEPO+2 3+0,7 : rem 54 

138 FORL=1TO100:POKES3+1,150:NEXT;POKES3+ 
1,0 :rem 158 

140 IFPEEK{SX) <>33THENSO=SO+1000:POKES3, 2 
40: PRINT "[home} ( RVS } {BLK]1000 POINTS 1 
"!G0T094 :rem 209 

142 POKESX , 32 ! SX=SC+INT { RHD ( 1 ) ♦506 ) +1 : POK 
EPO+1 , 32 ; POKEPO-1 , 32 : POKEPO-22, 32 ; POK 
EPO+2 2,32 :rein 230 

144 POKEPO+21 , 32 ! POKEPO-21 , 32 ! POKEPO-23 , 3 
2SPOKEPO+23 ,32 ;POKETP,251 :TI$="000000 
":GOTO50 irern 72 

Program 3: Apple Hunt— 64 version 



100 
110 

120 
130 



140 

150 

160 

170 
180 
190 

200 
210 

220 

230 

240 

250 

260 

270 

280 

290 
300 

310 



POKE56,48:CLR;TP=53280 :rem 251 
FORI=lT0162:READA:X=X-t-A:NEXT :rem 15 
IFX<>90689THENPRINT"[CLR} JBLKJERROR I 
N DATA STATEMENTS. ": STOP : rem 24 
RESTORE : POKETP , 1 2 j POKETP + 1 , 12 ; PRINT " 
{CLR}(WHT}{9 DOWN] "TAB( 15) "WELCOME TO 

irem 9 
PRINTTAB(14)"[4 DOWN} ( BLK) * { RED}APPLE 

{BLU}HUNTtBLK}*"!GOSUB1300:GOSUB370 

srem 105 
PRINT" {BLK} [4 DOWN) "TAB(6 ) " [ RVS}neED 
[SPACE 3 INSTRUCTIONS (Y OR N) ?" 

:rem 152 
GETZ$ : IPZ$ = ""OR( Z$ < > "Y"ANDZ$<> "N" ) THE 
N160 ;rem 103 

IFZS="N"THEN440 : rem 59 

POKETP, 1: POKETP+1, 1 : rem 143 

A$="{CLR} [bLK] [4 D0WN}":PRINTA$" 
(2 SPACES JYOU ARE %. THE OBJECT OF TH 
E GAME IS [down 3" : rem 34 

PRINT"T0 EAT ALL THE APPLES ( {RED}& 
(BLK})" :rem 130 

PRINTTAB(25)"(UP}IN THE FOREST. 
{D0WN}Y0U(%) MUST AVOID THE TREES ( 
[GRN}[[BLK3) and the" :rem 175 
PRINT" {DOWN} MONSTER! [ BLU 3 1 {BLK 3 ) . USE 

YOUR JOYSTICK TO MOVE % {DOWNJtHROUG 
H THE FOREST." 
PRINTTAB(20)"{UP}% HAS 
[2 SPACES} {DOWN} TO EAT 
(BLK}. THE SCREEN WILL 
PRINT" RED":PRINT"(D0WN}IF % IS ABOUT 

TO RUN OUT OF TIME. " :GQSUB1310 

:rem 42 
WI 

84 



:rem 172 
LIMITED TIME 
ALL {RED}fi. 
TURN"; :rem 125 



PRINTA$"[WHT} {3 SPACES} [BLU 3 1 (BLK3 
LL EAT {GRN3[(BLK} AS WELL AS [RED 
[BLK}. "; ;rem 

PRINT "IF S HITS {down} [BLU} 1 [BLK} OR 
[space} {grn)[ {BLK} YOU WILL LOSE." 

: rem 118 
PRINTTAB(21)"{UP} PRESS THE FIRE 
[4 SPACES} {down} BUTTON TO RELEASE A Z 
AP. A ZAP DESTROYS" j rem 174 

PRINT" {DOWN} [CRN} [[BLK} AND RESETS TI 
ME. IF {BLU} 1 [BLK} IS HIT BY A ZAP " 

:rem 50 
PRINT"YOU WILL BE AWARDED 1000": PRINT 
TAB(25)"[UP}POINTS. "; : rem 82 

PRINT" {BLU} 1 (BLK} WILL {DOWN3hOVER AR 
OUND {RED3£.{BLK} UNTIL % EATS IT OR 
{BLU}1 {BLK 3 GETS{D0WN3IT. ":GOSUB1310 

srem 22 
PRINTA$"{3 spaces} SOMETIMES A RUBY ( 
{PUR}#{BLK3) APPEARS ON THE {2 SPACES} 
{DOWN}SCREEN, YOU MUST TRY " ; : rem 170 

320 PRINT "TO GET {PUR}#[BLK3 BEFORE [BLuj 

136 COMPUTErs Gazette April 1985 



I [BLK3": PRINT" [DOWN 3 GETS IT. YOU CAN 

[ SPACE 3GAIN 3000 POINTS FOR" :rem 74 
330 PRINT" {DOWN} GETTING [PUR}#{BLK}. FOR 

{space} EACH {RED}s.[bLK3 YOU CAN SCORE 

; rem 28 
340 PRINT "{down} BETWEEN 50 TO 500 POINTS. 

; rem 43 
350 PRINTTAB(26)"(UP3AN EXTRA % AND {DOWN} 

ZAP ARE AWARDED AFTER WAVES 5,10,15,2 

0{DOWN}" jrem 76 

360 PRINT"AND 25 . " :GOSUai310 sPRINT" {CLR} " 

:GOTO440 :rem 250 

370 POKE53272,28!SYS828 : rem 61 

380 READV:IFV=-1THEN400 : rem 138 

390 FORI=VTOV+7 :READA:POKEI , A:NEXT:G0TO38 

irem 247 

400 S=54272 : FORL=STOS+24 : POKEL , : NEXT 

srem 54 
410 HF=S+l!DIMN(l6) :F0RI=1T016 :READN{ I ) sN 

EXT:GOSUB1340 srem 68 

420 FORT=0TO8;READDR{T) iNEXT srem 35 
430 RETURN srem 119 

440 PRINT" {CLR}":SO=0:TX=0:SC=1024! 22=45! 

W=1:ME=2:ZA=2 : rem 126 

450 DEFFND(Z)=ABS({JV=2)*1+{JV=1)*2+{JV=8 

)*3+{JV=4)*4) jrem 201 

460 POKETP,! : POKETP+1, 1 : F0RL=1T0ZZ :X=INT( 

RND ( ) * 960 } ! POKESC+S+X , 5 : POKESC+X , 27 

:rem 115 
470 POKES+24 , 15 1 POKES+4 , 17 : POKEHP, 50 : POKE 

S, 100 :P0KES+4, 16 sNEXT: ZZ=ZZ + 27 

!rem 138 
480 TR=INT(RND(1)*6}+6:F0RP=1T0TR!TA=INT{ 

RND{1)*960)+SC srem 66 

490 POKES+4, 65 ! POKEHF, 15 :P0KES+3 , 15 : POKES 

+2 , 20 s POKES+4 , 64 sPOKETA, 38 : POKETA+S, 2 

:rera 17 
500 IFINT( RND( I ) *100)+1 <=3THENP0KETA, 35 sP 

0KETA+S,4 srem 236 

510 POKES+4 , 17 : POKEHF, 50 : POKES , 200 ! P0KES+ 

4,16:NEXT : rem 52 

520 SX=INT(RND(1)*960)+SC: POKESX, 33: POKES 

X+S,6 srem 69 

S30 PO=INT{RND{1)*960)+SC:POKEPO,37!POKEP 

O+S,0 srem 32 

540 F0RL=1T03 s POKEPO , 37 i FORP=1TO100 s NEXT 

srem 58 
550 POKEPO, 32 E FORP-lTOl 00 sNEXT ! NEXT sPOKEP 

0,37 srem 156 

560 TI$="000000" irem 253 

570 IFTI=>1100THENPOKETP,2!lFTI=>1400THEN 

710 srem 210 

580 JV=FEEK(563 20) :FR=JVAND16 s JV=15-( JVAN 

D15) !lFFR=0THEN970 srem 74 

590 XX=FND(Z) :IFXX=0THEN650 srem 190 
600 DR=DR(XX) sPO=PO+DRsIFPO>-202 3THENPO=PO 

-960!POKEPO~DR+960,32 irem 127 
610 IFPO< 1024THENPO=PO+960 ! POKEPO-DR-960 , 

32 irem 100 

620 IFPEEKCPO)<>32THEN720 srem 227 
630 POKES+4, 65 : POKEHF, 15 :POKEPO-DR, 32; POK 

EPO,37jPOKEPO+S,0!POKES+3,15 jrem 34 
640 POKES+2, 20: POKES+4, 64 irem 184 
650 POKESX, 32tX=lNT{RND{l}*8)+l irem 53 
660 JJ=DR(X) srem 172 

670 SX=SX+JJ:IFSX<1024THENSX=SX+960t POKES 

X-JJ,32 srem 88 

680 IFSX>2023THENSX=SX-960;POKESX-JJ,32 

:rem 209 
690 IFPEEK ( SX ) =37THENPOKESX-JJ , 33 ; POKESX+ 

S-JJ , 6 : POKEPO , 29 t POKEPO + S , ;GOTO790 

! rem 155 



700 POKESX,33jPOKESX+S,6:GOTO5 70 i rem 6 
710 PRINT"{2 down} (BLKJ TOOK TOO LONG " ! POK 

EPO,29iPOKEPO+S,0:GOTO800 :rem 6 
720 IFPEEK(PO)=270RPEEK{PO)=33THENPOKEPO- 

DR,29:POKEPO+S-DR,0!GOTO790 i rem 75 
730 IFPEEK(PO)<>38THEN760 trem 239 
740 POKEPO-DR, 32 t POKEPO, 37 s POKEPO+S,0 s S0= 

SO+INT ( RHD ( 1 ) * 10+1 ) * 50 jTX=TX+l 

I rem 102 
750 GOSUB1440;IFTX>4THEN890 ! rem 156 
760 1FPEEK{PO)<>35THEN630 : rem 235 
770 POKEPO-DR, 32 i POKEPO, 37 ! POKEPO+S, 

! rem 64 
780 PRINT" [home) (2 RIGHT) fBLK} 3000 POINTS 

.•'!SO=SO+3000:GOTO890 i rem 216 
790 GOSUB1390!ME=ME-l!lFME=>lTHENZZ=ZZ-27 

tPRINT" tCLR}" SGOTO460 : rem 2 

800 PRINT" [home! t4 DOWN} {BLK] " ;FORP=1TO10 

: rem 51 
810 PRINT" I BLK} GAME OVER" :FORL=1TO100 :NEX 

T :rem 216 

820 PRINT" (UP) (13 SPACES} {up} ":FORL=1TO10 

0:NEXT:NEXT:IFSO>HSTHENHS=SO : rem 123 
830 POKETP,! sPOKETP+1,1 : PRINT" £CLR} "TAB(1 

2)"(BLK} (7 D0WN}SC0RE="S0:PRINTTAB(12 

)"{D0WN}WAVE="W :rem 206 

840 printtab(12}"{down3high SC0RE="HS 

jrem 125 

850 PRINTTAB(8)"(3 DOWN} { BLK } WISH TO PLAY 

AGAIN(y/n)?" tPOKE198,0 :rem210 

860 GETZ$!lFZ$=""OR(Z$<>"y"ANDZ$<>"N")THE 

N860 trem 117 

870 IFZ$="y"THENPRINT"{CLR]":GOTO440 

:rem 36 
880 POKE53272,21:END : rem 114 

890 BO=INTtl400-TI)*3!lF(PEEK(TP)AND15)=2 

THENaO=0 :rem 160 

900 PRINT" {home} {3 DOWN} [ BLK} WAVE" ;W; "OVE 

R":TX=0:TR='0;IFW=5ORW=10ORW=15ORW==20O 

RW=25THEN940 ; rem 34 

910 W=W+1:PRINT" tDOWN}BONUS="BO!SO=SO+BO: 

PRINT"{DOWN}SCORE="SO j rem 64 

920 PRINT"! DOWN JmEN="; ME: PRINT" {DOWN J ZAPS 

=";ZA ;rem 212 

930 GOSUB1340 :PRINT" { CLR} " :GOTO460 

:rem 143 
940 FORP=1TO10: PRINT" {home] EXTRA MAN AND 

{SPACE}ZAP":FORL=1TO100:NEXT j rem 10 
950 PRINT"{UP}{17 SPACES} " tFORL=lTO100 :NE 

XT!NEXT!PRINT"(2 down!" :rem 46 
960 ME=ME+1:ZA=ZA+1:GOTO910 : rem 114 
970 IFZA=<0THEN650 J rem 61 

980 ZA=ZA-l:POKETP+l,4:POKETP,3 ; rem 167 

990 POKEPO+1 , 64 : POKEPO-1 , 64 : POKEPO-40 , 93 : 

POKEPO+40,93 :rem 190 

1000 POKEPO+39 , 78 : POKEPO-39 , 78 t POKEPO-41 , 

77:POKEPO+41,77 ! rem 99 

1010 POKEPO+1+S,0:POKEPO-1+S, 2:POKEPO-40+ 

S,3:POKEPQ+40+S,4 : rem 243 

1020 POKEPO+39 + S, 3 : POKEPO-39 + S, 6 sPOKEPO-4 

l+S,7:POKEPO+41+S,8 trem 125 

1030 FORL=1TO100:NEXT : rem IS 

1040 IFPEEK(SX)<>33THENSO=SO+1000: PRINT" 

{HOME} {elk} 1000 POINTS. ":GOTO890 

:rem 127 
1050 POKESX,32!SX=SC+INT(RND{1)*960)+1 :P0 

KEPO+1, 32: POKEPO-1, 32 : rem 199 
1060 POKEPO-40, 32:POKEPO+40, 32 : rem 223 
1070 POKEPO+39 , 32 ; POKEPO-39 , 32 : POKEPO-41 , 

32:POKEPO+41,32 j rem 68 

1080 POKETP, 1:P0KETP+1, 1 :TI$="000000" :GOT 



0650 J rem 105 

1090 DATA 173,14,220,41,254,141,14 

jrem 123 
1100 DATA 220,173,24,208,41,14,10 trem 62 
1110 DATA 10,133,167,169,208,133,252 

:rem 229 
1120 DATA 173,0,221,41,3,73,3 : rem 123 
1130 DATA 10,10,10,10,10,10,5 srem 98 
1140 DATA 167,133,254,165,1,41,251 

:rem 130 
1150 DATA 133,1,169,0,133,251,133 :rem 71 
1160 DATA 253,168,162,8,177,251,145 

:rem 197 
1170 DATA 253,200,208,249,230,252,230 

! rem 19 
1180 DATA 254,202,208,242,165,1,9 : rem 83 
1190 DATA 4,133,1,173,14,220,9 ; rem 182 
1200 DATA 1,141,14,220,96 srem 188 
1210 DATA12584,60,66,165,129,16 5,153,66,6 
trem 83 

1220 DATA125 52, 195, 34, 20, 156, 126, 29, 8, 119 

:rem 25 
1230 DATA12520,60,66, 165, 129, 153, 165,66,6 
:rem 75 

1240 DATA12504,0,28,62,127,127,62,8,8 

:rem 75 
1250 DATA12592,6,8,60,126,126,126,60,24 

:rem 176 

1260 DATA12568,60,126,255,255,126,60,24,8 

,-1 trem 167 

1270 DATA35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 

,90,95,100.105,110 trem 133 

1280 REM DATA35, 63, 75, 95, 107, 109, 115, 125, 

131,13 2,135,140, 137,13 5,13 7,140 

t rem 38 
1290 DATA0 , 40 , -40 ,1,-1, -41 ,41,-39,39 

trem 246 
1300 AD=82atPORI=ADTOAD+81 sREADAt POKEI , As 
NEXTI: RETURN -rem 162 

1310 PRINTTAB(14)"{2 DOWN HRVS} HIT ANY KE 
Y{OFF)" irem 159 

1320 GETZ$iIFZ$=""THEN1320 trem 225 
1330 RETURN :rem 167 

1340 POKES+24 , 1 5 t POKES-J-5 , 90 : POKES+6 , 240 

srem 253 
1350 POKES+4,17 tFORO=0TO3 trem 241 
1360 F0RL=l+0T08+O:POKEHF,N{L) trem 72 
1370 POKES ,110: FORT=1TO50 t NEXT t NEXT : NEXT t 
FaRV=15TO0STEP-l :POKES+24,V trem 183 
1 380 FORI = 1TO50 t NEXT :NEXT ; POKES+4 , 16 : RETU 
RN srem 44 

1 390 POKES+24 , 15 t POKES + 5 , 90 ; POKES+6 ,240 

t rem 2 

1400 POKES+4, 17 srem 58 

1410 FORL=50TO5STEP-5tPOKEHF,L trem 128 

1420 POKES,5:FORT=1TO50:NEXT:NEXT!FORV=15 

TO0STEP-1 t POKES+24, V srem 221 

1430 FORI = 1TO50 t NEXT :NEXT t POKES+4 , 16 : RETU 

RN trem 40 

1440 POKES+24 , 15 t POKES+4 , 65 t POKES+3 , 15 s PO 

KES+2,20tFORI=lTO250STEP5 trem 246 

1450 POKEHF , I : NEXT : POKES+4 , 64 t RETURN 

t rem 64 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 

Before typing in programs, please refer to 
"How To Type In COMPUTERS GAZETTE 
Programs," which appears before the Program 
Listings, 



COMPUTEI'a Qazette April 1985 137 



Number CLuest 

(Article on page 67.) 

Program I : Number auest— 64 
Version 



PRINT" tCLRl (10 RIGHT} [12 DOWNj";"JUST 
{space} A MOMENT..." ! rem 19 

POKE56 , 48 : CLR : K=l 2288 : PC=5 63 34 : CP=5 32 7 
2 srem 146 

IF PEEK( 12288 }+PEEKC 12289 )=162THEN60 

! rem 127 
POKEPC , PEEK{ PC ) AND254 i POKEl , PEEK ( 1 ) AND 
251 :reni 161 

PORJ=0TO4095 : POKEK+J , PEEK ( 5 3248+J ) ! NEX 
TJ :rem 129 

FORI=216T0255 :READA% : POKEK+I ,A% :NEXTI : 
FORI = 280TO295 : READA% : POKEK+I ,A% sNEXTI 

;reni 159 
POKEl , PEEK{ 1 ) 0R4 ! POKEPC , PEEK ( PC) OR! 

srem 114 
POKECP , 21 : BC=5 3 280 : BK=5 3281 : POKEBC , 2 : P 
OKEBK.l :PRINT"{CLR}" : rem 251 

PRINTSPC(90)"{BLK3 {2 SPACES }gM3ME 2 G% 
g2 MiMNEGioic^O 0EG8" irem 109 

PRINT" {12 SPACES 3 iMi gGJLg^MJ 
{2 SPACES }iG30EG3Q 0Eg3" : rem 55 
110 PRINTTAB(21 )"lTg TtI" .-rem 52 

120 PRINT; PRINT" (RED} {13 SPACES 5 OP gGggMl 
O O PO" :rem 111 

PRINT'^13 SPACES }L@EP3Li O P iM^^G^" 

:reni 23 
PRINTTAB(19)"gT3 ETE" = rem 62 

PRINTSPC{ 131 )"{BLU} PRESS THE Fl KEY" 

:rem 32 
V=54272:FORSL=VTOV+24iPOKESL,0:NEXT 

srem 232 
POKEV+5 , 88 ! POKEV+4 ,33 ; POKEV+24, 143 : PO 
KEV+6, 195 :rem 200 

READLF, HF.DR: IFLF=-1THEN200 : rem 122 
POKEV , LF ; POKEV+1 , HF : F0RT=1T0DR: NEXTT : 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 



60 



70 



80 



90 



100 



130 

140 
150 

160 

170 

180 
190 



200 
210 
220 
230 
240 

2 50 



260 



270 
280 
290 
300 

310 

320 



330 



340 
350 



GOTO180 

POKEV , : POKEV+1 , : POKEV+24 , 

GETA? ! IFA$=" "THEN210 

IFA$=CHR$ ( 133 )THEN240 

GOTO210 

PRINT " { CLR } " : POKEBC , 7 ! POKEBK , 



:rem 167 
;rem 150 
;rem 73 
irein 115 
:rem 97 
15 

:rem 211 
PRINTSPC(211)"(BLK3yOU HAVE (RED}5 
(BLK}TURNS":PRINTSPC(51)"T0 GUESS A N 
OMBER" irem 61 

PRINTSPC(51)"fBLK}FR0M (RED}10 {blK}T 
O f RED!100"jPRINTSPC(211 )"{BLU} PRESS 
{space! THE Fl KEY" : rem 234 

GETA$:IPA5=""THEN270 srem 85 

IFA$=CHR$(133)THEN300 srem 118 
GOTO270 srem 109 

PRINT" (CLR}"sPOKEBC, 6: POKEBK, liTN=lsF 
OKECP, {PEEK(CP)AND240)+12 : rem 93 
PRINTSPC(92 ) " EbLU)GUESS THE NUMBER" 

srem 87 
PRINT! PRINTTAB ( 24 ) " { BLK 3 [ £" : PRINT " 
(12 down} "!PRINTTAB(19)" {BLK}]" 

srem 99 
PRINT" (BLK! ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]] 
(BLU}TtTT (BLK} ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]] 
]]]]]]]]"; srem 177 

FOR T= 1T02 srem 21 

PRINT"{BLK} ]]]]]]]]] ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]] 
]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]" 



srem 186 
360 NEXT srem 216 

370 FORN=0TO40 s P0KE1983+N, 29 t POKE56255+N, 

0SNEXTN srem 157 

380 PRINT" (IS UP}" srem 235 

390 R=INT(RND(1)*90+10) srem 236 

400 PRINT"{DLK} {5 spaces} TURN! ";"{RED}"r 

TNsPRINT ! rem 183 

410 PRINT" {5 SPACES}"; srem 161 

420 S$="" ; INPUTS$!S=VAL(S$) s IFS<10RS> 100T 

HENGOSUB690 s PRINT" { DOWN } " ; s GOTO400 

srem 60 
430 FOR U= 1 TO LEN(S$) sUT=ASCCMID$(S$,U, 

D) srem 119 

440 IF UT<480RUT>57THEN U=LEN( S$ ) :GOSUB69 

0!NEXTi PRINT" { DOWN} " r :GOTO400 srem 4 
430 NEXT irem 216 

460 IF S>2 THEN490 srem 1B4 

470 PRINT" {BLK} [2 SPACES 3 THAT ' S TOO EASY" 

sFOR T=0TO1000 sNEXTs PRINT" {up} 

{18 spaces} (2 up} (RED}" srem 100 
480 GOTO410 :rem 106 

490 IFS=RTHEN780 srem 220 

500 TN=TN+1:IFTN=6THEN530 srem 23 

510 IFS>RTHEN610 irem 206 

520 IFS<RTHEN630 srem 207 

530 POKEV+24, 143 sFORM=60TO30STEP-2; POKEV, 

INT{M/3) s POKEV+1, Ms FORT=lTO10sNEXTT 

srem 66 
540 NEXTMs POKEV+24, srem 209 

550 P=14 :GOSUB710 s'POKEX, 36:POKECX, 6 s POKEX 

+40,30:POKECX+40,6 i rem 110 

560 FORH=125T015STEP-5s POKEV+24, M!F0RT=1T 

O20 sNEXTTs NEXTMs POKEV+24, srem 59 
570 PRINT" {CLR5"sP0KESC, 216 s PRINTSPCC 210) 

"(BLK} SORRY, YOU [2 SPACES} MISSED" 

srem 182 
580 PRINTSPCC 130) "THE NUMBER WAS{RED] ";R 

s rem 119 
590 PRINTSPC{ 49) "{BLK} BETTER LUCK NEXT TI 

ME"sFORU=lTO 1200SNEXTU srem 30 

600 GOTO850 srem 108 

610 D=INT(S/R) sD$="HIGH"sIFD<=ITHEN680 

srem 239 
620 GOTO640 srem 107 

630 D=INT(r/s) sD$="LOW"sIFD<=1THEN680 

srem 195 
640 PRINT" {RED3 ";D;"(BLK} TIMES TOO "?" 

{RED!"fD$ srem 199 

650 POKEV+24 , 143 tFORM=50TO0STEP-l s POKEV, I 

NT ( m/2 ) s POKEV+1, Ms NEXTM srem 33 
660 FORT=1TO600 sNEXTs POKEV+24, srem 163 
670 PRINT "(UP} {19 spaces}" SPRINT" (5 UP}": 

GOTO400 srem 230 

680 PRINT" (RED} (4 SPACES) TOO "r"{BLU!";D$ 

sPORT=lTO400 sNEXTs GOTO650 srem 95 
690 PRINT" {red} (5 SPACES )TRY 1-100 

(2 SPACES} "sFORT=lTO800sNEXTTs rem 101 
700 PRINT" (UP 5 (14 SPACES3"sPRINT"{5 UP}"; 

s RETURN srem 46 

710 X=I024+(5*40)+26sCX=X+54272!Z=1024+(5 

*40)+24sCZ=Z+54272 srem 100 

720 FORN=lTOP s POKEZ , 32 s POKEZ + 1 ,32 s POKEX , 3 

2sPOKEX+40,32 srem 102 

730 POKEZ-1 ,27sPOKECZ~l , s POKEZ, 28 : POKECZ 

,0 srem 145 

740 POKEX+40 , 31 ! POKECX+40 , 2 s POKEX+80 , 35 s P 

OKECX+80,0 srem 13 

750 Z=Z-1:CZ=CZ-1 sX=X+40sCX=CX+40sNEXTNsR 

ETURN srem 205 

760 BL=53265 s F0RN=1T06 1 POKEBL, PEEK { BL ) AND 



138 COMPUTEI's Gazette Apnn98S 



239:FORT=1TO50!NEXTT : rem 115 

770 POKEBL,PEEK(BL)OR15:FORT=1TO40:NEXTT! 

NEXTN: RETURN : rem 43 

780 GOSUB760 :P=5 :GOSUB710:PORN=1TO7 

srem 193 
790 POKEX,32!POKEX+40,32 srem 153 

800 POKEX+39 , 31 !POKECX+39 , 2 t POKEX+79 , 35 : P 

OKECX+79,0:X=X+39:CX=CX+39tNEXTN 

:rem 243 
810 POKEV+24 , 143 i FORM=30TO60 : POKEV , INT ( M/ 

2):POKEV+1,M:FORT=1TO10:NEXTT:NEXTM 

jrem 109 
820 POKEV+24, 0! POKEV, 0!POKEV+1,0 : rem 158 
830 PRINT "{CLRV'sPOKEBC, 2 !P0KEBK,1: PRINT: 

PRINT ! PRINTSPC ( 130 ) " { ELK } **CONGRATULA 

TIONS**" :rem 183 

840 PRINTSPC (173)"{RED}Y0U GUESSED IT" 

:rem 5 
850 PRINTSPC ( 191 ) ; : rem 55 

860 FOR Q= ITO 1000 !NEXT;TN=1 :GOTO300 

:rem 113 
870 DATA2 55, 1,1, 1,127, 255, 255, 127, 25 5, 0,0 

,3,3,255,255,0 : rem 178 

880 DATA2 55, 255, 255, 255, 255, 2 55, 2 55, 255,1 

70,170,255,255,255,255,255,255 :rem 6 
890 DATA60, 126, 255, 255, 129, 66, 36, 24, 16, 18 

,60 :rem 183 

900 DATA88 ,40, 36, 66, 0,17, 130, 68, 37, 6,1 48, 

93,126 jrem 72 

910 DATA31, 21, 200, 30, 25, 450, 31, 21, 200, 96, 

22 , 200 ,30,25, 200 , 96 , 22 , 200 ,31,21, 200 

srem 184 
920 DATA30,25,500,-I,-1,-1 t rem 10 

Program 2: Number auest— vie 

Version 

10 PRINT"{CLRltll D0WN}{5 RIGHT}PLEASE WA 

IT" :rem 

20 POKE5S,0!POKE56,2e!CLR srem 220 

30 B=7168!CB=25600;FORJ=0TO511 !POKEB+J,PE 

EK(B+J+CB) sNEXTJ t rem 175 



40 



NEXTI : 
NEXT I : 
rem 41 



FORI=216T0255:READA%:POKEB+I,A% 
FORI=280TO295:READA%:POKEB+I,A% 
PRINT"{CLR}" 
50 POKE36869,240;SC=36879:POKESC,233 

srem 71 
60 PRINTSPC{89)"(BLK} {2 SPACES J EM3Mg2 Gi 

E2 MiMKiG^OgG^O 0|G3" srem 114 

70 PRINT'^3 spaces 3Tm3 iG?L|EMg(2 SPACES} 

tC^O^GiO oIg^" jrem 13 

80 PRINTTAB(12)"§Ti Et3" srem 10 

90 PRINT" {RED) (5 SPACES JOP ^G^BM^ O O PO" 

srem 126 
100 PRINT" {5 SPACES }L£gFEL@ O P |m3|g3" 

s rem 20 
110 PRINTTAB(ll)"ETi ?T3" srem 51 

120 V=36878:F2=36875! POKEV, 15 srem 131 
130 READA%,D%sIFAl=-lTHEN150 : rem 58 
140 POKEF2,A%:FORT=lTOD%:NEXTTiGOTO130 

srem 145 

150 POKEV, 0sPOKEF2,0 : rem 180 

160 FORT=1TO1000:NEXTT : rem 113 

170 PRINT" (CLRl " 1 POKESC, 26 :PRINTSPC{ 157 ) " 

[ ELK 1 YOU HAVE (RED) 5 [BLK) TURNS" 

srem 156 
180 PRINTePRINT"{2 SPACES }T0 GUESS 

{2 SPACES] A NUMBER" srem 101 

190 PRINTS PRINT" { BLK) {4 SPACES) FROM {RED} 

10 { BLK} TO {RED}100"sFORT=1TO4000:NEX 

TT srem 106 

200 PRINT" {CLR) " s POKESC, 27 sTN=l sPOKE36869 



,255 srem 21 

210 PRINTSPC(46)"(BLU)GUESS THE NUMBER" 

: rem 85 
220 PRINT s PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 14 ) " { BLK } [ £" : PR 

INT" E 12 down! " s PRINTTAB ( 10) " [ BLK) ] " 

srem 31 
230 PRINT" {BLK} ]]]]]3]]]]]]]]]]{BLtJ3tT 

{BLK}]]]]"; SPRINT"]]"; irem 224 
240 PRINT"]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]3]]]":POKE8163,2 

9:POKE38883,0 srem 243 

250 FORN=0TO21 ;POKE8164+N, 29 :POKE38884+N, 

0:NEXTN srem 159 

260 PRINT" f 16 UP)" srem 121 

270 R=INT(RND(1)*90+10) srem 233 

280 PRINT" {BLK) (2 SPACES} TURN: "r"{RED}"; 

TN:PRINT srem 189 

290 S$=""sINPUT"{red) {3 SPACES) ";S$ 

:rem 111 
300 S=VAL(S$) :IFS<1ORS>100THENGOSUB570 

:rem 101 
310 F0RU=1T0LEN(S?) :UQ=ASC(MID$ (S$,U, 1 ) ) 

srem 113 
320 IP UQ<480R UQ> 57THENU=LEN{S$) :NEXT:GO 

SUB570:GOTO280 srem 167 

330 NEXT , srem 213 

340 IF S>2THEN370 srem 178 

350 PR1NT"THAT'S TOO EASY"fiFOR T= 0TO100 

0s NEXT srem 50 

360 PRINT" {15 LEFT} {15 SPACES} {2 UP}"eGOT 

0290 srem 205 

370 IFS=RTHEN650 srem 213 

380 TN=TN+1:IFTN=6THEN410 i rem 26 

390 IFS>RTHEN490 srem 218 

400 IFS<RTHEN510 srem 201 

410 POKEV, 15 sFORM=220TO190STEP-l sP0KEF2,M 

s FORT=1TO20 ;NEXTT s NEXTM : P0KEF2 , : POKE 

V,0 srem 239 

420 P=14 :GOSUB580 : POKEX , 36 : POKECX , 6 : POKEX 

+22,30:POKECX+22,6 srem 111 

430 POKE36877, 220sFDRL=15TO5STEP-l sPOKEV, 

L5FORM=1TO50 : rem 50 

440 NEXTM s NEXTLs POKE36877 , : POKEV , 

srem 216 
450 PRINT" {CLR} " : POKESC, 216 s PRINTSPC ( 157 ) 

"{BLK} SORRY, YOU MISSED" srem 189 
460 PRINTSPC(46) "THE NUMBER WAS {RED}";R 

s rem 74 
470 PRINTSPC{49)" {BLK} BETTER LUCK 

(12 SPACES}nEXT TIME"sFORT=1TO1000:NE 

XTT srem 23 

480 GOTO700 rrem 108 

490 D=INT(S/R) sD9="HIGH"sIPD<=lTHEN560 

:rem 242 
500 GOTO520 rrem 101 

510 D=INT(R/S) :D$="LOW"sIFD<=lTHEN560 

srem 189 
520 PRINT" {RED} ";D;"(BLK) TIMES TOO ";" 

{red)";D? :rem 196 

530 POKEV, 15 sFORM=250TO180STEP-l : P0KEF2,M 

: NEXTM i F0RT=1T01 000 : NEXT : POKEV , 

srem 194 
540 PRINT" {2 UP] (10 SPACES}" srem 140 
550 PRINT" (21 SPACES}" SPRINT" (5 UP}"iGOTO 

280 srem 88 

560 PRINT" (RED} TOO " ; " {BLU ) " ;D$ sFQRT=lTO 

400:NEXTsGOTO5 30 srem 89 

570 PRINT"{RED} TRY 1-100(2 SPACES )" sFORT 

=1TO800:NEXTT SPRINT" {up! Ell SPACES}": 

PRINT" (5 UP}":GOTO280 : rem 23 5 
580 X=7680+(5*22) + 17 sCX=X+30720sZ=7680+( 5 

*22)+15:CZ=Z+30720 srem 117 



COMPUTErs Gaietta April 1985 139 



590 F0RN=1T0P: P0KE2, 32 : POKEZ+1 , 32 : POKEX, 3 

2:POKEX+22,32 :rem 107 

600 POKEZ-1 , 27 : POKECZ-1 , : POKEZ , 28 s POKECZ 

,0 srem 141 

610 POKEX+22,3I:POKECX+22,0:POKEX+44,35sP 

OKECX+44,0 :rein 7 

620 Z=Z-l;C2=CZ-l:X=X+22iCX=CX+22!NEXTN!R 

ETURN :rem 201 

630 BL=36865{FORN=1T06:POKEBL,133:FORT=1T 

O50:NEXTT ; rem 154 

640 POKEBL,25!FORT=lTO40:NEXTT:NEXTNiRETU 

RN rreiti 130 

650 GOSUB630:P=5:GOSUB580:PORN=1TO7 

srem 190 
660 POKEX, 32:POKEX+22, 32 i rem 149 

670 POKEX+21 , 31 s POKECX+21 , : POKEX+43 , 35 s P 

OKECX+43,0:X=X+21 :CX=CX+21 :NEXTN 

srem 192 
680 POKEV ,15: FORL=130TO240 : P0KEF2 , L s NEXTL 

tPOKEV,0:FORT=lTO10003NEXTT srem 121 
690 PRINT"{CLR3"!P0KESC,26:PRINTSPC(157)" 

CONG RATULAT IONS "sPRINTSPC( 69} "YOU 

{2 SPACES]GUESSED IT" .-rem 77 

700 FORT=lTO2000sNEXTTsGOTO200 srem 119 
710 DATA25 5, 1,1, 1,1 27, 255, 255, 127, 2 55, 0,0 

,3,3,255,255,0 srem 171 

720 DATA255, 255, 2 55, 255, 25 5, 2 55, 255, 255,1 

70,170,255,255,255,255,255,255 

srem 255 
730 DATA60, 126, 255, 2 55, 129, 66, 36, 24, 16, 18 

, 60 , 86 , 40 , 36 , 66 , , 1 7 , 1 30 , 68 , 37 , 6 , 148 , 

93,126 srem 113 

740 DATA231, 200, 23 5, 450, 23 1,200, 23 2, 200, 2 

3 5,200,232,200,231,200,235,500,-1,-1 

srem 181 

1526 Hi-Res Screen 
Dump 

(Article on pa^c 113.) 

10 PRINT" {CLR)"sPRINT TAB(12)"1526 HI-RES 
DUMP" :rem 7 

20 PRINT SPRINT "PLEASE WAIT ..."s PRINT 

3 rem 58 
30 READ LN,SA,EAsLN=LN+30 srem 196 
40 FOR 1=0 TO EA-SA srem 235 

50 READ BY s POKE SA+I , BY:SUM=SUM+BY 

srem 123 
60 IF INT((I+1)/8)*B<>(I+1) THEN90 

srem 24fl 
70 READ CSsIF CSoSUM THEN120 srem 169 
80 SUM=0sLN=LN+10 :rem 1 

90 NEXT srem 168 

100 IF INT(I/8}*8<>I THEN READ CSsIF CS<> 
SUM THEN120 srem 162 

110 PRINT :PRINT"TYPE SYS49152 TO BEGIN HI 
-RES DUMP" 3 END srem 103 

120 PRINT"**** ERROR IN LINE";LN srem 42 
130 DATA 100 srem 63 

140 DATA 49152 srem 180 

150 DATA 49521 srem 181 

160 DATA 169,18,133,10,32,33,192,32,619 

srem 126 
170 DATA 67,192,32,81,192,76,04,193,917 

srem 156 
180 DATA 32,177,192,162,8,230,3,208,1012 

; rem 170 



190 DATA 2,230,4,202,208,247,76,65,1034 

srem 122 
200 DATA 193,173,0,221,41,3,73,3,707 

: rem 220 
210 DATA 160,6,10,136,208,252,133,4,909 

;rem 117 
220 DATA 173,24,208,41,8,240,7,24,725 

srem 23 
230 DATA 169,32,101,4,133,4,169,0,612 

srem 14 
240 DATA 133,3,96,24,165,3,105,64,593 

: rem 31 
250 DATA 133,13,165,4,105,31,133,14,598 

: rem 120 
260 DATA 96,169,0,32,189,255,169,4,914 

srem 102 
270 DATA 162,4,160,255,32,186,255,32,1086 

! rem 231 
280 DATA 192,255,32,204,255,162,4,32,1136 

srem 224 
290 DATA 201,255,169,13,32,210,255,169,13 
04 ! rem 68 

300 DATA 0,32,189,255,169,6,162,4,817 

srem 35 
310 DATA 160,6,32,186,255,32,192,255,1118 

srem 227 
320 DATA 32,204,255,162,6,32,201,255,1147 

:rem 214 
330 DATA 169,18,32,210,255,169,0,32,885 

srem 135 
340 DATA 189,255,169,5,162,4,160,5,949 

s rem 99 

350 DATA 32,186,255,32,192,255,32,204,118 

8 srem 28 

360 DATA 255,162,4,32,201,255,169,254,133 

2 srem 20 

370 DATA 32,210,255,169,141,32,210,255,13 

04 3 rem 58 
380 DATA 96,32,204,255,162,5,32,201,987 

srem 137 
390 DATA 255,162,0,181,240,32,210,255,133 

5 s rem 1 1 
400 DATA 232,224,8,208,246,169,13,32,1132 

srem 219 
410 DATA 210,255,32,204,255,162,4,32,1154 

srem 210 
420 DATA 201,255,166,10,240,8,169,29,1078 

srem 230 

430 DATA 32,210,255,202,208,248,169,254,1 

578 srem 129 

440 DATA 32,210,255,169,141,32,210,255,13 

04 s rem 56 

450 DATA 230,10,165,10,201,58,208,9,891 

srem 123 
460 DATA 169,18,133,10,169,13,32,210,754 

: rem 177 
470 DATA 255,96,169,0,133,240,133,241,126 

7 srem 27 
480 DATA 133,242,133,243,133,244,133,245, 

1506 srem 164 

490 DATA 133,246,133,247,133,15,169,128,1 
204 srem 125 

500 DATA 133,16,169,0,133,17,164,17,649 

srem 130 
510 DATA 177,3,37,16,240,16,169,128,786 

srem 144 
520 DATA 166,17,240,4,74,202,208,252,1163 

:rem 221 
530 DATA 166,15,21,240,149,240,230,17,107 

8 srem 15 



140 COMPUTEfs GazMs April 1985 



540 DATA 165,17,201,8,208,224,70,16,909 

;rem 132 
550 DATA 230,15,165,15,201,8,208,210,1052 

: rem 209 
560 DATA 96, 16'i, 3, 197, 13, 208, 10, 165,057 

srem H? 
570 DATA 4,197,14,208,4,32,231,255,945 

: rem 07 
580 DATA 0,76,13,192,169,0,133,17,600 

:rem 2') 
590 DATA 164,17,177,3,208,14,230,17,030 

: rem 132 
600 DATA 165,17,201,8,208,242,32,232,1105 

:retn 212 
610 DATA 192,76,19,192,32,250.192,76,1029 

srem 241 
620 DATA 16,192,208 : rem 167 



MetaBASIC 



(Article on page 114.) 



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,144,073 
,032, 167 
,032,000 
,002,133 
,003,205 
,169,093 
,237,000 
,141,224 
,032,111 
,173,202 



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COMPUTEI's QazBtte Apnl 1385 Ml 



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024. 


105 


001 


032 


049 


149 


056, 


165 


101 


229 


253 


165 


100. 


229 


254 


144 


062 


,160 


,000. 


140 


000 


002 


165 


,095 


,145, 


251 


200 


165 


096 


,145 


,251, 


173 


023 


,144 


133 


,020 


,173, 


024 


144 


133 


021 


,160 


,005, 


173 


002 


003 


,133 


,251 


,173, 


003 


003 


,133 


,252 


,169 


,033, 


141 


002 


003 


169 


,149 


,141, 


003 


003 


076 


162 


,164 


,165, 


251 


141 


002 


,003 


,165 


,252, 


141 


003 


003 


076 


,049 


,158, 


076 


203 


147 


132 


,020 


,133, 


021 


032 


019 


166 


,096 


,032, 


146 


145 


,132 


,251 


,133 


,252, 


032 


146 


145 


,132 


,253 


,133, 


254 


,032 


,184 


,149 


,076 


,116, 


149 


,032 


,060 


,145 


,056 


,165, 


253 


229 


,251 


165 


,254 


,229, 


252 


176 


010 


173 


,028 


,144, 


201 


001 


,208 


,003 


,076 


,055, 


158 


238 


028 


144 


,173 


,028, 


144 


201 


006 


208 


,005 


,169, 


001 


032 


147 


149 


173 


028, 


144 


010 


010 


024 


105 


008, 


133 


211 


160 


000 


177 


251, 


032 


210 


149 


169 


058 


032, 


210 


255 


230 


251 


208 


002, 


230 


252 


076 


077, 


149 


169, 


058, 


032 


210 


255, 


169, 


018, 


032 


210 


255 


198, 


252, 


160, 


250, 


177 


251 


201, 


032, 


144, 


007, 


201 


127 


176, 


003, 


076, 


176, 


149 


169 


046, 


032, 


210, 


255 


200 


208 


235, 


230, 


252, 


032 


033 


159 


169, 


032, 


032, 


210, 


255 


165 


252, 


166, 


251, 


032 


205 


189 


169, 


000, 


141, 


028, 


144 


169 


062, 


032, 


210, 


255, 


096, 


168, 


032, 


162, 


179, 


032, 


221, 


189, 


160, 


255, 


200, 


185, 


000, 


001, 


208, 


250, 


140, 


023, 


144, 


136, 


136, 


136, 


185, 


000, 


001, 


201, 


049. 


144, 


007, 


201, 


058, 


176, 


003, 


076, 


247, 



,103 
,052 
,104 
.036 
,214 
,030 
, 104 
,053 
,072 
,047 
,225 
,205 
.243 
,216 
,103 
,203 
,188 
,160 
,034 
,024 
.213 
.135 
.248 
.143 
. 104 
.219 
.061 
,021 
,076 
,152 
,235 
,233 
,097 
,115 
,089 
,080 
,214 
,245 
,162 
,093 
,137 
,113 
,171 
,183 
,103 
,126 
,101 
,071 
,130 
,163 
,032 
,012 
,012 
,071 
,122 
,237 
,191 
,244 
,186 
,022 
,129 
,209 
,164 
,079 
,076 
,247 
,236 
,218 
,122 
,231 



142 COMPUTEI's GazeJto April 198S 



38388 
38394 
38400 
38406 
38412 
38418 
38424 
38430 
38436 
38442 
38448 
38454 
38460 
38466 
38472 
38478 
38484 
38490 
38496 
38502 
38508 
38514 
38520 
38526 
38532 
38538 
38544 
38550 
38556 
38562 
38568 
38574 
38580 
38586 
38592 
38598 
38604 
38610 
38616 
38622 
38628 
38634 
38640 
38646 
38652 
38658 
38664 
38670 
38676 
38682 
38688 
38694 
38700 
38706 
38712 
38718 
38724 
38730 
38736 
38742 
38748 
38754 
38760 
38766 
38772 
38778 
38784 
38790 
38796 
38802 



149 


169 


048 


032 


,210 


,255, 


200 


,204 


,023 


,144 


,208 


,231, 


096 


032 


,083 


228 


,000 


rl69, 


000 


,141 


,017 


144 


,133 


,180, 


240 


020 


,169 


,000 


,141 


,017, 


144 


169 


,001 


,133 


,180 


,208, 


009 


169 


001 


141 


,017 


,144, 


169 


000 


133 


180 


,032 


,146, 


145 


172 


029 


144 


169 


,000, 


153 


003 


002 


136 


177 


034, 


153 


003 


002 


136 


016 


248, 


173 


017 


144 


208 


011 


160, 


002 


185 


084 


151 


153 


000, 


002 


136 


016 


247, 


169 


015, 


162 


008 


160 


015 


032 


186, 


255 


032 


137 


145, 


152 


174, 


017 


144 


240 


009, 


056 


233, 


003 


162 


003 


160 


002 


208, 


004 


162 


000 


160 


002 


032, 


189 


255 


032 


192 


255 


144, 


003 


076 


090 


144, 


169 


015, 


032 


195 


255 


165, 


180 


240, 


028 


169 


003 


162, 


008 


160, 


003 


032 


186 


255, 


173 


029, 


144 


162 


003, 


160, 


002 


032, 


189, 


255 


169, 


043, 


166 


045, 


164, 


046 


032, 


216, 


255 


032, 


080, 


145, 


076, 


055, 


158, 


160, 


001, 


152, 


145, 


043, 


032 


051 , 


165 


076 


049, 


158, 


032 


146, 


145, 


176 


050, 


132, 


251 


133, 


252 


072 


169, 


036, 


032 


210, 


255 


104 


032 


192, 


150 


152, 


032 


192 


150 


076, 


240 


150, 


072 


074 


074 


074, 


074 


032, 


207 


150 


104 


041, 


015 


032, 


207 


150 


096 


201, 


010 


144, 


003 


024 


105 


007 


024 


105, 


048 


032 


210 


255, 


096 


169, 


000 


133 


251 


133, 


252 


168, 


200 


177 


122 


208, 


071 


165, 


252 


166 


251 


032, 


205 


189, 


032 


033 


159 


169, 


000 


166, 


251 


032 


205 


189, 


169 


032, 


032, 


210, 


255 


169, 


000 


166, 


252 


032 


205 


189, 


032 


033, 


159 


169 


037, 


032, 


210 


255, 


169 


000 


141 


028, 


144 


162, 


016 


169 


048 


006, 


251 


038, 


252 


144 


005 


169, 


049 


238, 


028 


144 


172 


028, 


144 


240, 


003 


032 


210 


255 


202 


208, 


232 


076 


055 


158, 


162 


004, 


006 


251 


038 


252, 


202 


208, 


249 


032 


074 


151, 


024 


101, 


251 


133 


251 


165, 


252 


105, 


000, 


133 


252 


076, 


228 


150, 


056 


233 


048 


201, 


010 


144, 


002 


233 


007 


096, 


083 


048, 


058 


032 


088 


159, 


234 


165, 


046 


133 


252 


076 


116 


151, 


169 


058 


032 


210 


255 


165, 


251 


024 


105 


007 


133 


,251, 


165 


252 


105 


000 


133 


252, 


160 


000 


056 


165 


251 


229, 


047 


165 


252 


229 


,048 


,144, 


005 


169 


000 


076 


,049 


,168, 


169 


000 


141 


028 


144 


,177, 


251 


016 


004 


056 


046 


028, 


144 


041 


,127 


032 


,210 


,255, 



,083 
,236 
,096 
,109 
,087 
,085 
,249 
,178 
,183 
,035 
,094 
,255 
,123 
,139 
,123 
,205 
,015 
,116 
,200 
,145 
,093 
,157 
,138 
,036 
,123 
,237 
,121 
,056 
,068 
,020 
,031 
,177 
,041 
,002 
,080 
,235 
,244 
,222 
,002 
,135 
,147 
,049 
,031 
,100 
,060 
,233 
,102 
,146 
,036 
,115 
,020 
,180 
,219 
,239 
,175 
,195 
,139 
,254 
,037 
,054 
,098 
,219 
,107 
,249 
,209 
,239 
,083 
,025 
,029 
,187 



38808 
38814 
38820 
38826 
38832 
38838 
38844 
38850 
38856 
38862 
38868 
38874 
38880 
38886 
38892 
38898 
38904 
38910 
38916 
38922 
38928 
38934 
38940 
38946 
38952 
38958 
38964 
38970 
38976 
38982 
38988 
38994 
39000 
39006 
39012 
39018 
39024 
39030 
39036 
39042 
39048 
39054 
39060 
39066 
39072 
39078 
39084 
39090 
39096 
39102 
39108 
39114 
39120 
39126 
39132 
39138 
39144 
39150 
39156 
39162 
39168 
39174 
39180 
39186 
39192 
39198 
39204 
39210 
39216 
39222 



200,177,251, 


016, 


004, 


056, 


046,028,144 


041, 


127 


240, 


003,032,210, 


255, 


173 


028, 


144,208,024, 


032, 


004 


152, 


200,152,024, 


101, 


251 


072, 


165,252,105 


000, 


168 


104, 


032,162,187, 


032, 


010 


152, 


076,098,151 


201 


003 


208, 


026,169,037 


032 


210 


255, 


032,004,152 


200 


177 


251, 


072,200,177 


251 


,168 


104, 


032,145, 179 


032 


,010 


,152, 


076,098,151 


201 


,001 


,208, 


026,169,036 


032 


,210 


,255, 


032,004,152 


200 


177 


,251, 


072,200,177 


251 


,133 


,034, 


200,177,251 


133 


,035 


,104, 


032,036,171 


076 


098 


,151, 


169,061,032 


210 


255 


096, 


032,221,189 


072 


152 


,170, 


104,032,030 


171 


096 


,032, 


146,145,140 


034 


144 


141, 


035,144,032 


146 


145 


140, 


032,144,141 


033 


,144 


,173, 


034,144,056 


237 


,032 


,144, 


141,034,144 


173 


035 


,144, 


237,033,144 


141 


,035 


,144, 


173,034,144 


133 


,020 


,173, 


035,144,133 


021 


,120 


,169, 


093,141,002 


003 


169 


152, 


141,003,003 


169 


141 


141, 


020,003,169 


152 


141 


021, 


003,088,076 


055 


158 


165, 


020,024,109 


032 


144 


133, 


099,165,021 


109 


033 


144, 


133,098,162 


144 


056 


032, 


073,188,032 


221 


189 


162, 


000,189,001 


001 


240 


006, 


137,119,002 


232 


208 


245, 


169,032,157 


119 


002 


232, 


134,198,076 


131 


164 


032, 


225,255,208 


025 


120 


169, 


131,141,002 


003 


169 


164, 


141,003,003 


169 


065 


141, 


020,003,169 


147 


141 


021, 


003,032,033 


159 


088 


076, 


065,147,169 


195 


141 


008, 


003,169,152 


141 


009 


003, 


169,000,141 


030 


144 


141, 


031,144,076 


055 


158 


165, 


058,201,255 


240 


039 


173. 


030,144,197 


057 


208 


009, 


173,031,144 


197 


058 


208, 


002,240,023 


169 


,091 


,032, 


210,255,166 


057 


,142 


,030, 


144,165,058 


141 


,031 


,144, 


032,201,189 


169 


,093 


,032, 


210,255,076 


,228 


,167 


,169, 


228,141,008 


,003 


,169 


,167, 


141,009,003 


,076 


,055 


,158, 


032,157,155 


169 


,010 


141, 


006,144,141 


,008 


,144 


,169, 


000,141,011 


144 


141 


,007, 


144,141,009 


144 


032 


146, 


145,176,017 


140 


006 


144, 


141,007,144 


,032 


,146 


,145, 


176,006,140 


,008 


,144 


,141, 


009,144,160 


,000 


,177 


,188, 


141,023,144 


,200 


,177 


,188, 


013,023,144 


,240 


,058 


,200, 



,088 

,016 

,097 

,222 

,208 

,208 

,251 

,163 

,161 

,254 

,160 

,000 

,191 

,190 

,028 

,085 

,124 

,050 

,059 

,078 

,225 

,004 

,158 

,189 

,175 . 

,205 

,018 

,223 

,174 

,118 

,162 

,076 

,121 

,044 

,159 

,219 

,209 

,043 

,063 

,073 

,103 

,120 

,246 

,164 

,149 

,045 

,129 

,143 

,041 

,051 

,138 

,079 

,251 

,003 

,056 

,141 

,180 

,063 

,192 

,180 

,152 

,106 

,200 

,122 

, 140 

,133 

,139 

,208 

,153 

,220 

COMPUTE! s Gazette April 1985 143 



39228 : 200, 200, 177, 188, 240, 074, 115 

39234 !201,044,208,005, 173,011, 196 

39240 : 144, 208, 081, 177, 188, 016, 118 

39246 :238, 201, 137,240,07 3, 201, 144 

39252 : 141, 240, 069, 201 ,167,208,086 

39258 :019, 140,023, 144,200, 177,025 

39264 : 188, 201, 032, 240, 249, 172, 154 

39270 !023,144,201,058, 144,048, 208 

392 76 : 176, 207, 169, 000, 141, 011, 044 
39282 : 144, 240, 200, 169, 00 1,141, 241 
39288 3 028,144,169, 255, 133, 100, 181 
39294 :133, 101, 032, 051, 165, 032, 128 
39300 ! 198, 154, 032, 146, 15 5, 076, 125 
39306 : 049, 158, 200, 15 2, 024, 101,054 
39312 : 188, 133, 188, 165, 189, 105, 088 
39318 :000, 133,189,076,044, 153, 233 

393 24 : 140,015, 144, 200,17 7, 188, 252 
39330 : 201, 032, 240, 249, 17 2, 015, 047 
39336 : 144 ,201,058,176, 004 , 201 , 184 
39342 ! 048, 176, 003, 076, 061, 153, 179 
39348 ; 169, 001, 141, 01 1,144, 200, 078 
39354 ! 024, 15 2, 101, 188, 133, 122,138 
39360 :133,186,165, 189,105,000,202 
39366 :1 33, 123, 133, 187,140,023, 169 
39372 :144,032,073, 15 5,169,000,009 
39378 :141, 028, 144, 165, 122, 133, 175 
39384 ; 146, 165, 123, 13 3, 147, 032, 194 
39390 :051, 165,032,198, 154,032,086 
39396 1 084, 155, 024, 10 1,186, 133, 143 
39402 :148, 165, 187, 105,000, 133,204 
39408 ! 149, 169, 004, 141, 029, 144, 108 
39414 :032, 013, 154, 172, 02 3, 144, 016 
39420 : 162, 255, 23 2, 189, 000, 001, 067 
39426 =208,003,076,062,153,145,137 
39432 ! 188, 200, 076, 254, 153, 032, 143 
39438 ; 033, 154, 176, 014, 024, 165, 068 
39444 : 182, 109,029, 144,133,182,031 
39450 : 165,183,-105,000,13 3,183,027 
39456 :096,056, 165, 148,229, 146, 104 
39462 : 141, 024, 144, 165, 149, 229, 122 
39468 : 147, 013, 024, 144,208,001,069 
39474 : 096, 144, 066, 032, 184, 154, 214 
39480 : 165, 181, 170, 005, 180, 208, 197 
39486 ! 001, 096, 024, 138, 101, 147, 057 
39492 : 141, 099, 154, 165, 146, 141, 146 
39498 : 098, 154, 024, 138, 101, 149, 226 
39504 : 141, 102, 154, 165, 148, 141, 163 
39510 : 101, 154, 23 2, 164, 180, 208, 101 
39516 1004,240,013,160,255,185, 181 
39522 :000,000, 153,000,000, 136, 131 
39528 : 192, 255, 208, 245, 206, 099, 029 
39534 :154,206, 102, 154,202, 208, 112 
39540 : 234, 024, 096, 03 2, 184, 154,072 
39546 : 165, 146, 141, 154, 154, 165, 023 
395 52 : 147, 141 ,155,154,165,148,014 
39558 : 141, 157, 154,165,149,141,017 
39564 : 158, 154, 166, 181,240,03 2,047 
39570 ! 169,000, 141,010,144, 160,002 
39576 : 000, 185, 000, 000, 153, 000, 234 
39582 : 000, 200, 204, 010, 144, 208, 156 
39588 : 244, 238, 155, 154,238,158,071 
39594 1154,224,000,240,007,202,229 
39600 : 208, 224, 165, 180, 208, 22 2, 103 
39606 :056,096,056,16 5,182,229,198 
39612 rI46, 133, 180, 165,183,229, 200 
39618 : 147, 133, 181, 096, 173, 006, 162 
39624 : 144 , 133 , 184 , 173 ,007 , 144 ,217 
39630 ! 133, 185, 173,004,144,133,210 
39636 :253,173,005, 144,13 3,254, 150 
39642 :160,000, 177, 2 53,133,167,084 

144 COMPurers Gezetto April I9as 



39648 
39654 
39660 
39666 
39672 
39678 
396B4 
39690 
39696 
39702 
39708 
39714 
39720 
39726 
39732 
39738 
39744 
39750 
39756 
39762 
39768 
39774 
39780 
39786 
39792 
39798 
39804 
39810 
39816 
39822 
39828 
39834 
39840 
39846 
39852 
39858 
39864 
39870 
39876 
39882 
39888 
39894 
39900 
39906 
39912 
39918 
39924 
39930 
39936 
39942 
39948 
39954 
39960 
39966 
39972 
39978 
39984 
39990 
39996 
40002 
40008 
40014 
40020 
40026 
40032 
40038 
40044 
40050 
40056 
40062 



200, 


177 


253, 


133,168 


005, 


167 


240 


075 


200,177 


253, 


056 


229 


101 


141,013 


144, 


200 


177 


253 


229,100 


013, 


013 


144 


208 


018,173 


,028, 


144 


,208 


,012 


169,032 


,032, 


210 


255 


166 


184,165 


,185, 


032 


,205 


,189 


,096,176 


,036, 


173 


,028 


,144 


,240,015 


,152, 


072 


,160 


,002 


,165,184 


,145, 


253 


,200 


,165 


185,145 


,253, 


104 


,168 


,165 


,184,024 


,109, 


008 


144 


133 


,184,165 


,185, 


109 


009 


144 


076,060 


155, 


169 


255 


133 


184, 133 


185, 


208 


,192 


,133 


,185,165 


,167, 


133 


253 


165 


,168,133 


,254, 


076 


,218 


154 


,032,158 


,173, 


032 


,155 


,188 


,165,100 


,164, 


101 


,096 


,160 


,255,200 


,185, 


000 


,001 


,208 


,250,152 


,096, 


165 


,043 


,133 


,251,165 


,044, 


133 


,252 


,160 


,000,177 


,251, 


208 


,018 


,232 


,224,003 


,208, 


015 


152 


0S6 


101 ,251 


,133, 


045 


165 


252 


105,000 


,133, 


046 


096 


162 


000,200 


208, 


229 


230 


252 


208,225 


,162, 


044 


181 


146 


157,211 


,159, 


202 


016 


248 


096,162 


,044, 


189 


211 


159 


149,146 


202, 


016 


248 


096 


,032,135 


,155, 


165 


045 


024 


105,005 


,133, 


102 


,165 


046 


,105,000 


133, 


183 


165 


043 


133,188 


,141, 


004 


,144 


,165 


,044,133 


,189, 


141 


,005 


144 


,096,169 


,000, 


141 


,011 


144 


,169,001 


,141, 


013 


,144 


208 


,020,169 


,001, 


141 


,011 


144 


,169,000 


,141, 


013 


144 


240 


008,169 


000, 


141 


,011 


144 


141,013 


,144, 


032 


,124 


165 


032,026 


,157, 


032 


157 


155 


169,255 


141, 


008 


144 


141 


009,144 


,169, 


002 


,133 


123 


032,146 


,145, 


176 


,026 


132 


020,133 


,021, 


032 


,019 


166 


,165,095 


,133, 


188 


,165 


,096 


,133,189 


,032, 


146 


,145 


,176 


,006,140 


,008, 


144 


141 


009 


,144,160 


,000, 


177 


,188 


,141 


,023,144 


,200. 


177 


,188 


013 


,023,144 


,240, 


072 


,162 


000 


,200,177 


,188, 


133 


020 


237 


008,144 


,200, 


177 


188 


133 


021,237 


,009, 


144 


144, 


002 


176,050 


200, 


177 


188 


240 


029,205 


,011, 


001 


208 


246 


140,023 


144, 


162 


000 


200 


232,189 


,011, 


001 


201 


064 


240,035 


209, 


188 


240 


243 


17 2,023 


,144, 


076 


053, 


156 


200,152 


024, 


101 


188 


133 


188,165 


189, 


105 


000 


133 


189,076 


016, 


156 


032 


051 


165,032 


146, 


155 


076, 


049 


158,140 


024, 


144 


032 


051 


165,172 


023, 


144, 


136, 


192 


004,176 


001 , 


200, 


132, 


180, 


177,188 


141, 



,136 
,062 
,152 
,190 
,064 
,083 
, 145 
,232 
,000 
,238 
,205 
,020 
,091 
,087 
,087 
,084 
, 146 
,113 
,112 
,055 
,02 7 
127 
,049 
,231 
,052 
,050 
,068 
,156 
,010 
,142 
, 180 
,068 
,125 
,029 
,001 
,089 
,227 
,029 
,239 
,040 
,014 
,040 
,244 
,111 
,079 
,051 
,240 
,092 
,035 
, 115 
,090 
,123 
,041 
,061 
,010 
,039 
,252 
,136 
,054 
,092 
,054 
,064 
,233 
,030 
, 103 
,172 
,198 
,189 
,005 
, 120 



40068 

40074 

40080 

40086 

40092 

40098 

40104 

40110 

40116 

40122 

40128 

40134 

40140 

40146 

40152 

40158 

40164 

40170 

40176 

40182 

40188 

40194 

40200 

40206 

40212 

40218 

40224 

40230 

40236 

40242 

40248 

40254 

40260 

40266 

40272 

40278 

40284 

40290 

40296 

40302 

40308 

40314 

40320 

40326 

40332 

40338 

40344 

40350 

40356 

40362 

40368 

40374 

40380 

40386 

40392 

40398 

40404 

40410 

40416 

40422 

40428 

40434 

40440 

40446 

40452 

40458 

40464 

40470 

40476 

40482 




4048S 
40494 
40500 
40506 
40512 
40518 
40524 
40530 
40536 
40542 
40548 
40554 
40560 
40566 
40572 
40578 
40584 
40590 
40596 
40602 
40608 
40614 
40620 
40626 
40632 
40638 
40644 
40650 
40656 
40662 
40668 
40674 
40680 
40686 
40692 
40698 
40704 
40710 
40716 
40722 
40728 
40734 
40740 
40746 
40752 
40758 
40764 
40770 
40776 
40782 
40788 
40794 
40800 



004 


,169 


,020 


,133 


,211 


,200, 


200 


,208 


,207 


,032 


,094 


,155, 


032 


,092 


,166 


,169 


,000 


,133, 


198 


,162 


,128 


,108 


,000 


,003, 


169 


,000 


,133 


247 


,169 


206, 


133 


,24B 


,169 


,000 


133 


249, 


169 


207 


,133 


250 


,032 


231, 


255 


169 


,001 


162 


032 


160, 


159 


032 


189 


255 


169 


002, 


170 


160 


003 


032 


186 


255, 


032 


192 


255 


032 


197 


158, 


032 


,204 


,255 


032 


,228 


255, 


201 


,000 


,240 


031 


,201 


092, 


240 


,066 


,168 


120 


,162 


,054, 


134 


,001 


,185 


000 


,162 


,162, 


055 


,134 


,001 


088 


,072 


,162, 


002 


,032 


,201 


255 


,104 


,032, 


210 


,255 


,032 


204 


,255 


162, 


002 


,032 


198 


255 


032 


228, 


255 


201 


,000 


240 


203 


041, 


127 


168 


120 


162 


054 


134, 


001 


185 


000 


160 


162 


055, 


134 


001 


080 


072 


032, 


204, 


255 


104 


032 


210 


255 


076, 


106, 


158 


032 


204 


255 


169, 


002 


032 


195 


255 


076 


055, 


158, 


160 


255, 


152 


192, 


219, 


176 


024 


192 


193 


144 


006, 


056 


233 


128 


076 


230 


158, 


192 


065 


144 


012 


192 


096, 


176 


006 


024 


105 


032 


076, 


230 


158 


169 


000 


153 


000, 


162 


136 


192 


255 


20B 


217, 


152, 


192 


128 


176 


024 


192, 


096, 


144 


006 


056 


233 


032, 


076 


013 


159, 


192 


06 5 


144, 


012, 


192- 


091, 


176, 


008 


024, 


105, 


128 


076, 


013, 


159, 


169, 


000, 


153, 


000, 


160 


136 


192, 


255, 


208 


217, 


169 


008 


141, 


020, 


162, 


169, 


020 


141 


008, 


160, 


096 


006, 


169 


013 


032, 


210 


255 


096 


032 


146 


145, 


032 


189 


255 


032 


146 


145, 


132 


251 


133 


252 


032 


146, 


145, 


169 


002 


162 


008 


168, 


032 


186 


255 


032 


192 


255, 


032 


080 


145 


176 


,009 


169, 


251, 


166 


101 


164 


100 


032, 


216 


255 


169 


002 


032 


195, 


255 


076 


055 


158 


169 


001, 


133 


212 


165 


045 


133 


251, 


096, 


072 


013 


013 


013 


013, 



,009 
,174 
,132 
,145 
,220 
,234 
,074 
,093 
, 126 
,132 
,198 
,088 
,109 
,160 
,000 
,130 
,250 
,236 
,127 
,070 
,157 
,217 
,191 
,086 
,084 
,037 
,052 
,169 
,06 5 
,147 
, 127 
, 168 
,122 
,078 
,04 3 
,131 
,247 
,144 
,141 
,248 
,032 
,250 
,152 
,073 
,226 
,196 
,244 
,165 
,118 
,179 
,030 
,005 
,060 



All programs listed 
in this magazine 
are available on 

the GAZETTE Disk. 
See elsewhere in 

this issue for details. 



COMPUTEI's Gazette April 1985 145 




X©:^^yp^ 




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otAttH maumiti invited 



A Message from Ih* 

Program Author: 

]im iit fiegjertly Over.Pdict. Regardie&s ol wh& 
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spouse uttt i pfolKSianjI Iji prepjrtr CJn unnltn 

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U5in£ ■'Many Happy RelumS" can msan KNOWING 
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wtillen since I9?8. Ili«( sifaltjits (omtint mth tht 
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in N^aiimum Tax Savings toi you. 

Even it you'tt NtVER prepared a lai relutn or jreni 
lamilijr with compulers. wilii "Many Hippy RcturnJ" 
guidance you can complete your tat return quickly and 
correclly. As wlien sillinj down with a (ood professional 
lai preparer. Ihe pfogram presents a dialog ol simple 
Yes.^No questions. Itien analyses I tie answers to determine 
lilt correcl I ornis/ schedules lo file. Preyious Ui or 
prograrrtmioj eiperience is nol required. 

I (eel this piofrani can save you more than its cosl, 

and. il conies witti a MONEY-GACK GumNIEt. You can 

enjoy KNOWING you paid Ihe least lat Ihis year. 

ORDf R TOUR COPT TODAYI Thanki and . . . 

MANY HAPPY RETURNS 

BIN Novak 



Pathfinder Edition 

Accomodates ttie needs of most taipayers. Opes 16 
torms/schtdules/cretlits including 10(0, A, B, 0, £, G, W, 
Child Care Credit, Alimony Payments. Minimum Tai. Mar- 
riage Cieitit. Income Ayerajmj, and Potilical Conlritiution 
Credits Does all Jit latle calculations (no need to look up 
tai as required with some programs). Ilemiied deduclipns, 
and more . . . $69*95 

Pathflnd«r/Pro idlHon 

Ail ^bove PLUS ^[;liedu1«s C if\i S£ for sindU 
Business, 2l0& Eniployee Business Experise Credits, 2119 
SaEe/Eichange ot Residence Credil. fW.95 

Stat« Tox idlllon 

SimifUaneously performs wiiri above edihons lo coiri' 
pkle MY, CA, at QH St^te Uj Relurn f I4.9S 



> CdmpjrFi ^>in£ JoifiUStpinEetr 

> Sw^pj dtptndcntj to Imd lowest tan 
" Prmt to JcrMft w l.fiS. Icrms 

> Pfriortnt ill ft\ilh itkuliUoK 

> Hvmi\ shi[iment wilhin 24 hijgn 
' Mrip I phgri( tjil tmn 

- \f2-fui.t on Enhircefl 
Annul I Uptf*[«i 



■ *»ailatjle ffir 
Comircd^re^M* Of 
Sk^pltA yiC'ZO* 
031 Di?c or C>!jrl}t 

• Othtr lijrmi/Hhtdwies 
jvaiiabic on rtqiLinl 

• U^z U-it ol Info 
rof HliiJt Vii 

• h'-\-fttt tir^tt hat Un 



COST IS TAX-DEDUCTI&LE 

'Tradamork ef Commodorv Butlnsii Machine* 



Vertical Horiions/ Inc. 

2299 West Elavanth Street 
Cleveland, Ohio 44113 
(216)696.5093 



^g^ To Order or far More Intoimiltan 

>gjL CALL TOLL-FREE 

^1 1-800-547-3000 

'^^ ASK FOR TAX DEPT. C 



140 COMPUTEt's GazBfto April 1985 



Li;co Computer Marketing & Consultants 

'•PEOPLE WHO KNOW WHAT THEY WANT AND KNOW HOW TO USE IT RECEIVE THE LOWEST PRICES AT LYCO" 



SAVE^^ PRINTERS 



GEMINI 10X 

$229 • 



MANNESMANN 
TALLY 



Citoh 



SPiHiiao 

MTL-160L 
MTL-180L 



S255.O0 
S5430O 
$733 00 



JUKI 

Juki 6100 S389 

Tractor Kil S1 19 

Epson 

RXeO S229 

RXeOFT S269 

RX100 S369 

FX80 S369 

FXlOO S55S 

JXaO , 11089 
LQISOOPfindudeskitl ,,$1149 
LOISOOSoncludeskll), ,.$529 



Prowriter8510A 1289 

8510BC2 S399 

8510BP1 S3il9 

8510SP $399 

8510SR S409 

eSIOSCP $419 

8S10SCR S4g9 

t560P $489 

1550BCD $539 

A1020P 1469 

F1O40PUorRDU SB99 

FIOSSPUorRUD S1099 

DIGITAL 
DEVICES 



16K priniof buffer 
32K prinlor buffer 
64K prinier buffer . 



99.75 
1197S 
169,95 



BLUE CHIPS 

M12010 $275 

M12010C-64 S275 

D4015 $1389 

OKI DATA 

OkimalB 10 CALL 

82A 299.00 

aSA $549 

84 $649 

92 S359 

93 $569 

LEGEND 

880 $229.00 

1000 S279 

1200 CALL 

1500 ...CALL 

1081... CALL 



CARDCO 



LOl Printer 379.00 

LQ3Prirtef 299.00 

Cr7S C-64 arflphics . 65 75 

C/iBC-64 39 75 

C/^AT Atari 55 00 

Smith Corona 

Faslexl 80 189 00 

D100 219.00 

D200 399.00 

030O 619.00 

LI 000 . 339.00 

Corona 

LP300 Laser Pr.nter 2699 

200361 Toner Canridfle . . 89 

NEC 

NEC 6025 ..S699 

NEC 8027. ....,,, $359 



STAR 
MICRONICS 



Gemirii lOx 

Gerriini 15a 
Delia 10 
Delia 15 
Rsdu 10 
Radix IS 
Powenype 
Sweet P 1 00 



S229 
S345 
S339 
£449 
S499 
S5By 
$309 
$54S 



PANASONIC 



1 090 

1091 . 
1092. 
1093 
3151 



$219 
S279 
$415 
$599 
$469 



NOW STOCKING CITIZEN & OLIVETTIC PRINTERS 



PANASONIC 
1090 $219 



MONITORS 



MODEMS DISK DRIVES 



TAX AN 






AMOEK 




210Color ROB 


255 


;•;:;;:■:;;;:;:; 


300 Green 


125 


1 00 Green 


115 


i-:'!-!vi":C' 


300 Amtter 


145 


105 Amber 


125 


M'MvI'i'I* 


310 Amber - IBM 


159 


400 Color RGB 


295 




Color 300-AuaiO 


265 


410Co1or RGB 


349 




Color SOOXompoMe 


379 


420 Color IBM 


449 


*"i"."H"."t".'*" 


Color 600 


545 


12' Green IBM 


146 


■IV"I'H"J'i"X 


;oiOf 700 


635 


122 Ar'IDtr IBM 


149 


:■:•:■:•:•;■;•;■ 


Color 710 


. . 675 


ZENITH 




|:|;|:Ji:|:|>: 


NEC 




/VM 122A Amber 


86 




JB 1260 Green 


99 00 


ZVM t236 Green 


82 




JB 1201 Green 


135 00 


ZVM 124 Ambet IBM 


129 


■'!-I-'-M'*'^ 


JB 1205 Amber 


146 00 


ZVM 131 COIOt 


275 




JC 1215 Color 


255 00 


ZVM 133 RGB 


389 


■:-:■:■:':•:•:•: 


JC 1216 RGB 


399 00 


ZVM I 35 CuniDOSitc 


449 




JC 460 Color 


349 00 


ZVM 136 Hi Hbs Color 


589 


:•:::■:•:;:;:;:; 


SAKATA 




GORILLA 




:■:;:■:;:::;:■;; 


SC- 100 Color 
STSI TinsLirid 


229 
29 


' ^' r r f % 


H.' 0(1 


I'M-!-I>;I;i; 


SG 1000 Green 


99 




88 00 




SA 1000 Ambct 


109 



TELELEARNING 

CM-250 Commodore 64 CALL 

Westridge C-64 . . Call 

Total 

Telecommunications 

C-64 Call 

Mitey MoC-64 . . Call 



MSD 

SOI DRIVE $259 00 

SD.i ORIi/( S476O0 

INDUS 

GT Commodore CALL 



DISKETTES 



; ^ 


MAXELL 

5'. MD-1 $1795 


1111111:111^ 


SKC 

IBox 10) 

SKC-SSSD 

SKCSSDD 

SKCDSOO 


5'. MD2 $23.95 

.80.101 ELEPHANT 

IBox 1 0) 

.. $1299 5'* SSSD $14 99 

,, SI 5.99 S'.SSDD $16 99 

.. $1899 5'''DSDD.. $21.99 



COMMODORE 



G64 COMPUTES 
SX 64 COMPUTER 
CI 541 DISK DRIVE 
CI 526 PRINTER 
MPS801 PRINTER 
C1702 MONITOR 
C64V05 LOGO 64 
C64106 PILOT 64 
SIMON'S BASIC 

SSI 

Baseball 

Germany 1984 

SO Missions 



CALL 

CALL 

$23900 

* 26 9 00 

$215 00 

$249 00 

$45 00 

$35 00 

$29 00 



$22 75 
. $32.75 
. $21 75 



TimtoMorkB 

InyentOiY $32 75 

Sales $32 75 

Accis Rec $32 75 

Accis Rec , $32 75 

Ledger $39,75 

Dato Mgr $14 75 

CfiecKbook $14 75 

Star Battle ^^^ jc, 

MIcroproae 

Soioriiflrit $22 75 

NATO $22 75 

SpitfKB $19.95 

F-15 strike $22.75 

Air Rescue ., $22.75' 



Banerj«s Included 

Papef Clip $59.95 

Spell Pan S34 95 

Consuliani $64.95 

Paper Clip with 

Spall Pak $79 95 

Home Pak $34 95 

BUS CARD $139 95 

80 Column BOiird $109.95 

PERSONAL 
PEBJPHEIALS 

Super Skelen-C-64 37 95 

SUB LOGIC-e4 

Flight Simulator II . $32.75 



Scarborough 

Songwriter $24.75 

Phi Beta F $29.95 

Masletlype $24.75 

Run t Money $24 75 

Nei Worth $49.95 



CARDCO 



C/01 Write Now . 
C/02 Write Now- 64 
D/01 Mail Now 64 
D/04 Spell Now ■ 64 
D/02 Ulilily Desk . 
CSD-1 DiskDnve{new) 
MOD-1 Modern (new) 



29 95 
39 95 
29 00 
29 00 
1995 
. CALL . 
CALL 



D/03 Tan Payer (new) 27 95 
D/07 Calc Now/64 ( new). .. 27.95 

D'08 super Printer Utility 

D/Oe Super Prinlei 

Utility 27.95 

CK/1 Numeric Key Pad... 34.95 
DC/1 OataCasselle 39.95 

CB/5 6 Slot 

Board C-64 54.00 

CR/1 Lignt Pen 29 75 

CE/i Cassette interlace . 29.75 
Ce/3 3 Slot 

Board VIC-20 24.95 

CB/6 6 Slot 

Board Vic-20 65.00 



TOLL FREE 1-800-233-8760 




TO ORDER 



CAl I. TOLL FRE t 



O' sond order 10 



Lyco Computer 
P O Box 5088 
Customer Service 1 -71 7-327-1 825 Jersey Shore PA 1 7740 



800-233-8760 



RISK FREE POLICY 

In-stChCK ilem shipped irtiilhin 24 nours of ordeir Mo depoSkE on COD 
orders. Free shipptfK) on pirepap<]cash orders wtlhin theConimenlal U.5 
PA re5iden(53dd s^iestax APO. FPO and international o^dersactctSS 00 
plus 3% 1'or prionly mgiP service Advertised prices show 4% discount (or 
cash, add 4% for M^ister Card or Visa Personal checks require 4 weeks 
Ci^mance before ini[)[)ing All ilerris subject to chanae wtthoul norire 

For your protection, we check for stolen credit cards. 



MMi^*W;VI.-#:^TT?Ti;i 




WE GUARANTEE IT! 

We leel that our products are the best on the market, and 
we are so sure you will t hink so also that we otfer a 30 day 
money back guarantee. 



With IntelliFeotures™ 

This ts the most advanced printer Interface on ttis market at any 
price The Prlntmas1er/+G supports all Commodore printer com- 
mands Prints graphics and giopMcs characters on all popular 
printers Complete svrilcti seledion. Transparent, Bmulotloa Hex. 
Ust, and Lock modes. Cassette port powered. Also has external 
power lack. Prints enhanced graphics. And that's tust the start. 
IntvUlteatuiBs"' give you advanced teoturai found In no other 
printw tntertae*. Print mas tor POM based routines can load liom 
the Prlntmasler into ttie computer. Display the disk directory on 
the screen without destroying your BASIC program. Machine 
language terminal software loads in less than 4 seconds. ASQl.' 
Speedscript lile conversion. The Print mcBtei can also operate by 
it sell Print an ASCII dlsMUe directly from the disk to the printer 
vrithoul going thru the computer. Also comes with Bl-ies kmmi 
print ana Banner print profprams on disk. Optlonid usm installable 
16K ot sax prtailarbuflwr also contains a ROM which adds many 
ottier advanced lealures such as printing a BASIC program from 
disk without going through ttie computer. Disassembles and 
prints machine languoge also. Many, many more features, Alt 
this and more. 
Catalog «t0-115 Ptln'tma^m/*a DncdM Pitntw 

IntMfiie* $119.99 
Catalog #10-116 PrinbmcBtM 16K Buttet E)q;>cinsiMi (69.95 

Catalog *10-U7 Mntmoster 32E BuBw Ei<p<gHton $89.95 



DELUXE RS232 INTERFACE 

The most vorsatUe RS232 Intertace on the market. Supports hiU 
RS232 signal set including Ring Detect. Svritch selectable for DT& 
DCE. and Busy Line polarity. No other RS232 interlace cunently 
offered has all these selections. Easy to use. Good Documentation. 
Comes with Ifs own 3 foot cable with either a male or female 
DB2S. Type In BASIC terminal routine, program transfer routine, 
and more. For Male DB25 order 10-1 IZFemole order 10- 1 13, $42.95 



Also FROM OMNITRONDE: CASSETTE DRERFACE 

10- 101: Use any cassette with 2fl/64. Make lope backups S34.9S, 
tmtmusnai/V*^ lO-loa Economy parallel printer Intertace. 
Con nee Is to the user port. Disk included contains machine lan- 
guage wedge which changes user port to parallel port. Does 
graphics. S39.95. RS233 fWMTIB BOWIINES 10- 109; Machine lan- 
guage software Use KS232 printer with programs not designed 
for RS232 printer. Many features. $29,95, VOUCSMODBM CABtE 10- 
103: Connect Volksmodem to a Commodore No other interface 
needed S22 95. 



HOW TO ORDER: See your local dealer or coil 206/236- 
2983 or write to address below. Phone orders ask for $ 1 .00 
discount. MaO/Phone orders add S2,00 shipping lor each 
product, COD add $1.90. 30 Day money back guarantee 
(less shipping) VISA & UASTERCABD W«Ieome. Call, 
write, or mark the reader service card lor a tree catalog. 



y iRTTitl tf.Titgi^Egi^l 



PO BOX 43 DEPT.G4 
BIEBCEB IS., WA 98040 
206/236-2983 DLBS/DIST CALL 



MariwC<«d 



I^^tpo-Hione 

Autonmtically dial phone numbers with 
your Commodore! 

■ I'mdufw roiitli-lbiiL'"' and iinivi'r,>i;ii iliiil codes 

• lloniiL'ti!, ilirtdly to phtine liiiu (ckeck wiili ytmr ktai phdiit 
coiii[Wii} br ilirfci-connect infDrtiMtiim) . 

■ ,V rkf.'. any tnudeni into an auto-dial modem. .Modem not required, 

■ Onliiif ilirecion includes o\lt 1 .tllK) Toll-free Slid numbers and 
CnnipiiM'rve " access phone luinibers 

■ Sofiware iiicluites U:k (leasl-cost-roniinj;) projiram for ma.xlmum 
phdiie saviiijjs accordin;; to day aitd lime of call, anuunalic .MCI '" and 
SPRINT'" dialiri)!, fiill-screcii personal directory ediior and di;der, 
auto-dial and auto-lojion projiram for the CompuServe and Dow Jones 
lie Works, IMreciorv of pfione area codes and lime zone information 

■ -Many oilier features. 

Let your Commodore do the dialing! 

.Software on disk and liardv\'are for titilv: 

$89.00 
HIPPWODVMUS 

1250 Oakim.Md Tarkway, Suilt: 2IU 

(408)738-1200 

t)ealer inquiries tt^lcomt'. \^t':iiti'[>i VISA. Mj-sUTCard, cashier's checks, mmvy 
^)rdt'r^. pi-iMmal checks, and Ctlll <irdtT> Lahfornia rt'sidtnh jdd ktcaJ sales 
lis. Flcasi lEuiinIc S> br shi[i|^nl^; iiitl f;j[idiiiisi. HitXH- ilk™ l-i wteks for 
dtlivcn IUp[>(^PIu]lle is i tnidtniark mE Hippopoiamuii Stiftw-jrc. Iiic Hricen 
av^ailahi]ii>. aiu! ^|K■cifi£:a!itms suhjeci kj tlian^e without rHiticf. 



An integrated business software package 

for the C-G4™ for S1.59 a Program? 

Yes. 

The Intelligent Software Padtuge for C-fi4™, VIC"*, SX-B4™, Plus 
4^", 1B^, *B*-Sories™, and PET/CBM™. No games, no tsncry packag- 
ing, and you can't buy it anywhere but here. But: 22 powerful, useful 
programs that will put; your Commodore to work right ncw^ in your home 
or offK:e: all on one dssk at the ridiculous price of S3L. Includes: 



□tttabsBa: A cOfi[i(jleLe rrxitt-keycd Futed- 

rccord-tengUi doUi base mangger Sori or 
select [ustfig Dfl n!lation3l operators : , ^ > , 
<: , AND, on, NOT, wdd cjrd] on ariy tiekJ. 
perform compulstJonB ori numenc CeWc, 
Any opernt^un t^ari t>a performed on all, or 
only selected records, AH fields cofnpletRty 
userKJefiriijble. Cehi be used for ery ixmbor 
of tasks. iTidutfing accounting, maiing lists. 
inv^niDDry contrd, records tape, or book 
cstafci^ig, eitpense Bocant maTntenencc. 
or as an electf-onc rolodex. Even ■( you ijse 
VDU" CommodOro tpr ixuhng ^se,. this pro- 
pram atone Tii3ht (ustify ^ts e]^>ense. 
Word PracBHQr; Tho orgin^ word pro 
cessor ioc tiie VlC-ifO, W/P ts now avoiable 
iiv h\\ CBM rnc*tJfilM. A fiikfeatured meriu- 
drrven word processor indudng very fast fiie 
commands (ndudinQ s disk catalog], screen 
edttng, te^t tocatfig and fufl control over 
msrgris, spacng, paging, ndentslion, ond 
(LEStifbatiOfi, " . . , ri«f done and tughty 
funcvong/ . . ProvKfes sn exceieni aHer- 
native lo the high pnced word pro- 
csssors . . , J/ifS IS on e^stent buy. Hfghty 
rtjcommemJ&i." - Midnte Software 
Gazette "Providos Qood basic feaii^v^. " 

Compute's Gazette. 
Capycsifi] An uloctronio spreadsheet 
Turns your Conmodare nto a wsfcte tjotmcB 
sJTeet: nctudies semen edftor. "£rce#enc 
program for budgetn^. estmatrg. or any 
matfyonenled use . . . weH worth Ujb 
money. Ht^iiy rscOmmended." — Midnite 
Software Gazetto. 

IntoJHgont Software 

Quality Scftwoi'e smce 1 38^ 



AtsobxJudsJ Rapof^Qvi,RaportM«rBa 
[rierface W/P wtJi Oat^^se to create 
form tetlersn siotcmenu, m/OtCes. marfrtg 
tatels. other reports ). BaHb«ll Startlvtk 
ciifi [compilog batting etoustics lor a 
baseball league); several W/P utihtJes, m- 
rJudmg Indax [indox(!& W/P's tejft fdesj; 
several Databasa utilities, mclLrding 
DBnwrga [faotrtates nxAt-fie d@cdbas€ ap- 
phcauons], ANQ DBQtaC [analyzes D/B 
fdesj: a p-ograrnmog ut^y^ ASCII, whch 
converts text Nes [progrom l^tngs) nto 
program fles; atso Chacltbpok. Invantory, 
Pspvr Rout*^ tamn AnalymJB. 
Draakavan Analyili; Oapniclirtlon, 
Labslvr^ mopB. 

Vereons of tha package ore ovmlobto for ony 
and every CommodorB computer having a 
minimum of 1 Dk RAM (does it say 'Cor> 
modore' on tt? How about on the box it 
oyr^ ri?) Abd S3 if you hove an BOSO dsk 
Onve. Al program wi fuly support ispe. 
(isk, and printer. The package is avatfabte 
onhy on cisk; how^vsr, you may order any 
two programs on oasHQtto for S20. Pnco 
incluttes docunontation and shipping within 
USA ar>ct Canada; all other coiritries. odd 
$5 [no personol checks from outside USA). 
^Jo charge cards. For C.O.D., enctosa £5 
fee; C^f restdentfiBdd&%. This ad is the 
catslc^. 



Box A Dept. G 

San Anselmo, CA 94960 



commodore 



SOFrMREFORC-64 



Business 

Multiplan (Spreadsheei) 

Calc Result (Advanced) 

Superbase 64 

Mirage Concepts (Data Base) 

Mirage Concepts (Word Processor) 

(4080 column & 30K Dictionary) . 
B.I. Paperclip W.Spellpac{W.P) ... 
Home AccQLintant (Continental) , . 

Tax Advantage (Continental) 

Inio Designs G.'L 

Soiithem Solutions Accounting Gl, 

frR. Af. P.R, I M ..each .... 
Tri Micro Accounting C64 S Plus 4 

Gl. AR. AR P.P. I'M ..each .. 

Smart64Tefm *3 

Hellcat Ace (game) 

Solo FligM (game) 



Utilities 
Printer Utility Program (Cardco) . 
Disk Utility Program (Fast copy. File 

copy Disassembler, For 1541) . . 
Bits and Pieces (Backup & Utility, 

Screen Dump S More lor 

MSD Drive) 

Simon's Basic 

80 Column Expander (Cartridge) . . . 

64 Relay Cantidge 

Oxford Pascal 

Tool 64 (Handle) 

Graf 64 (Handle) .,,,, 

Stat 64 (Handle) 

Fonn64 (Handle) 



ACCESSORIES 



63.00 
79.95 
75.00 
83.00 

89.00 
85.00 
45.00 
85.00 
19.95 



S 49.95 



49.95 
89.95 
25.00 
25.00 



S 19.95 
S 49.95 



49.95 
39.95 
50.00 
45.00 
69.95 
39.95 
39.95 
39.95 
39.95 



MSD Super Disk Drive (single) . . S 349.00 

MSD SuiKr Disk Drive (dual) S 575.00 

Hayes Smart 300 Modem S 229.00 

Vic 1530 Datasette S 65.00 

Cardco Datasette S 55.00 

Cardco Numenc Key Pad S 39.95 

Alien Voice Box S 95.00 

When I'm 64 (Voice Box Sings) ... S 25.00 

Voice Box Dictionary S 25.00 



B I. 80 Column Display S 159.95 

154l.Flasfi S 89.95 

Sock It To Me (For 8032) S 29.00 

6420 WesUidge Modem 

(Auto Answer.Auto Dial) S 09.35 

Teleaming (Auto Answer/Auto Dial) 

Modem Witli soltware S 95.00 

CBM 4023 Ribbons S 10.95 

CBM 1526 Ribbons S 10.95 

CBM 8023P Ribtwns S 8.75 

CBM 6400 Ribbons S 8.75 

LQ1 Ribbons S 8.75 

Diablo Daisy Wheel S 13.95 

Abati Daisy Wheel S 13,95 

Flip K File 10, 15, 25, SO , Call 

Power Strips (Surge Protector) .... S 49.95 

Computer Glow Care Kit S 10.95 

Disk Dnve Cleaning Kit S 10.95 



MOMTORS 



Panasonic TR1 20 (Amber) For Apple 

or IBM Computers S 156.00 

Green & Amber (For Apple & IBMI S 85.00 
RGB Monitor Cable; 

FT-101C (Apple) S 33,80 



INTERFACES 



BussCard II { Batten es Included) 

IEEE. Canndge Slot, Basic 4.0 

BussCard Phnter Cable 

SuperBox 64 (Handle) IEEE, Reset, 

3-Slot 

Interpod (Intelligent IEEE 

& RS-232) 

Cafdco ~ G PSrallel Interface 

Cardco B Parallel Interface 

TTie Conneclion (by Tymac) 

(Commodore Graphics t 2K 

Buffer) Epson, Gemini, Okidata. 

Panasonic 

Turbo.'GT (Tetesys) With optional 

16K or 32K Buffer 

Vic Switch (Handle) 

ADA1&00 IEEE to Centronics 

Pet to IEEE Cable 

IEEE to IEEE Cable 

tJetworkIng For C-64 & CBM .... 



S 159,95 

S 29.95 

S 139.95 

S 139.95 

S 79.95 

S 49.95 



S 95.00 

S S9.95 

S 145.95 

S 149.95 

S 39.00 

S 49.00 
Call 



lETTER QUAirrV PRINTERS 



Abati (20 CPS) W.lnterface S 475.00 



DOT fHATRIX PRINTERS 



Smith Corona Fastex 80 (80 CPS) S 259.00 

Smith Corona 100 (120 CPS) S 315.00 

Smith Corona 200 (140 CPS) S 456.00 

Smith Corona 300 (140 CPS, 15in) S 589.00 



BUSIN'ESS SOrrWSVRE — R128 



Superscript II (40K Dictionary) .... S 199.00 

Superbase (Data Base) S 139.00 

Calc Result S 199.00 

Complete Accounting System From 

Softvrare Design (G-l, A'R, A'P 

BR, l.'M) each S 375.00 



BUSINESS SOFTWARE — 8032/8096 



WordPro 4+ or 5+ S 225.00 

Calc Result S 199.95 

SuperBaso (8096 only) S 225.00 

Complete Accounting System From 

Software Design (G.'L, A'R, A'P 

PR, I'M) each S 375.00 



Orders under 50,00 add 10.00 Handling fee 
MasterCard. VISA. Money Order. Bank Check 
COD (add 5.00) 

Add 3% For Credit Cards 

All Products In Stock Shipped Within 24 Hours 

FOB. Dallas, Texas 

All Products Shipped With Manufacturers 

90 Day Warranty 

PRICt^LSARKSlBJECTTO 

cuANt;!-: uinKHrr MrncE, 



AUTHORIZED WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTOR FOR ALL 
COMMODORE BUSIHESS MACHIHE PRODUaS. 

BECOME A COMMODORE DEALER. AND SEE WHY IT'S THE BEST DEAL IN NEW COMPUTER PRODUCTS. 

rOR PRODUa CATALOG & PRICE LIST WRIT! OR (ALL MICRO-SVS DISTRIBUTORS. 



ORDERS OfJLV CALL 

1-800-527-1738 



Micro-Sys 



INQUIRIES & INFORMATION PLEASE CALL 

1-214-231-2645 



D I S I R I B y I R S 



641 PresitJential Drive • Richardson. Texas 75081 • 9:30a.m.-6:30p.m. (Mon.-Fri.) • 10:30 a.m. -2:30 p.m. (Sat.) 



Software Discounters 


/ 


^ 


of America <& peripherals, loo!) 


1 


S.D. of A. ) 


For Orders Only — 1.800-225-7638* 




^"^r^^ 


Inquires and PA 412-361-5291 




Open Saturday 1 


• Free Shipping on orders over S100 in continental USA 




• No surcharge (or VISA/lvlASTEPCARD 






ACCESS 


Mastering ihe 


T. Tablot w(Painter(R|175 


Broadsides (□) .125 


Beach Head(TorD) . .S2t 


SAT(D) 189 


Koala Prir)ler(Dl . . 


.119 


Carrier Force (D) . .139 


Beach Head II Call 


Murder by DojenlD) .123 


LEARNING COMPANY 


Comijat Leader (D) .125 


Raid Over 


Timebound(O) 119 


AMTillei . 


i;aii 


Ccmp. Sasetiail (D| 125 


Moscow{TorD} S25 


CONTINENTAL 


MICROLAB 




Compuler QBIO) 125 


ACT 1 VIS ION 


Bvak ol Adv Games 116 


Boulder OastKD) 


121 


Ccsmic Balance (D| 125 


Decamalon(D) 123 


FCMID) 133 


Deatn Caribbean (D| 


123 


Field ot Fire (D) 125 


DesigneCaPeficilfOl M3 


Get Rich Sonos Clll 


DmoEggsID) 


123 


50 Mission CrusnrDI 125 


Ghostbus(ei5{D| S23 


MomeAccountant 147 


Miner 2049or 11(0) 


123 


Fortress (D) 123 


Minclsnadow(D) MS 


HomeCatalonoriDl 133 


MICROPROSE 




Gemstone Warrior (0)123 


PilfaiMMD). 113 


Tai AdvanlayelD) 147 


F-15 Strike 




Geii|iiil|lil)uir 19W)([>)125 


HivBr fiaidlDl S2a 


DAT A SO FT 


EagtB(TorD). . . . 


.123 


Germany 1985(0) 139 


space Sfiutllo(D) .iZ3 


Bruce Le8(T(D[ 123 


Hellcat AcelTorD). 


.119 


KnighlE in Desert (D) 125 


TracetSanclion(O) K5 


Conan(T/D) , ... ,123 


Mig Alley Ace (D) 


121 


Pro Tour Goll(D) . . 125 


Zenji (D) K3 


Dallas Quest (Dl . 121 


NatD 




Question (D) ... 125 


A FIT WORK 


Dig DugiTID) . .119 


Commander (TorO) 123 


RDF 1985 ID) . . 123 


Alice In Videuia rid iDISie 


LetlerJSpell 


Solo Flight (lorO) 


123 


Rails West (0) 125 


BridfleJ O(TnrO) J1« 


Wizard ID) 147 


Spitfire Aco(TnrO) 


119 


Ringside Seat (D) 125 


Fiench(O) t19 


Lost Tomb (T/D) 119 


MUSE 




SUB LOGIC 


German (0). t1S 


PaeMan(TfD) . 119 


Beyond Caslle 




Ftighl Simuliiliir 11(D) 135 


Ghosicfla3ors(D) . . JIB 


Pole Position (TiD) 119 


Wollen5loin(Di 


123 


Flight Sirhulalur 11 (T| 129 


Grand Maatar 


DAVIDSON 


CaslleWollerisloiri(D|11B 


Night Mission 


Chess (0| 119 


Main Blaster (D) ... 133 


Super Te>llO) . . 


1S9 


Pihball(TorD) .121 


Monkey Main (TorD) $18 


Speed Reader 11(0) . 143 


ORIGIN 




SYNAPSE 


Slap Shot Hockey ID) S16 


Spell mO) ....133 


Ultima 111(0). . . . 


139 


Blue Mai(TDiD) . .121 


Spanish (D| $18 


Word Attack (D| 133 


PRACTICORP 




Er!COunter(TorD). . . .117 


SIMp Poker (D) ....S21 


DESIONWARE 


P(acticalc(D) 


135 


FL Apocalypse (TorOl 121 


Female DalaDi$k SfB 


AUTillns Call 


PractitilelD) 


135 


Necromancer (Tor Dl 121 


Male Oai.i Disk SIB 


EPYX 


ii Doctor (D) 


121 


Pharoati's 


BATTERIES INCLUDED 


Dragonrrders Pern|.D|$25 


PflECISION 




Curse (TorD) 121 


Addios:^ Gocih (Ul HI 


PaslLoadlRl 125 


Supcrbase6d(0) 


149 


SynCalc(D) C»ll 


AudioiViiJiiPCat lUi S2t 


ImpossitjlB 


PROFESSIONAL 




Zaic«on(TorDl , 125 


Buscardll .... Call 


Mission (OJ 123 


SOFTWARE 




ZBpeliin(TcirD).. . 121 


CalC'KiMD) »3 


Monty's Scrabble) (D) J2S 


Trivia Fever (D) , . . 


127 


TIMEWOflKS 


CnecktiDok (Di . , . .421 


PilstoplllDI 125 


Super S()oris Trivia 




Cave Word Wi/anl (D)123 


BOColumnBoaru J115 
Homelnvent'Pfyr tD| , S21 


Summer Games (D). .123 
Temple Apshai (TorD) 125 


Data Disk 


.121 


Data Manager It (01 133 

Electonic 


Word Pro 3 • vil 


HomePak(D| S33 


World's Grealost 


SlielnngiDl 


149 


Cneckbook(TotD|.116 


MailLisMD) t21 


BaseDaii(D) 123 


RESTON 




Evelyn Wood Dynamic 


Paperclip iD) . J59 


FIRST STAR 


Miner 294 9er(R) 


.119 


Header (D) 139 


Paperclip w/SpelMO) 179 


SpyVsSijy(D) 119 


Movie Maker (D| 


133 


Money Manasor(TorO)H6 


Pnolos(Slidos(Dj J21 


FISHER PRICE 


SCARBOROUGH 




spellbound (ToiD) 11 B 


Recipes (D) 121 


Alpha Build (R| 117 


Masloriype(Dl . 


12t 


Word Writer (0) 133 


Spollp<1k(D) ...133 


Logic L«vi3ls(R) 117 


Maslurlypl;(H| , . 


125 


TRILLIUM 


StarripslD) 121 


Numtjer Tumbler (Bl 117 


NBlWorth(D). . . . 


149 


Amazon (D) 123 


TheConsullanMD) . .«5 


Sea speller (R) 117 


Songwriter (D) .... 


.125 


Dragonworld(0| 123 


* bonus w(purcnase ot 


GAMESTAR 


SIERRA ON LINE 




Fahrenheil45t (D) 123 


three Bl litles 


OnCourl Tennis ID) 121 


Frog9er(TorD). . . . 


119 


Rendezvous v.( 


BLUE CHIP 


On-Field Football (0) Call 


Grog's Revenge (D) 


123 


B3ma(0) 123 


Baron (D| . tZi 


Siar League 


Homeword(O) 


143 


Shadow Keep(O) 123 


MillionairefDI S2S 


easebaii(TorD) 121 


Mickey's Space 




IRON IX 


Tycoon (D) 125 


HSJ 


Adventures (Dl 


125 


S AM (D| 139 


BRODERBUNO 


Computer SAT (0) Me 


Ultima 11(0) 


139 


WAVEFORM 


Bank SI WlilurlOl t33 


HES 


Winnie the Poon(O) 


125 


MusicalcllD) 135 


CasllosDr CioiJP(D) 121 


Graphics 6,isic(D) 12J 


Wiiardi Princess (D)ltS 


M'Ljsicalc2or3{D) 123 


ChoplilloMDI 121 


H03 Games 8J(0) . ,121 


Wi/TypQ(D) 


123 


Colorlone Keyboard 159 


Karaleka (D) i21 


HesMon6<(R) 125 


SOFTSVNC 




WINDHAM CLASSICS 


LoderunnorlD) ... 121 


MultiplanfD) 159 


Personal 




Betow the Root (D). ,119 


Mask o( the Sun (Di-«5 


Omniwriter/ 


Aeeountant(O) . 


123 


Swiss Family 


Music Shop (D| 129 


Speller (D| 139 


TriolDI 


,147 


Robinson (Ol 119 


Print Shop ID) . 129 


64 Forth (R| 125 


SPINNAKER 




ACCESSORIES 


Print Snoa Graphics 


INFOCOM 


Adventure Creator (B|12t 


BASFSS, DD 114 B« 


Library (0) .119 


Cul Throats (Dl 123 


Alphabet loo(R| 


121 


Cardco Access Call 


Raid on Bur>oeling 


Enchanter (0) 123 


Delta Drawing (HI 


121 


CompuServe Storier 


Bay(D) «t 


Hiicnnikais Guide to 


Pacemaker (R) 


121 


Kit(Shrs| 123 


SerpenlsStar(O) . . 12S 


lheGala»y(Dl .. 123 


■Fraction Fever (Fl) . 


.121 


CompuSOryoWidlOK 125 


Sp6iunker(D) 119 


tntidollD) 12B 


Kids on Keys (R) . 


121 


Disk Case (Holds 50) 19 


Slealth(O) Jifl 


Planeltall(D) 123 


Kidv»iilei(D| , , . 


121 


OiSkCasa(Holds100)11B 


Whisller'sBrolher(D)119 


SeastalkeKD) ...123 


KindBrcump(H) . . 


119 


Disk Drive Cleaner 19 


CBS 


Sorcerer (0) 12B 


Snooper Trooiis i (D) 123 


Indus GT Disk Drive Call 


Adirentur8Musler(D112« 


Zorki(D) 123 


Snooper Troops 2 (D) 123 


Modem Special Call 


Big Bird's SpcOeJ(R) 117 


ZoikllorllMDI 127 


story Macnine(R) 


121 


Panasonic Punters Call 


DinosaurOigfDl 133 


KOALA 


Trains (Dl 


123 


Sakata 13" Color 


Ernie's MaQic 


Lighi Pen wi 


SSI 




Monitor 1225 


Shapes (R) 117 


Painter (Ol 18S 


Baltic S5IDI 


125 


W.coBoss 112 


Felony(D) 123 


Muppct Learning 


Battle Normandy (D 


125 


Wico Bat Handle 119 


FofocaslMDI 133 


K«ys(D) 149 


Breakthrough in ine 


Wico Three Way 123 


MathSeries Cill 


T. Tablet w(pHintBr(D) 159 


Ardennes (D| 


139 


WicoTrackOail , , 139 


P.O. BOX278— DEPTCG 


— WILDWOOD, PA 15091 1 


*Or<)«ring #nd T«rm»; Ord 


ers with casiiier Chech or money order snipped 


immediately Personalfcompany 1 


checks, allow 3 weeks cie 


arance No C O.D 's Shippino: Conllnenul U.S.A.— Orders under ilOO add 13; 1 


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rthich 


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merchandise will bo replaced wilh same merchandise— NO CREDITS' 


Relurr 


musi have aulnoriiation 1 


number (412) 361 5291 Pr 


ces subject tu ctiange without notice Ordar today, g*1 It toinorraw. Overnight | 


dellxry li iuil 117.50-(o 


ttwari order* only In Contlntnial U.S.A. 




1 



COMPUTER ROAD ATLAS 




TAKE rmPS WITH COMPUTER 
LISTINGS SHOWING THE 
BEST ROUTE 



Enter ttie departing city and the destination city. 

HDADSEARCH compuls* inil print* ths iDonesl 

roule 

nOAOSEARCH contains 406 citlesfroad Junctions 

and 70.000 road miles. ROAOSEARCH-PLUS (extra 

cost) also contains a nOADMAP DEVELOPMENT 

SYSTEM which lets you customize your roadmap 

with up to 50 towns/road junctlona anywhere in North 

America. 

EASY TO USE. Backup copies allowed. Specily 

CommDdorO'64rdist( or Apple II. IS DAY MDMEV- 

BACK QUARANTEE. 

HOADSEARCH^LUS Is 174 95 and ROADSEARCH 13 

only 134 95 MD residents add S% stale tan. Ask your 

dealer or: 

_ . MAILCOUPON OR CALL TODAY „ 

Columbia Softuiors (30i ) 997 3ioo 

Box 2235E. Columbia, MD21045 
Please send me: 

( inOADSEARCHItJUS lor 174.95 ,g^ | )Applemi«IIC 
( )ROAI>8EARCHIorS34 95 ()C-fl4dlaJ< 

Add 11.50 shipping, It lam not aatlaljad. I rmay return 
it tor a full relund. 
() check () Master ChBiioa i )VISA 



Card Number 
Name^ ^ 



Expiration Date 



Address - 



CMyJStale'ZIp . 



ORDERS: 1-800-835-2246, EXT. 172 



CONVERSE WITH 
YOUR COMPUTER 



ATLASTt A FU1.LIMPLEUENTATL0N qI thQ Dnglrtak ELIZA pro- 
gram 19 now Qvatlabletorunan VDi^f CammoiJore64' 
Crealed at MIT in 1966, EUZA hai birCijme Ihe t/Qild's most 
celebratvd arM<ciat intelligencedeiTiCivstration pro^r^m. ELIZA is a 
non-dire-cti^e psychoth-erapisl who ariaiyte^ each siaiement as 
you tjrpe it m land then respoidt wlh hgr Oivn. conamerit or 
qcj«)tiOn~antf her femarhs are onen imiEingly ■pproprtale' 
Qmgnad to tun on a \HQt mimlr^mt, ELIZA hai never before 
been AvAili&le lo pttior]A[ campiuT<ir uierii «Kcepl in greaVf 
jlrippvtl down vefnoiTiS FDckmg the loptiiiijicjiiicin t^hiicH ma>ile Uie 
onginit program %o tdscinoiing 

UQM.out new Commodore 6^ verjior* p-oj wsiin j iti& FyLL poMMBr 
[in-f} rung* of enpro^sion of inn orlginat la being Dlleieil ai itio 
inirod'UCtd'v prlcfro'onlv S25. And il yoj wanlio ttnd oulHow Ihe 
0:049 il [ot teach h^f to do jnore) nve will Include \he comptele 
SOLinCE PflOGRAM for only S 20 add iti anal 
Older your copy o[ ELIZA lodiy and youii never aggir^ wonder how 
toreipond wMon you hear someone $a|."Ohajf. let's see what ihia 
coTip'jier ol yours car actually dC 

READ WHATTHE EXPERTS SAY AeOUT OUA VERSION OF EUZA: 
Much motw Ttiin a mere game rou il be impressed wiifi 
ELiZA A conw«ncinB demon jiraijon ol Artificni Intelligence." 
-PC MAGAZfNE 
"Oeiightlul •nt»[1«|nmihi....An udeai medium for showing on yoor 
ayitem" -^hUCfiOCOHPOJSfiC MAGAZiflE 

' ELIZA m an nsiotindino pieceoF aoftware A LascmaCing program 
toujennflitLid/.'" ^BARON'S MlCHOCOMf HUB f^SPOPTS 
'ELIZA isagreal way 10 introduce your inendt to computers. ..A 
very (unny parly Bame" —PETER A KtcWiLUAHiS 

"ELIZA t3 an eicepbOTtal prcKjram, or^e thai '9 lun lo use, shows on 
your machine, and has greai historical interest' 

-POPUtAf< COtJPijTi*iQ UAGAHNE 
' Thii vtrmon of EUZA is the beat we have seeri As a parry gitni. ti 
1 J unmatched" ^ HOME APPUCATtOHS FOR THE C 64 

EUZA IS AVAFUBUIH THE FOLLOW] NO FORMATS: 
jPlease specily Ditk or Caiseiie) 

1. Prpieded V#raton , $23 

jProieciBdi Version can be run bul nol lilted Of modilied) 

2 Un^proiecledCommodoreW BASIC Source Version $4) 

(Source Version can be listed end nrpdilied as well as runj 
Both versions include a six page user manuaJ 
PJease add 12 W shipping and handling 10 sii orders 
(Caiitomia Te-sJenis pieaie a^Jd ^'■^'h sales lai) 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH GROUP 

971 ffonn La Joiia Attrvt. Oepi G 

Los Angeles. CA ^004E 
(3T3)6^'73Aa (2l3>eM-72l4 
MC, VISA and checks ace epied 



152 COMPUTERS Gazette April 1965 



FAST DELIVERY 



Call Us For 

Fast Service, Experience 

and Affordable Prices 



Software 



HOLIDAY SPECIAL 




SUBLOGIC 
Flight Simulator 

*31.95 

MtCROPROSE 
Solo Flight 

*21.95 

F-15 EAGLE 

*21.95 



INFOCOM 

Zark t. II, III gi •2S 

Suipendcd 'ZG 

Stnrcfcyii *25 

Dfladlmfl *25 

S«) Snlk*r '25 

WORD PROCESSING 




Special ot the Month 
PAPERCLIP 
with SPELLER '59 



CfliV Script 

Word Pro 64 & Spvltirr .. 

E2S(ii>ll 

PROGRAMMING 

Aisembl&r G4 

Loqa .„,, 



M6 

-58 

'17 

SERIES 

-36 

'6! 



Simon Basic '29 



Borland Pascal 

Nffv«{ft Fortran 

Weuotfn Cobol, 

ACCOUNTING 

Homa Accountant 
Tax Advantage 
GsnersI Ledger 
A/fi, A/P. Pavroll 

The Manager 

DATA BASES 

Coda Writer 

M'faoft Dsiaba^ Mgr. 
Sup*t Sa»64 .....,.,,, 



.'42 

..'39 
. '39 



Hardware 




i54i$Dall 



Sfjecial of the Month 

MSD DISK DRtVE 

SD1 Disk Drive5244 
SD2 Disk Drive='444 



Introih/ctory Oflcr 

INDUS GT 

DISK DRIVE 

$CALL$ 



ELEPHANT DISK 

SS/SD 'IE 60 SS/DD 'IB EO 

Vetba(im, Datalife '19,95 

Maxell SS/DD '19.95 

Westridgo 64 Modem .. '77 



WW FAST 

1660 MODEM 
^84 




'64 

.,.■79 
.•64 



Spea.il cf! ih/} Munth 

The Consultant 
*59 ".00 



SPREAD SHEET 

Multiplan '63 

Practtcalc ,...,......,.,„,... '38 



SX-64 Computer '499 

MPS 802 'CALL 

Boscord II '149 

Magic Voice Speech '49.95 

1011 HS 232 Inlerface '49 

1702 Monitor 

$CALL 

ZENITH MONITORS 

122 Amber '84 

-■5123 Green ,.'84 

COMPUTER COVERS 



with ^inyl 
iiitefio/ 

CMD 84 »fl 99 

VIC 20 96 S9 

Disk Drlvl SG 93 

ElBon MX eO, ,.17 93 
EiponMX SO FT 17 99 
Okiitila 92 t7 99 




$6.99 



Printers 



GEMINI 10X 

$219 



F" 



^l 



$339^ 




15X 

Number one selling dot matrix printer, Gemini 10X, prints 120 
cps bi-directionally, witli logic-seeking printerhead control. 
There's both friction and tractor paper teed. Prints high 
resolution graphics. 

Letter Quality Powertype $325 

NEW SG-10, SG-15, SR-10, SR-15 IN STOCK, CALL FOR PRICES 



EPSON RX80 

$228 




RX80FT. $269 

The most compatible dot matrix printer, prints 100 cps, bi- 
difectionally. Call for RX-1D0, FX-BO and FX-100 prices. 



OKIDATA 182 

$249 f 



=1141 V 



l Zz:^.:z^- .?\ 



OKIDATA 92... $3fl9 



L 



Special OfiBr 

MW-350 $69 

4K Buffer <29 



PRINTER INTERFACES 

Mtcrogrofin MW3S0 '69 

Tvmac Connection '79 

Cardco + G Interface "66 

Csrdco 8 Inlerface '39 

Grappler CD "102 



Juki 6100 J389 

Silver Reed 400... $249 
Silver Reed 500... $379 



SURGE PROTECTORS 

1 OulJst 't* 

4 Outlet '38 

6 Outlet '89 

5 Outfit & 
NaiH Filtsr '88 




Ordering & Payment Policy 
Prices reflect a cash discount. For Visa, and Master- 
card add 3% Immediate delivery with certified check or wired 
funds, N,J. resident add 6%, Prices subject to change. 

Shipping 
For shipping and handling add 3%. (S3 minimum) 
Larger shipments require additional charge. C. CD, add '3.50 



PANASONIC 

1090 n99 

1091 *269 

1092 *Call 



Printer Specials 

Doodle $26 

Print Shop $29 

16K Buffer..... $99 

64K Buffer $149 



FOR INFORMATION CALL (609) 596-1944 



ORDER TOLL FREE (800) 992-3300 



P.O. Box 3354 
Cherry Hill, N.J. 08034 




LEROY'S CHEATSHEET" 

KEYBOARD OVERLAYS 





FOR COMMODORE 64 

<VIC-zg Afoo available] 

LEROY'S CHEATSHEETS* are plastic laminated keyboard 
overlays designed for use with popular software and 
hardware for Commodore's VIC-20 & C-64 computers. 

These cut-it-out yourself overlays are designed to fit over 
the keyboard surrounding the keys with commands and 
controls grouped together (or easy references. 

LEROY'S CHEATSHEETS'" 

make life easier for you 



WORD PROCESSORS 



n EASY ,^^HiPT' 

a HEs wmnn 

a PAPER CLIF- 

D QUICK DROWN FO^ 

□ SCRJPT 6^ 

D SPEEDSCRIPT n.n/l mi 

O WORDPRO 3/PLUS 



SPREAOSHEETS 



O CALC RESULT (ADVANCEUJ 

D CALO RESULT (FASYI 

O EASY CALC' 

D MOLTIPLAN (piti.miWiltJH I) 

D PRACTICALC 8* tOB PLUS) 



■nujjHi.ij.iii.-i 

D OLANKS I 1 . .1 I Jul yn-iirttluul 

D FOR THE OCQINNEH 

D SPRITES ONLY 

D FLIQHT SIMULATOR II 

□ DOODLE 

n DISK 1541 .IV 



LANOUAQES 
4 UTILITIES 



BASIC 

HESMON B4 
LOGO !■ l-y vJ«-l D' 
LOQO IM«u iJm«i9 .-jp 
PILOT imu)' 
COMAL .14 (DISKl 
SIMON'S BASIC 



D THE CONSULTANT (UuMil 
D MANAGER [i;uu)' 
D SUPER BASE 94 



a TERM 64 

n THE SMART 6* TDtmlnal 

n VIOTEX 

a Ylf TtRMIHUL 



Q COMMODORE 1525; MPS-801 

D COMMODORE 1526' 

D EPSON HK-BO 

O GEMINI 10X 

□ OKIDATA 92/93 



Dealer Inquiries welcome 



Qty. X $3.95 $_ 

Shipping 8. handling $ 
6% sales tax S . 



1.00 



TOTAL S 

us. ruNOS 



CHEATSHEET PRODUCTS™ 

P.O. Box 11)368 Pitlaburoh PA. 15238 



■7CTM ™JS,5fS!'] 

1 LZZJ 

(412) 781-1551 



Finally . . . 

INTELLIGENT MUSIC SOFTWARE 

. . . For the Commodore 64 
ALGO-RHYTHM SOFTWARE proudly presents: 

CFltS]TLI5 ' ^^^ Music (mprovJser 
—Composes its own music!— 

n Plays perpetually; always new; never repeats, 

■~ Listen to music change as you alter parameters with 
the full screen editor. Or, experiment with any of more 
than 50 pre-set styles provided, 

I I Real-time display of notes played. 

; I You control: Harmony, rhythm, 
tempo, range, counterpoint, etc. 

. You control C-64 sound: ADSR, filter, waveform, 
vibrato, modulation, etc. 

LI 36 page comprehensive user's manual (with glossary). 

Created by Michael Riesman, musical direaor of the Philip 
Glass Ensemble, Cantus will transfix you with its beautiful 
and exciting inventions! No more tedious typing in of 
notesl No more rinky-dinkl 

ALGO-RHrTHM SOFTWAHE 

176 Mineola Blvd. 
Mineola, New York JI50) 




DISK 
$54 

+ S2 Handling 
Check or M.O. 



ORDER TOLL-FREE: 1-800-645-4441 

IN NY CALL: 516-294-^90 



.^__ 10 DISKETTES 

FREE ^^ 

■ iihh 20 C-20 CASSETTES 

A subscription to the 'Cassette of the Month' gets 
you a tape or disk full of 10 quality Commodore 64 
programs delivered to you by first class mail every 
month. The documentation included will help you run 
great utilities like 'Word Processor,' and "Budget 
Analyzer,' or enjoy great games like 'Frogjump' and 
CaterpillarCave' FOR AS UTTLEAS50 CENTS EACH! 

• Limited offer * Subscribe for a year on cassette 
and receive 20 Free C-20 cassettes or subscribe for a 
year on disk and receive 10 Free 5V4 single sided dou- 
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rniv 


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over three years I acquiring 
Over 4000 satisfied color 
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Commodore 64 required 



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nnd Sl.OO losinglp laaga? 

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DISCOUNT A0#G45 

SOFTWARE 

Abby's carries a full selection of software for 
your Commodore . Call for current prices. 
Ask for free catalog. 



.__. 



A^Inbham 



Dtagonworld (D) '25 

- Amazon (D) ^Zb 

Rendezvous with Rama{D) *2S 

Shadowkeep |D) Call 

Below the Root (D) '20 

Swiss Family Robinson (D] '20 




^30 



• Loads disks up to five limes faster 

• Plugs right into computer 



:: 5!C3l1Tc§50UMD 



We unleash the music In you, 

INCREDIBLE MUSIC $■ 

KEYBOARD 

TURNS THE C-64 INTO A 
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT 



35 



Software to work with the 
Incredible Music Keyboard; 

• Kawasaki Ssfntneswer !35 

• Kawasaki Rh/lhm Rocker i29 

• tiilusic Processor *£6 

• 3001 Sound Odyssey S29 

• Computer Song Albums '26 

• Time Trivia >26 

. Music Video Kit '. t29 



ATARISOFT GAMES FOR 

VIC-20 '3.0O 

CHOOSE FBOM PAC MAN. CENTIPEDE, 
OEFENOEH. DIG DUG. IX3NKEY KOMG. AND 
ROBOTRON Z0fl4 LIMITED OUAMTITIES 



DEMON ATTACK FOR 
VIC-20 (R) 



. . . . '2.00 



ATARISOFT GAMES FOR 
COMMODORE 64 '10.00 

CHOOSF FROM PAC MAN. CENTIPEDE. MS. 
PAC MAN. DtftNDiiH. DIG DUG. DONKKV 
KONG. ROBOTRON MBil. POLE POSITION. 
GALAXIAN AND HAHLE ^ONE UMIItD 
OUANTITIES 



CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE 
WORST KINO (R)..... 



•1.00 



OKIM7 

TrchnalogiBt CorpariUDn 



PERIPHERALS AND 
ACCESSORIES 

Okimalo 10 Pfinlerw Punier Pack . S229 

Koal.1 Pad (We Carry All Koala Pad 

Sollwaru) ' Call 

Koiilii MuiJpet UafniiK) Keys '74 

INDUS GT SSOD dish diivo. w'SOllwaie . . '299 
Diiiiicaao 50 Disc File US 



1064 MODEM from MPP ^1 09 



• AulO Answer Auto Dial 

• CompuServe DemoPack 



• VIP Terminal Program Induded 

• 1 Year Warranty 



MSD DUAL DRIVE. 



.'549 



BOOKS 



InfDcotn Invislcluo Books 

Inside Commodoti; DOS lOalamosIl . 



. 11995 



Elemunljiry Corrkmoclortr-64 (DataniosI) 
Anatomy ol trve 64 (ADacus) 



114 9S 
119 9b 



^s commodore 



COMMODORE SX-e4 
PORTABLE COMPUTER . . .'499 
COMPLETELY COMPATIBLE 
WITH C-64 



PARTIAL LISTING OF OUR COMPLETE SOFTWARE LINE — 



ACCESS 

Raid Over Moscow (D) IC) 
Scrolls of Ahadon (0| (C) 

Beachhfiaid (D) (CI .... 



Archon (D). 

Archon II - Adept (D) 

One On One (Dl 

Music ConslJuclion Set (DJ - . . . 
Pintiail Conslruclion Set (D). . . . 
Ttie Realm of Impossibility (0) . . 

Seven Cities of Gold (D) 

Sky Fo» (D) 

The Standinc] Slonos (D) 

Advent uru CoflSltuclion Sal (D) 



S2ii 
126 

sze 



.Call 
. '29 

. »29 

. IS 
'29 
. Call 
. 129 
. >36 



MICHOPROSE 

F.1&SltikeEnnlo(D)(C) 

Helical Ace (DHC| 

Mb Alley Ace (OMCI 

NATO Comm.inder (Dl |C) 

Solo Fligtil iD) (CI 

Air Rescue I [Dl 

The Mask ot ths Sun (Dl- . 



INFOCOM 

Hitchhiker's Guide to (he Galaxy <□) 

Zork I, II, III (Dl 

Culltiroats (D| - 

Sea Stalker (Dl. 

Star Cross (D| 

Suspect (Dl 



125 
«3 
t25 
'25 
t2i 
«6 
S29 

. , '35 
129 UII. 

. 13(j 
135 
135 
135 

SSI 

Battle ol Normandy (D| «28 

Broadsides (Dl 128 

Carrier Force (D) 'M3 

Comtiat Leader (Dl (CI '28 

Queslron (D) M7 

War in Russia (0) ES4 

Field of Fite (D) 129 

SUB LOGIC 

Fligril Smululot II (DHC) 139 

RESTON 

Movie Maker (D) 139 

PFS 

PFE Report (U) S5D 

MR. NIBBLE 

Softwjkfc Cofjy P\oq\i\m i£» . . '^■34 

MINDSCAPE SPROUT SERIES 

Tmks Advenlere [Dl 122 

Tonk in Ifie Land ot Buddy Bots (D| . '22 
Tink Goes lo Town (01 . . 122 

MINDSCAPE PIXEL WORKS 

Mr Ruol 5 PiiHjp.unnwiti P.linl Stil (D) S22 
Mr Puiil';, Ciiluon M I'D) VJ 

MINDSCAPE ALERT SERIES 

Indiana Juno;; in Ifie Lost Kingdom (Dl 12G 

MINDSCAPE 

Bank Strcel MuSic Wnlcr (D) 137 

Keyijoatd Cadet (Dl . . ,134 

SROOERBUNO 

Mask of Itio Sun (D) 129 

The Sor[nTifs Slar (Dl "M 

PARKER BROS, 

Gyiuss (11} 

Star Wars: Ttio Arcado Game (R| . 

SOFTLAW 

VIP Terminal (D) ... 

SUHCOM 

PO Parly OuLi (01 - - - . 

General Edition (01 'IB 

(PO Expandeis) 



i2S 
132 



M9 95 



U9 



BATTERIES INCLUDED 

Paper CNP (Dl 

Tlie Consultanl (01 



165 

DATASOFT 

Letter Wizard (Dl »36 

Spoil Wizard (D) >36 

ABACUS 

Pascnl.64 (01 «W 

CHartPak-G4 (Dl 135 

CBS SUCCESS WITH MATH 
SERIES M8ea. 

• Addition Sutllraclion (CI (Dl 

• Oedmats Mult Div (D) 

• Decimals Add Sutj. (Dl 

• Fractions: Mull Div. (D) 

• Fraclions: Add Sub (01 

• Linear Equations (C) ((31 

SCARBOROUGH 

Vour Personal l^el Worm (D| . . . *58 

Master Tyiw (C) ID) 129 

Phi Bela Flier ID) »29 

SIERRA 

BCs Quosl for tiles (01 126 

5PINMAKER — WE CARRY ALL 
SPINMAKER TITLES. 
GALL FOR PRICES. 

EPYX 

Pu/;re Panic (DJ '26 

FAX (Dl 122 

Monty Plays ScraWiio (01 129 

PiiSlop II (Dl S29 

World s Gieal esl Basebai I G amo ( D ) '29 

Murder By The Dozen (O). . . '21 

SESAME STREET SERIES 

■ Ernie's Magic Shapes (C) (D) (IB 

• Peanut Buder Panic (Dl (R) ...... 122 

• Big Bird's Special Delivery (01 (Rl '18 

• AsVo-Giuver (DHR) . . 126 

• Big Birds Furihouse(D)(RJ 126 

• Sesame St Letter Go- Round (01 (Rl 126 

BALLY MIDWAY 

Tapper J29 

Spy Hunter '29 



FIRST STAR SOFTWARE 

Spy vs. Spy (D) 122 

TIMEWORKS 

Cave o( tlie WorJ Wuani (Dl lia 

RANDOM HOUSE 

Snoopy s SkyAntef Scrambler (D) 

Snoopy to the Rescue (D) 

Snoopy'5 ASC'r. (Dl 

Charlie Brown's ABC's (Dl 

Pe.inuts' Maio Marathon iDI. . . , 
Peanuts' Picture Puzzte (D| 



129 

129 

, 129 

129 

, , 129 

, , 129 

FISCHER-PRICE — ALL (R) . MB 

Linkinc) Logic Number Tumt>lers 

Dance Fantasy Hop Along Counlmg 

Alphra Build Sea Speller 

Logic Levels Up ancj Arid EiT) 

Memory Manor 

CSM 

154t Disk Drive AlignmBht Program (D), 13S 

AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL 
COMPUTER — ALL(D) . . . *25 ea. 

• Science, gr 3,4 

• Geography 

• f rencti 

• Spanish 

OESIGNWARE 

The GrsmmitJ Examiner jO) . - . . ^39 

States and Tr3c!s(D) t39 



(C) CASSETTE TAPE (D) DISK (R) ROM CARTRIDGE 
33?Sa CALL TOLL FREE 

M'F 10 AM-7 PM 
Order Line 1-800-282-0333 SAT.10AM-3PM EesternTime Customer Service 1-513^79-9699 

610 Middle Street, Fairborn, OH. 45324 

Prepaid ordari over $30 receive free thipping, UPS, continental US. No waiting period whan paid by credit card, [ 

MW I CBTtlfiod check or money order. Add tt ihlpping an d handling on ordersundar 430. Add M for COD orders. Hardware if 

raquirMadditiotMlfr«i9htcharg«*.Ohloreaidant*add5.5%M>a«taK. AllitemssubjacttoavailabtntvandpricaclMmga. L 

PLEASE CITE ELVER NUMBER WHEN ORDERING. 



ATTENTION 

ALL COMMODORE 64, 

VIC 20, COMMODORE 16, 

AND PET OWNERS 



A complete self-tutoring BASIC programming course 
is now available. TInis course starts will? turning 
your computer on, to programming just about 
anything you want! This course is currently used 
in both High School and Adult Evening Education 
classes and tias also formed the basis of teacher 
literacy programs. Written by a teacher, who after 
having taught the course several times, has put 
together one of the finest programming courses 
available today. This complete 14 lesson course 
of over 230 pages is now available for the COM- 
MODORE 64, VIC 20, COMMODORE 16 and PET 
computers and takes you step by step through a 
discovery approach to programming and you can 
do it all in your leisure time! The lessons are filled 
with examples and easy to understand explanations 
as well as many programs for you to make up. At the 
end of each lesson is a test of the information 
presented. Furthermore, ALL answers are supplied 
to all the questions and programs, including the 
answers to the tests, Follow this course step by 
step, lesson by lesson, and turn yourself into a 
real programmer! You won't be disappointed! 

We will send this COMPLETE course to you at 
once for just $19.95 plus $3.00 for shipping and 
handling (U.S. residents, please pay in U.S. funds). 
If you are not COMPLETELY satisfied, then simply 
return the course within 10 days of receipt for a 
FULL refund. 

Fill in the coupon or send a facsimile. 



r 



NAME: 



GG 



ADDRESS:. 

CITY: . 



PROV./STATE: 



POSTAL/ZIP CODE;. 



Check desired course: 



COMMODORE 64 
VIC PET 

COMMODORE 16 



Send Cheque or Money Order to: 
Brentford Educational Services 

68 Winding Way, Complete course: $19.95 

BtariKord. Omano, p„^,^g^ ^^^ hand.: S3.00 

Total: S22 95 



Canada, N3R 3S3 



Better Than 
Original Equipment 




I lii^ fl' l'(i\\cr Supply lor tlic tuinriuidoii; (i4 iind VIC- 
21) i^ dLiiriiiL'ly hfitfi iiiui inoif rL-liiiblc than the imk' tluu 
un^iiuilK LanicuitliydurL'ornpiilci. Il uDrkNtii-pcmlably. 
yea: -in and year-oul. Unlike The others, iliis ("I* J'owcr 
Supph In sLTvicciihlc. NO i' disposabk'. 

I^J Computer Place (213) 325 4754 

— " 23914 Crenshaw Blvd. Torrance, CA 90505 
Dealer Inquiries Welcome 

CoiiiriuKlL]r.fc-&4 f^ntj VICVO iIil' [j,l[k'rTi,>,>& jP Curlinmcloro CiJJiiti'SR Mrtcriines Inc 




/////(^Q@K4i(B¥i?a'"Q^ 



A DISK AND IWEMORY EDITOR 

Peek A Byte is more than a disk editor- it features a C-G4meintirv display 

in HEX, ASCII, or screen code and a full page editor with cuttor control. 

YOUCANPEEKABYTE... 

Chaiiye tile ot disk names, (f cover "lost" piogfaras.compaiedilk dala.dis 

play f»ee s«tor map. coiivfil HEX/dceimal, read disk dtive memqty, disis 

sembte disk or meniurv data, print most screen displays, ..and mucti mare! 

IT'S EASY TO USEt 

Al I commands are simple, easy to remember keystrokes and HE LP screens 
are always available. Complete error handling lor key entries and disk 
read/write eriocs. Totoiial manual for beginners and pros! 

PEEK A BYTE IS FAST ML CODE 

Above BASIC and compatible with many BASIC programs, ML routines. 

anil the DOS Wedge S.l. Doesn't "lock up" the computer. 

QUANTUIW SOFTWARE 

P.O Box 12716, Dm, 4 all Fon $29.95 

Lake P.ik.Flaricta 33403 *";T;:; 

PEEK A BVTE iHtiJdnnjfk ill Oginluni Soliwue 

To orifeF isiiif iheck oi ihoiky oidei. US tuniii. Foreign add S4 loi ilnpfiirigand 
hanillitig, Flotida resident! add S'i sales Ui. Fm IE tlOD mders adil 11. Ptiopie 
orders calH31)5)B40-D243, 



DEMO PROGRAI« 

See COMPUTE rs GAZETTE Felxuary, 1985 Disk 



^ 



W 



156 COMPUTErs Gazette April 1989 



[what is this girl doing? 



-THE- 



-GIRL- 



■IS- 



TH AX PAS GG3 Efi2 LL 9\S IH SS 



29 15 



04 



24 52 45 

-FEEDING- 



04 



12 55 



9\S FF lY 9\Z mi IH NG 9\S BG^ 

04 40 19 02 33 12 44 04 28 



04 40 19 02 
BREAD- 



28 
■TO- 



RFl EH EH PA1 HQl PAS TT2 IW2 



07 07 

-A- 



00 



21 



04 13 

DUCK- 



31 



PAS EY PAS mi AA KK2 PAS 



04 



20 



04 



33 



24 



41 



04 



VtSA' 



MoslerCard 



You can now have your computer speak to ytm . . . with the incvitjiblc 
"Kilobaud Monster." This remarkable breakthroug'h in enjfinecrinB: is now 
being offered to the general public by Compute], nnd is made prissible at a 
fraction of the cost you'd expect to pay nnywhere else. You will aho leam 
how computers speak, ulifit speech synthesis is, nnd Ihi* busies behinH 
phonemic,'^. It's a great educational tool for the individual and for thu 
institution aJike! 

The Kilobaud Monster is a revolution a ry itenn for the hohhyist, Ijecausc 
now you can have many new resnurces availal>UT for escperimeiiLfltiftn. Ni3 
longer is this field of science limited to the lab. and no longer is its cost 
limited to govemmcnta! research projects. You can make your coroputer 
speak w^ith little effort^ a lot easier than you think! 

The quality of speech pronunciation in excellent. Anj-thin^ iniaginabli* 
may be spoken, from [scientific thru slan^ words — ue inchtde (letailed 
instructions shownng you exactly how to do this. You can now havf all 
the satisfaction of doing this yourself, at a fraction of the cost, and having 
something really useful to shovv for ytiur efforts ! _ 

Devant 




si Je Puis 




f regular price ' -%j 

Introductory package includes everything you need to get startedl 

• SAVE— Compute/ members only $ 7.95. 



YOUR COMPUTER WILL 
TELL YOU! DON'T THEY 
NOW "SPEAK?". . . 

• Able to work with any computer! 

• Complete instructions included! 

User-programmable vocabulary 
of virtually unlimited size! 

• Program it to say 
anything you want! 

• Guaranteed to 

hold your interest 

and delight for hours! 



The Kilobsud Monster ia the basis of a series of projeet-i thnt can msikc 
your computer talk» and is necessan^ for later projects. The Kilobaud 
Monster will set you up \v\i)x everything you need ta knou' in order to 
attach it to your comiHitcr and enahle it ti> speak words. All additional 
information is included with this bcginnci-'s package, The built-in editor 
in the Wordmaker enables you to easily "fine tunc" every word you create 
to make it sound exactly as you wish. Or you can set up a "v^'ord bank" 
with the Message Talker that includes all the phrities and statements 
that you'll over need! The Artificial Intcllifrcnce accessory will permit 
your computer to produce totally random sentences, follnivinir all the rules 
of correct grammar within a pre-defined vocabulary-set, all day long I 

If you're new to the computer field, or if you're an old-time "hacker." 
youll ivaiit to subscribe to our publication "Computel," which covers 
everything that YOU want tfi ace I Kacompassing the subjects of Com- 
puters, li^lectronics, and Telecommunications, this publication jjives you 
a "new meaning" of the free entei'prise system and the monopoly of 
existing organizations. You'll need to become part of this international 
hobbyist phenomenon really soon, SAVE S2.00 on EACH [TE.\t you buy 
if you subscribe to Computel now! And this is IN ADDITION" to the 
toUl package price for the Complete KILOBAUD MONSTER Collection— 
you'll SAVE OVER $18. Dealer and educational institution inquiries 
invited. Circle our Reader Service Number for additional information. 

You may order these products from ua by sending a check, money order, 
postage or cash in TJ,S, negotiable funds only, to the aildress indicati'ii 
tjelOH', Or you may charge your order to your \'isa or Master Card. Please 
include S2,00 shipping and handling on all orders, California residents 
please add sales tax. Allow three weeks for deliverj". Add $5.00 for 
ne.xt-day shijtment by U,P,S.; $15,00 for next-day delivery by r.S,P.S. 
We guarantee your satisfaction for 90 days with our products, and offer 
a money-hack guarantee if not fully satisfied during that period. 

COMPUTEL PUBLISHING SOCIETY 

6354 VHN NUYS SLvn SUITE 161 / VAN HUVS, C* 9U0 1-269S 



YES, I'm interested in making my computer 
talk. Please send me the following items: 

n INTRODUCTORY PACKAGE $9.95 

G WORDMAKER S 19.95 

D MESSAGE TALKER $ 14.95 

D ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE $ 24,95 

D COMPLETE COLLECTION SETi^V^ s'.^; $59,50 
DOne year subscription to Compute!,. $ 14.00 
n including all Kilobaud Monster items $65.50 

Please ado ssoo shipping* mandunq to voun ofmcn til 
CREDIT EXP. 
CARD DATE 



NAME. 



ADDRESS. 
CITY 



.STATE. 



.ZtP_ 



Your Computer . ,- .^_ 

SEND ALL PAYWENT IN U S FL'NDS DHAWN ONUS BANKS • SOHflv, flO C □ S 

Make checks payable to: COMPUTEL PUBLISHING SOCIETY 
Post Office Drawer 7765 / VAI^ NUYS, CA 91409-7765 



C-64 MUSIC DISKS 

* Want tu experience the power of 
the SID chip? 

*Tiri'[l()l!.iser guns iind space shi[)s? 
' VVatit iiDlhi'titii l).Kkt?rountl nuisii' 

for your aclventurt' ganich? 
' All our music is programmocl in 

1(30% machine iLinguagc by a 

professional musician. 

* Informative music-historical notes 
are built into each program. 

" Additional titles in [jreparation! 

lilies Now Availahle; 

1. An Eli/alx'than CixKerl . JM.'J.t 

2. A j.S. Harh Kccital 14.95 

.^. A Bdr(K|uc Recital 14.95 

4. Lute Music of Olden Times . 14.95 

5, Sampler (includes selections from 
above titles, plus more) 12.95 

DISK ONLY 
Pjymcnt in U.S. funds only; Add S'i.OO |ut 
(jrdi^r for "> hipping *ind fiiintJIInK. 
Orders ship[>ed vi^ >»peedy UF^S whenever 
pussibtc! 

ANTIGUA SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 5386 

Lake Station, IN 

46405-9998 




STOP 
SOFTWAI^IE 

PIRAWY Using 

Safeguard 64 Disks 

• Renders Bit and Nibbler 
Copiers Ineffective 

• Software is Encrypted and 
Protected on Eacti Disk 

• For Commodore 64 

Wtiy shiould your voluable data or 
useful software program become 
available in ttie Public Domain? 



f^\ 




Call or write 

for more 

information. 



GLENCO 



ENGINEERING INC. 

3920 Ridge / Arlington Hts , IL 60004 
(312)392-2492 



Learn to play guitar on your 
Commodore 64 Computer 

Nov*' v^^ canenjo/lecrningat vour cwnpoce.onvour own 
tirre. £ASY GUIWR culs vou >n lune *iih t«Kj/s music 

I'er© ore lusi few of the fi^ and educalKjfini teotura you'H 
Ird in im GUi™, 

• Simple to loilow, steo-by-sieo msftuction! 

• fJeference t{yi(?s for tuning your guifar 

• At eiBtcise to develop youJ nmo of pitcfi 

■ A lx]ilt-«n rtiythm section [boss ana d'ums] tar you to EJiay 
olc^ w.ffi 

• More than 50 enord diogfoms with (ingenng oositions 
coJortully Oispioved 

• .^aio guidonce so vou know it you ore paying conectly 
' An oOjustoble mettonomo tor ooveloping solid rnyttim 

■ A si rT.pl.fioa oppfOQCh to mu jic tneorv and c nord prucfuro 
TO Old you in ploying ona writmo your own songs 

■ Scales to develop rac<J fingenng 

• A multiple choice quii (because teotrir^ conl oe oil fun) 
' Plus G special bonus: o video gorr^e ceiled Xotch o CfiotcT 

plus 51 00 sfiicping 8i nandlng 
>/SA ft tK Accepted of send check or money otoer to 



l^ 



SOFTWARE 



*04J4Ma'nSI, *4M-6.:- 



■'J -9357 



TAPE ySERS 

MAJOR 

BREAKTHROUGH 

Buzry BUZZARD'S 
C-64 Tela Tape Term 

^29.95 

At liiL in tfflcltnl ttrm 

pmgrim tor your ditiiit ind nadim. 

□owntoiil ind uploid ill types Dt prognmi 

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•GAMES"'UTILITIES"*EOUGATIOHAL» 

Dcwnloiil ind uploid lipt to tipg or diik to tipt 

TO OFDER SEND CHECK DR MONEY OROEfl 

FOR COD AND CREDIT CARD ORDERS 

Call 1-904-384-6652 

STSGHlilNVirtO TO iNCUiHL 
ABOUT A SEND SiJis^^OuTiNL 

TELASOFT 

2144 Blending Blvd. 
Jocksonvflle, Florida 32210 

C 44 raADEWkRK OF 
COMMODORE BUSINESS /A*CHIMES 




BLACKJACK 

SYSTEM TESTER 



Find out if your system is really a 
yvinner before spending time learning 
or risking your bankroll. Pick the best 
system from among alternatives. 

Define tfie system you want lo test 
by responding to questions and fill- 
ing in blanks. Let the system run for 
an indefinite period. In a one-day run 
you can run 10 million or more trials. 
One-page printed (or screen display) 
analysis clearly indicates best levels 
for increasing bets and for insuring. 

You control: 

■ rjo. of Players (1-3) 

• No.ol Decks (1-4) 

• Double. Surrender, Double-After- 
Split Options 

• Hard Stand, Sott-Stand. Hard- 
Double. Sott-Double. Split, Sur- 
render Criteria 

• Reshuffle Point 

Commodore 64'm _ Cassette Only 
— S39.95. Check, Money Order, COD. 
(Add S3), VISA or MC. include Name, 
Card Number, Exp. Date. Idaho Res. 
Add4'-o Safes Tax. 

NOVO SOFTWARE 

Box 6423. Boise. 10 83707 
(2081375-7435 



WE WON'T PAY YOUR TAXESI 

Uui TAX MASTER will help you compute them mote 

QUtCKLV .ind EASILY, 

BH tfif M^iilyi at your Encomo Tanos witll 

TAX MASTEfl 

now avaiiapio to* you- 1ftB4 Federal tncomo Taxes tot 

;rie Commodore 64 with sangle. twin, ot duaf diSl* Pfivo 

and optional printer 

Features ol TAX MASTER: 

• GUIDES fCu n The PROPER ORDER inroi>gti 
forms 1040. 4562 4 Sched fl.BC.D.E. and F 

• PERFORMS ALL ».ttimii!ic, CORRECTLYI Tou 

ij'ilr.' on y 1Hr> 0' rj n^\ p,lt,l 

• EASY CHANGE ot ,iny entry. Anlh mstani 
RECALCULATION ot tho «lire form 

• TRANSFERS numbers between torms 

• CALCULATES your lanes and REFUND. (Tax 
I.ipic^ are mcludedi) 

• SAVES all your caia to drsic tor luiute cnanges, re- 
use, or re'erence 

• PRINTS Ifie dais 'lom eacfi torm. 

• MULTIPLE SCHEDULES (lor mo'e than one 
business, la-— ^'r i n-.^ '■■jcE»r!e<J 

• Data from MANY DIFFEHENT TAX RETURNS may 
be stored v " ■ -■ : .«■ 

TAX MASTER lOISKONLV) ONLY »4,Da 

If you o;:.'- ; ■'■.■( .3 ,1 the acheduSiK, gni 
TAX MASTER JR 

• For VlC-20 win 24"; expansion or CommoOore 64. 

disk at \a(x. 

• Form IIWO, Schedutes A and B 

• Disk or tape data storage & reinevai 

TAX MASTER JR OMLYt19.00 

SPECIFY DISK OR TAPE 
INCLUDED W7H EACH PROGRAM- 

• COMPLETE WSrnUCnOW MANUAL. 

• 0/S COUNT COUPON TOWAfiO THE PURCHASE 
OF NEXT YEAR'S UPDATED PROGRAMS 

Can of thtf prograrni Is TAX DEDUCTIBLE. 
Add S2.00 per ordftr ihlpplrsg A twidllng 
M,Tyl3-ld rqS'dentS add 5% S-l^s tax 
Seid C^ecl^ C n-.^r-sy ordc '0 

MASTER SOFTWARE 

6 Hlllery Court 
nanddlttown. MD2113] 



158 COMPUTErs Gazmw Apnl IMS 



HAVE YOU GOT THE 
1541 BLUES? 




WE'VE GOT THE 
PERMANENT FIXII 

ttnd u« four vkli iMf mif i eh*c« lof t4*.M ptiM 
1.00 flMppInf and wt'Ji not onl^r aN^n your >ditf*, 

otiiNiHMHwM STAY THAT WAY. 
W* gumnlM M fei I nwntfM, 
W* ilio Mrvic* tha complat* 
COMMODORE COMPUTER LINE 
with i 48-haur tUrn-«round timt. 

C-64 50.00 

1541 65.00 

1702 85.00 

DATASETTE 3S.00 

1525 50.00 

1526 75.00 

MPS801 50.00 

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SYMBOL MASTER'" 

MULTI-PASS SYMBOUC 

DISASSEMBLER 

FOR THE COMMODORE 64 * 

disassembles any 650216510 

machine cnde program info 

beautiful source 

• Lc-it nlopf op dm h\.cti;ci:\pf:iW. 

• A(]:ipi exiiiEji^ progrium:* lo your needs! 

• Am cimartc LABEL gcnfr^ii ion, 

« Ouipuijh source code t\]t% to df<>l(, futiv compaiibJe 
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scmhler, rcaUy forrc-a-s^iembly unit cdiltnB.! 

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D"n"E make the mKiukc nf buying m limitCiJ capability 

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COMMODORE 64'" 
SOURCE CODE! 

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undfk: uin f nl c J ROM ri>uti ni^ , 4tnd be uhtc liii clTcCEi vc I y 
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FOR VIC & COMMODORE 

Chooi* art otttactlv* ftatic-lre« cov«i loi 
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i^iiii I The Ihlarior 01 the ihfPpH 
1.1" I" >',ha jTifieOii 19 iin^a witn • 
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We Can Solve AM Yom 
Commodore Color Problems 

UndQU* Problam Soivtn tot 01d«f Commodof** 
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Tha Initrltrtnca Stopoep A new ^it tn«t iWttills in 
?' |■^^!*a *i1h 1*0 5.1"^ ;ip SDlOe* C&nneCE'Oni E«%\ rtiulll 
w-nqn lEOi^&imDU wtim ilemi [»lo* Absclulaty ilops %'. C 
Ene RF I nier tprencQ. 01 e AC 

Th> CotV Shirpnwf. UU il your otd M" H t>oo*.9ii u? 

to « TV. Jusl c'ug pnEo tPi« mqriFEof clirg, and (hi (dor arM] 
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GM,o„„hc. S18.95 

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Sharp^nt^r bum in rpr ytju' rTiOnilnir fiAjt AC 

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m^notor, in<i caere [] prongt goti yau A p^CTuia you *on I 
ClOiiiavE. B^ltQf tl^iin Ihe caClQ Coinmo4or« built 1A^si:;i 
h00*5 y6uf ■■&ld M" EO tfvB 1T021 *«j| OC 



RESET SWITCHES 

2 Vemoiu lor Evory N»ad 

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■ralurn conUol to yi^u overy nmo 

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F^'t *ftd i rf kt sinisn. Tne oltfmale m ueiialilily, cun.r 
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Is Your Commodore Disk Drive 
Hot and Bothered? 

W-uir [ji Ihem afp. ^^u Kn^* Tnp^ lulfer Irani read and 
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Our jnsipaniattp multin ran ills crri toirroT Eha di»k dnvo and 

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Order Today! 

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<Pt»a» dMcrlb* tuiij. s«ul u^ htrtds onlf) 

Your iBlmraGtion gu«i»nia*d Of yuu^ pu'tHitw price rf lundad 

ttT« n«in Pile* 





_5 












ToialE0iM*Ecliaiidu« 
Shipping and HOUOlmg Ctoretgn ardeii 
add 55 O0> 

5*. St(T!fl Tai (WE HeiidenTi oniy? 


200- 


TOTAL VNCLO»D 







SKEPTOi 

Ntur.e .„^^ 



MauiorBjies&Pwcies.Ir^j&OK taih 

WtiuwoEoia, Wj 5iil,J/(4]4) 347 t2t4 






ADVERTISERS INDEX 



Reader Service Number/Advertiser Page 

, 102 AA Compuler Exchange 159 

103 Abacus Software 47 

104 Abacus Software 79 

105 Abacus Software 160 

106 Abby's Discount Software 155 

107 Access Software Incorporated 53 

A.I.D, Corp 115 

Algo-Rhythm Software 154 

Antiqua Software 158 

Apropos Technology 57 

108 Artificial Intelligence Research Group 

152 

109 Bask 35 

IIOBasix 63 

Batteries Included 23 

111 Baudville 11 

112 Big Bytes 112 

113 Bill Cafarelii 146 

114 Blackship Computer Supply 146 

Brantforb Educational Services 156 

115 Bytes & Pieces, Ific 159 

116 Cardco, Inc IBC 

117 CDI/Computer Devices International . 37 
Cardinal Software 93 

118 Central Point Software, Inc. , , 88 

1 19 Cheatsheet Products .154 

120 Columbia Software 152 

Commodore BC 

121 CompuServe 15 

122 ComputAbility 73 

123 Computel 157 

Compuler Centers of America 91 

124 Computer Mail Order 147 

Computer Place 156 

125 Creative Software 2 

126 CSM Software, Inc 93 

127 Custom Programming Group, Inc. . . 89 

128 Davidso/i & Associates, Inc 55 

129 DES-Produdions 146 



Reader Service Number/ Advertiser Page 

130 DJ Software 158 

131 Dream Dog Software 145 

132 Eastern House 89 

133 Full Circle Software, Inc. 77 

Future Age Computers 146 

134 Genio Software 93 

135 Qtenco Engineering Inc 158 

1 36 Hippopotamus Software. Inc 1 50 

137 Indus Systems 39 

138 Inforunner IFC,1 

Intelligent Software 150 

Jason-Ranbeim 115 

139 JV Circuits 113 

140 Kyan Software 18 

141 Lyco Computer Marketing & Consultants 

149 

Master Software 158 

142 Megasoft 68,69 

143 Microbits Peripheral Products, Inc. . . 13 
Micro-Sys Distributors 151 

144 Micro-W Distributing, Inc 115 

145 Micro-W Distributing. Inc 41 

146 Mimic Systems Inc 27 

147 Mindscape, Inc 31 

148 NewArts Co 56 

149 Novo Software 158 

Nth Digit Solutions 146 

150 Omnitronix 150 

151 Orange Micro Inc 29 

152 Pacific Exchanges 146 

153 Parsec Researcfi 66 

154 PC Gallery 153 

155Playnet, Inc 25 

1 56 Professional Software, Inc 7 

Pro-Line Software 56 

157 Protecto Enterprizes 80-85 

tse Quantum Sottvirare 156 

159 R. J. Brachman Associates, Inc. ... 148 

160 Scartxsrough Systems. Inc 5 



Reader Service Number/Advertiser Page 

Schnedler Systems 159 

161 Skyles Electric Works 95 

Slide IVlountain Systems 146 

162 Software Design, Inc 47 

163 Software Discounters of America . . 152 

164 Software Publishers Assoc 44,45 

165 Starpoint Software 41 

166 Strategic Simulations, Inc 51 

167 SubLOGIC Corporation 19 

168 T & D Subscription Software 154 

169 Telasoft 158 

170 TeleLearntng Systems, Inc 61 

171 Timeworks. Inc 9 

172 Triad Computers 159 

173 Tussey Mt. Software 109 

Ultrabyte 78 

174 Uni-Kool 93 

Vertical Horizons, Inc 148 



COMPUTEl's All About the Commodore 

64, Volumes One and Two 65 

COMPUTEl's Commodore Collection. 

Volumes One and Two 33 

COMPUTES's Gazette Disk 48,49 

COMPUTEl's Gazette Language .... 17 
COMPUTEl's Machine Language and 

Sea>nd Book of Machine Language 71 
COMPUTEl's Programming the VIC. . . 59 



Break 
the 



language 
barrier 



VIDEO BASIC-64 — add 50+ graptiic and 
sound commands to your programs with tHis super 
development package. You can distriliute free RUNTIME 
version without paying royalties! $59.95 

BASIC COMPILER-64 — corrpiles the com- 
pleifi BASIC language into either fast 6510 machine 
language and/or compact speedcdde Get your programs 
into high gear and protect them by compiling, $39.95 

MASTER-64 — professional dsvelopment package 
for serious applicants. Indexed Irie system, full screen 
management, programmer's aid. BASIC extensions. 10O 
commands S39.95 

PASCAL-64 — lull Pascal with extensions tor 
graphics, sprites, file management, more. Compiles to 
6510 machine code and cari \\r\k to Assemhier/Monilor 
routines M9.95 

ADA TRAINING COURSE — teaches you 
the language of the luture. Comprehensive subset of the 
language, editor, syntax checker/compiler, assembler, 
disassembler, 120+ page guide S59.95 



FORTRAN-64 — based on Fortran 77, Common. 
Data, Dimension. Equivalence. External, Implicit, Goto. Else 
If Do, Continue. Stop. Subroutine. Call, Wnte. Read, For- 
mat, mote, April 1985 $39.95 

C-LANGUAGE COMPILER — a full C 

language compiler. Cortorms to the Kermghan & Ritchie 
standard, but without bit fields Pacioge includes editor, 
compiler and linker. April 1985 S79.95 

Other titles available: Write or call: 

PHONE; (616) 241-5510 

For postage and handling include $4.00 
($8.00 foreign) per order. Money order and 
checks m U.S. dollars only, mastercard, 
VISA and Annerlcan Express acce pted. 
tVlichigan residents 
inci 4% sales tax. 

Abacus sa Software 

P.O. Box 7211 Grand Rapids. Ml 49510 



160 COMPUTEfs GazBtto ApriH9e5 



'The Complete CARDCO Une" 

~~ ... andstill growing! 



C>U?DCO provides "Commodore-ready" 
computer accessories Itiot will enhance your 
utilization of Commodore-M and VIC-20 Computers, 
increase ttieir capability, and add to your enjoyment 
and skill. AND, ttie^re available for use witti ottier 
personal computers, too. 

Designed witti ttie user In mirtd, CARDCO otters fine 
accessories Including Printer Interfaces wittv and 
wittiout graptiics, Expansion Interfaces, Memoty 
Expansions, Cassette Interfaces, Numeric Keypads 
PLUS "NOW" Software foryouLVIC-20 and C-64. 
Ttiese programs Include ttie "WRITE NOW" Word 
Processor, "MAIL NOW" Mailing Ust, PRINTER UTILITY 
(PROGRAMS on Tape and on Disk, "SPEli NOW" Spe 
(ptiecker. "GRAPH NOW' Including "PAINT NOW', i 

^nd "FILE NOW'. ,i;l 

' CARDCO has three new Letter Quail 

'■PRINTERS with your choice of drumhi 

■design (8 1/2" carriage) , Daisy Wh . 

i.DesIgn (13 Inch carriage) arid Daisy,, > 



Wtieel Design (11 inch carlage) . "Commodore- 
ready" . . . plus; with compati ble Input for PC, PC jr. , 
\ TRS-80 and many more personal computers. 

CARDCO'sNEW "DATA CASSETTE RECORDER/PLAYER" 
isajso "Commodore-ready" and ready for Instant 
shipment at prices that will amaze you. 

CARDCO will constantly Increase its line with 
unique and new products to enhance ttie enjoymertf 

of comptner owners. 
\, 
Write for illustrated literature and prices or see 
CARDCO Comforter Accessories and Software 
wfiereverCompufers are sold. 



' •^Z'.! :l .'-"}T ''.'^r :T.*f1.''JV*'f * 




cardco, inc. 



aOOS.Topeka Wichita. Kansas 67202 (316)267-6525 
"The worlcl's largest manufacturer of Ccmmodore accessories." 




^mm. 




T^J^BSSI^WWJ: 



IT* S NOT HOW MUCH YOU PAY. 




ir S HOW MUCH YOU GET. 



The computer at the top 
has a 64K memory. 

it has the initials I, B, and 
M. And you pay for those 
initials. 

The Commodore 64™ has 
a 64K memory 

But you don't pay for the 
initials, vqu just pay for the 
compute '. About one third the 
price of the IBM PCjr™ 

The Commodore 64 
also has a typewriter-type 



keyboard with 66 typewriter- 
type keys. (Not rubber chicklet 
keys like the IBM PCjr.) 

It has high resolution 
graphics with 320 x 200 pixel 
resolution, 16 available colors 
and eight 3-dimensional sprites. 

It has 9-octave high fidelity 
sound. 

The Commodore 64 is 
capable of running thousands 
of programs for home and 
office. And if you add a printer 



or color monitor, disk drive and 
a modem— al! together it just 
about equals the price of the 
IBM PCjr all alone. With no 
peripherals. 

So you can buy a computer 
for a lot of money. 

Or buy a lot of computer 
for the money. 

COMMODORE 64:^ 

IT'S NOT HOW LITTLE IT COSTS, 
IT'S HOWMUCH YOU GET